Unit 8: Civil and Social Rights

Jackie Robinson
First black to play major league baseball
Black Panthers
Black revolutionary party created to patrol blacks
Congress of Racial Equality
Civil rights organization that was one of the big four, created when movement began to grow
Freedom Riders
Buses rode through the South to confront segregation laws
March on Washington
Civil rights protest in Washington
Nation of Islam
Islamic religious movement founded to improve spiritual, mental, social, and economic conditions for blacks
National Urban League
Non-partisan civil rights organization on behalf of blacks rights
Sit-ins
Form of protest where large groups of people sat to prevent productivity
Social Activism
Efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic or environmental issues
SCLC
Civil rights group closely associated with Martin Luther King Jr.
SNCC
Black civil rights group that emerged from a student meeting. Protests war
Malcom X
Believed in Nation of Islam. Initially wanted blacks separate from whites then supported integration and equality
Martin Luther King Jr.
Civil rights activist that encouraged civil rights to blacks especially in the south
Rosa Parks
Arrested for refusing to give up a bus seat to a white man
Equal Rights Amendment
Amendment that guaranteed equal rights to women
Affirmative Action
The equal opportunity employment measures that employers are required to adopt
American Indian Movement
The protest for fair treatment among American Indians
Gray Panthers
Fought for retired Americans and issues they faced with old age
United Farm Workers
Union that formed to support migrant workers and Latino rights
Wounded Knee
1973
Native American massacre that was the final clash between the federal troops and Sioux Native Americans
Medgar Evans
Black civil rights activist from Mississippi to overturn segregation of University of Mississippi
NAACP
African American organization crucial to bringing racially unjust cases to court
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Protested racial segregation on buses by walking
Cesar Chavez
Activist that fought for rights of migrant farm workers.
Created United Farm-workers Union
Delores Huerta
Labor leader and civil rights activist who was an early member of National Farm-workers Union
Title IX
Prohibits discrimination on basis of gender in any federally funded program or activity
Little Rock Nine
Group of 9 blacks that were initially prevented from entering a racially segregated school
Thurgood Marshall
Led NAACP legal team to end segregation in schools
Civil Rights Act
1964
Outlawed discrimination in voting, education, and public access
Voting Rights Act
1965
Banned literacy tests and empowered feds to oversee registration and election
Plessy v Ferguson
1896
Established separate but equal in the U.S.
Brown v Board
1954
Ruled that separate blacks and whites in schools was unconstitutional
Gideon v Wainright
1963
Ruled criminals must be provided with a lawyer
Regents of Cal v Bakke
Allowed race to be a factor of college consideration
Betty Friedan
American writer, activist, and feminist sparking 2nd wave of feminism. Founded National Organization for Women
Roe v Wade
1973
Allowed legal abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy
How did the role of women change in the United States from post WWII to present?
Post WWII:
Women left the workforce as veterans returned to civilian jobs. Many women married and raised
families. Suburbs grew and the baby boom was underway. 1960s and 1970s: Women were active in
the civil rights movements discovered they were still second-class citizens. Women were moving
back into the workforce and there was growing rebellion against the traditional role of a suburban
housewife. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination on the basis of sex, color, religions,
or national origin. The National Organization for Women was founded to demand equal rights for
women in the workplace, schools, and the justice system. The first goal was the Equal Rights
Amendment which was passed, but failed to be ratified by states. Present: There are more women
in the workplace than ever. Both married and single women are active in careers, especially in some
careers that women were excluded from (law and medicine). However, women still tend to have
lower paying jobs and have limits on the professional levels they can reach (glass ceiling). Even
though there are more women in the workforce, there are many living in poverty. These are
frequently single mothers who bear the cost of caring for their children and providing for all
household expenses.
What non violent and violent approaches were utilized by various groups to achieve civil rights?
African Americans: Years of boycotts, sit-ins, and other nonviolent protests led by Dr. Martin Luther
King, Jr., inspired the March on Washington. The march was planned to pressure Congress to pass
civil rights legislation. King’s “I Have a Dream” speech, the crowd of over 200,000 nonviolent
demonstrations, influenced public opinion toward favoring civil rights legislation. For all their
progress, many African Americans were prevented from voting in the South. The Voting Rights Act
of 195 outlawed literacy tests and allowed the federal government to oversee voter registration.
Along with the 24th Amendment, outlawing the poll tax, the act caused African American voter
registration to increase dramatically. Women: Women’s rights groups became active and vocal in
the early 1960s. Women used a variety of nonviolent methods to gain support for women’s issues.
They held marches and rallies, lobbied government officials, and used the legal system. Native
Americans: The Red Power movement gained public attention as a response the termination policy.
Termination was the government’s place to develop “independence” for Native Americans by
withdraw assistance like health care. 700 Native Americans representing 64 Native American
nations met in Chicago to oppose the termination movement. The Red Power movement became
violent at times: 1969 occupation of Alcatraz Island; 1972 takeover of the Bureau of Indian Affairs
headquarters; and, the 1973 standoff with Federal Marshalls at Wounded Knee in South Dakota.
Hispanics: Hispanic workers became more vocal in their demands for better pay. Cesar Chavez and
the National Farm Workers Association drew attention to their cause by striking in front of grocery
stores. The Chicano movement became active, which was similar to Black Power, worked to instill
ethnic pride.
Identify the key figures and organization in shaping the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power
Movement?
Rosa Parks: Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white
passenger. Her arrest led to the Montgomery bus boycott, the beginning of the post-WWII Civil
Rights Movement. Martin Luther King, Jr.: Advocated nonviolent protests. King and followers were
victims of threats and violence, but continued to meet threats with, patience, faith, and the refusal
to back down. The Montgomery bus boycott gave King national attention. SNCC: The Student
Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was composed mostly of young African Americans. They stage
the Freedom Summer to help African Americans in Mississippi register to vote. Malcolm X: Malcolm
X, a Nation of Islam minister, took a more militant response to civil rights. He preached self-reliance
and self-protection and supported separation of races in order for African Americans to retain
uniqueness and racial unity. Stokely Carmichael: Coined the term “Black Power.” Whites perceived
it to mean a violent, militant movement. Carmichael intended it to be for African Americans to use
their collective power to achieve equality. Black Panthers: Black Panthers set up armed patrols in
urban neighborhoods to protect African Americans from police brutality. They also provided free
breakfasts for poor children. For white America, the Black Panthers symbolized the most militant
side of the Civil Rights Movement.
Identify 1960’s era presidents and evaluate their success and failures domestically?
Kennedy:
Deficit spending to stimulate the economy; Equal Pay Act; New Frontier – improve economy,
improve education, improve healthcare, extend civil rights. Johnson: Great Society (included
support for education and arts); Equal Opportunity Act (War on Poverty); Civil Rights Act (outlawed
discrimination in the workplace). Nixon: New Federalism (return power to the states);
Environmental laws (EPA, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Endangered Species Act); civil rights and
affirmative action.
How did the building of coalitions between African Americans, whites and other groups assist in
achieving integration and equal rights?
Sit-in Protests: African Americans would sit at lunch
counters that refused to serve blacks. There were instances of black students being assisted by
whites and other minorities in this nonviolent protest. They produced a peaceful front even when
being treated harshly. March on Washington: More than 200,000 people converged in Washington,
D.C. They represented many different backgrounds, but all came to support civil rights. Over 25%
were white. Freedom Summer: A push by the SNCC to help African Americans in Mississippi register
to vote. Work was conducted by volunteers, most were upper middle-class white students from
northern states. Poor People’s Campaign: The goal of the event was to demonstrate the diversity of
the nation’s poor. The protest itself was a failure, but it was an attempt to show the nation that
poverty was not confined to any one ethnic group.
How were social movements of the 1960’s & 1970’s similar?
Age: One similarity between the
various social movements was the energy and activism provided by the youth, particularly college
students. This time period is remembered for student activism and militancy as college campuses
saw both nonviolent protests and riots. Methods: Social movements usually began with nonviolent
methods. All groups used boycotts, sit-ins, lawsuits, rallies, and marches to spread their message.
Racial or Ethnic Pride: “Power” was the key word in many of the social movements. Red Power-
Native American cultural identity, Brown Power- Hispanic ethnic pride, Black Power- collective
African American power to achieve equality, Flower Power- anti-war movement to indicate choice
of peace over war.
Analyze the attempts to extend New Deal legislation through Great Society and the success and
failure of these programs to promote social and economic stability?
Truman: Proposed his Fair
Deal to strengthen New Deal reforms. A hostile congress refused most of his proposals. Eisenhower:
Did not repeal any New Deal programs and increased spending in many areas. Continued Social
Security, the minimum wage and provided funding for the interstate highway system and science
education. Kennedy: Carried on New Deal legislation and improved some parts of it. Continued
Social Security, increased the minimum wage, and improve the welfare system. Johnson: Did more
than any other president to extend New Deal legislation. The goal of his War on Poverty was to end
poverty and injustice for every child. His Great Society program included: Medicare, Medicaid, Civil
Rights Act, Voting Rights Act, Economic Opportunity Act (Job Corps), Head Start, etc.