Motivation is defined by psychologists as
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.
Which theory has been accused of simply naming rather than explaining behaviors?
A drive refers to
an aroused, motivated state that is often triggered by a physiological need.
For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce
An incentive is a
positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
Shawn loves to snowboard. He enjoys performing aerial tricks after launching off high jumps. The higher in the air he goes and the farther he travels, the better. Which theory best explains Shawn’s motivation to snowboard?
Which theory would be most likely to predict that rats are motivated to explore precisely those areas of an experimental maze where they receive mild electrical shocks?
Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies?
Financial satisfaction is more strongly predictive of well-being in poor nations than in wealthy ones. This fact would most clearly be anticipated by
hierarchy of needs theory.
According to Abraham Maslow, our need for belongingness must be met before our need for
Prisoners of war placed on a semistarvation diet in which their food intake is cut in half are likely to
spend a great deal of time daydreaming about food.
Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet
lost interest in sex and social activities.
In looking at the relationship between hunger and conditions of the stomach, researchers have discovered that
stomach contractions are necessary for experiencing hunger.
Dr. Milosz electrically stimulates the lateral hypothalamus of a well-fed laboratory rat. This procedure is likely to
cause the rat to begin eating
Which of the following events would most likely cause an animal to overeat and become obese?
destruction of its ventromedial hypothalamus
Inhibition of hunger is to overeating as ________ is to ________.
destruction of the lateral hypothalamus; destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus
Ghrelin, a hormone that influences appetite, is secreted by the
Obestatin is a hunger-suppressing hormone secreted by
The secretion of ghrelin ________ appetite, and the secretion of obestatin ________ appetite.
Leptin, a hunger-dampening protein, is secreted by
The set point is
the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.
A drop in basal metabolic rate is most likely to result from
a semistarvation diet.
The level of serotonin in the brain is
increased by a diet high in carbohydrates.
Studies show that people tend to eat much more in social situations, such as parties and celebrations. Which psychological principle best explains why we overeat in these situations?
The ecology of eating is best illustrated by
When encouraged to eat as much as they want, people tend to eat less if the foods are offered in smaller rather than larger portion sizes. This illustrates
Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by
an obsessive fear of becoming obese.
Unlike those with bulimia nervosa, those with binge-eating disorders are not likely to ________ following binge eating.
engage in excessive exercise
The families of bulimia patients have a higher-than-usual incidence of
Researchers use biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis to understand eating disorders. The social-cultural level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize that eating disorders are influenced by
mass media standards of appearance.
Research on obesity and weight control indicates that
once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our weight than we did to attain it.
Researchers have observed that the incidence of obesity and diabetes among 50,000 nurses was predicted by their
Which of the following suggestions would be the WORST advice for a dieter?
“Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening.”
Research on the human sexual response cycle indicates that
female orgasm increases the likelihood of conception.
The time span after orgasm during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm is called
the refractory period.
Masters and Johnson’s research suggested that the resolution phase
is a period when men are incapable of another orgasm.
Research on sex hormones and human sexual behavior indicates that
women’s sexual interests are somewhat influenced by the phases of their menstrual cycles.
Women are more likely than men to experience
fantasies of being sexually taken by a passionate lover.
Men are more likely to experience nocturnal emissions if they
have not experienced orgasm recently.
Which of the following is a leading cause of genital warts and cervical cancer?
Compared with men who do not have older brothers, men who have older brothers are somewhat more likely to experience
a homosexual orientation.
Evidence that brain anatomy differences account for variations in sexual orientation is provided by the fact that these brain differences
originate at about the time of or even before birth.
Research on the causes of homosexuality suggests that
genetic influence plays a role in sexual orientation.
If pregnant sheep are injected with ________ during a critical gestation period, their female offspring will show homosexual behavior.
Research has found that an animal’s sexual orientation can be altered by
manipulations of prenatal hormone conditions.
Differences in right- and left-handed fingerprint ridges are greater for heterosexual males than for females and gay males. Researchers have attributed this to
Sheila is more fearful of loneliness than of remaining in a physically abusive relationship with her boyfriend. This best illustrates the potentially harmful impact of ________ needs.
Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to suggest that almost all humans are genetically predisposed to
form close enduring relationships with fellow humans.
Research has demonstrated that married people are at less risk for depression, suicide, and early death than single people. This finding suggests that
people who feel supported by close relationships experience a better quality of life.
Our need to belong is most clearly threatened by