United States History and Geography: Modern Times

Sussex Pledge
Germany promised with certain conditions to not sink any more merchant ships without warning – a change in Naval warfare policy from Germnay.
Self-Determination
The free choice by the people of a nation of their own future political statutes – the right to choose.
Zimmerman Telegram
In January 1917, German official Arthur Zimmermann sent a telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico promising Mexico the return of its “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona” if it allied with Germany. British intelligence intercepted the Zimmermann telegram, and it ran in American newspapers. Furious, many Americans concluded that war with Germany was necessary.
Armistice
A temporary agreement to end fighting
Liberty Bonds
Money that’s loaned by the government – Americans purchased these at a certain price and were paid back with interest over a certain number of years.
Causes of the red scare
labor unrest and violence, a communist revolution, and labor strikes.
What country was challenged by German Naval expansion?
Britain/UK
Why would Britain/UK feel challenged?
Because Britain felt that Germany could attack them – they felt threatened and built warships.
What new forms of warfare were introduced during WWI?
Trench warfare, machine guns, poison gas, armored tank, zeppelins, aircraft, air to air combat and air to ground combat.
Conditions of the Treaty Versailles?
There were 14 points given by President Wilson. The treaty eliminated the causes of war through free trade, freedom of the seas, disarmament, an impartial adjustment of colonial claims, and open diplomacy. The next eight points addressed the right of national self-determination -the idea that the borders of countries should be based on ethnicity and national identity. The fourteenth point called for the creation of a League of Nations.
Reason for Tench Warfare
To protect themselves from artillery – self defense.
What caused the first declaration of war?
Between February 3 and March 21, U-boats sank six American ships. Roused to action, President Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany on April 2, 1917:
Leaders of the women’s suffrage movement urged Wilson to do this
give women the right to vote
Convoy System
a group that travels with something such as a ship to protect it.
Nickname for US soldiers in WWI
Doughboys
Before WWI, who did US banks loan $2B to?
The Allies (France, Britain, Russia)
Why did Russia support the Slavic people against Austria-Hungary?
Because there was an alliance already in place
Name the big 4 that attended the peace conference to end WWI
President Wilson of the United States, British prime minister David Lloyd George, French premier Georges Clemenceau, and Italian prime minister Vittorio Orlando.
Problem with Germany’s plan to invade France through Belgium
Belgium had an alliance with Britain, so Britain came to the aid of Belgium when Germany invaded. Britain declared war on Germany.
National War Labor Board pressed business to do this
The NWLB often pressured industry to improve wages, adopt an eight-hour workday, and allow unions the right to organize and bargain collectively.
What group of people were mistreated because of WWI?
German Americans
What 4 empires ended because of WWI?
The Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Russian Empire, the German Empire, and the Ottoman Empire
What were airplanes used for in WWI
At first, airplanes were used to spy on enemy troops and ships. Then the Allies equipped them with machine guns and rockets to attack the German zeppelin fleet.ther aircraft carried small bombs to drop on enemy lines.
Name for Wilson’s Peace Plan
The Fourteen Points
Meuse River – Argone Battle
A major turning point in the war – where the German’s began to retreat.
2 jobs women performed in the armed forces during WWI
Women worked in factories, shipyards, and railroad yards and served as police officers, mail carriers, and train engineers.