Unit 10 Political Parties and Elections

linkage institution
an institution (i.e. political parties, interest groups, news media, etc.) that connects citizens with their government
political party
a formal coalition of interests joined together to get their candidates for public office elected under a common label and agenda
party-centered campaigns
election campaigns and other political processes in which political parties, not individual candidates, hold most of the initiative and influence
candidate-centered campaigns
election campaigns and other political processes in which candidates, not political parties, have most of the initiative and influence
party competition
a process in which conflict over society’s goals is transformed by political parties into electoral competition in which the winner gains the power to govern
grassroots party
a political party organized at the level of the voters and dependent on their support for its strength
party realignment
an election or set of elections in which the electorate responds strongly to an extraordinarily powerful issue that has disrupted the established political order and where there is a lasting impact on public policy, popular support for the parties and the composition of the party coalitions
two-party system
a system in which only two political parties have a real chance of acquiring control of the government because of the nature of the electoral rules (i.e. single-member districts, winner-take-all, etc.)
multiparty system
system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition
single-member districts
the form of representation in which only the candidate who gets the most votes in a district wins office
proportional representation
a form of representation in which seats in the legislature are allocated proportionally according to each political party’s share of the popular vote
party base
groups and interests that form the core of a political party’s support
median voter theorem
the theory that parties in a two-party system can maximize their vote by attracting the median voter
gender gap
the tendency of women and men to differ in their political attitudes and voting preferences
minor party
a political party with little chance of being elected in a two-party system but that represents ideas not being adequately addressed by the major parties, minor parties often have narrow electoral appeal because they focus on limited issues
primary election
the election in which voters choose a party’s nominees to run for public office in a general election
general election
the election in which voters determine which candidates win public office
If a minor party gains a large following, it is almost certain that
a. the major parties will join together to attack the minor party.
b. Congress will enact legislation to make it difficult for the minor party to get on the ballot.
c. party in-fighting will tear it apart.
d. one or both major parties will absorb its issue, and the minor party will lose support.
e. the media will attack the minor party.
d. one or both major parties will absorb its issue, and the minor party will lose support.
Andrew Jackson’s contribution to the development of political parties was the
a. forging of a coalition of Democrats and Whigs.
b. introduction of primary elections.
c. formation of a new type of grassroots party organization.
d. formation of the Federalist Party.
e. formation of the Republican Party.
c. formation of a new type of grassroots party organization.
________ is based on judgment about the past performance of an elected official or political party.
a. Prospective voting
b. Retrospective voting
c. Split-ticket voting
d. Straight-ticket voting
e. None of these answers is correct.
b. Retrospective voting
Proportional representation systems encourage the formation of smaller parties by enabling parties to
a. win legislative seats even though they do not receive a majority of votes in elections.
b. receive campaign funds from government in proportion to their support in opinion polls.
c. win legislative seats by lottery for parties that have no chance of winning majority support.
d. share in patronage appointments, which serve as an incentive to lure campaign workers.
e. advertise on television.
a. win legislative seats even though they do not receive a majority of votes in elections.
Organizationally, U.S. party organizations are
a. decentralized and fragmented.
b. centralized and weak.
c. decentralized and strong.
d. centralized and strong.
e. no longer in operation.
a. decentralized and fragmented.
Ticket splitting was most prominent during which decade?
a. 1970s
b. 1990s
c. 1980s
d. 1960s
e. 1950s
a. 1970s
State central committees
a. endorse candidates in their state-wide primaries but do not have formal control over who is chosen.
b. have the final say in who will be chosen as the candidates for national office from their party in their home state.
c. provide only general policy guidance for the state organizations.
d. are prevented from participating in fund-raising and voter registration because they receive government funding.
e. concentrate most strongly on national elections.
c. provide only general policy guidance for the state organizations.
The function that the national party organizations perform in relation to congressional candidates can best be described as a
a. service role—helping candidates conduct their personal campaigns.
b. power role—making party assistance conditional upon the candidates’ endorsement of the party platform.
c. central role—organizing and conducting the campaigns for the candidates.
d. non-participant role—staying out of congressional campaigns and assisting only in the presidential campaign.
e. None of these answers is correct.
a. service role—helping candidates conduct their personal campaigns.
In the 2008 presidential election, ________ used the Internet most successfully to attract followers and raise donations.
a. Joe Lieberman
b. Barack Obama
c. John McCain
d. Hillary Clinton
e. John Edwards
b. Barack Obama
Which of the following statements about the patronage system is true?
a. It was a means of rewarding party workers for their loyalty.
b. It was first established in the early twentieth century.
c. It has fallen increasingly into the hands of party organizations.
d. It weakens the bond that most federal staff members might otherwise feel for the congressperson under which they work.
e. Today there are almost no patronage jobs left.
a. It was a means of rewarding party workers for their loyalty.
During the twentieth century, American parties lost their complete control over
a. nominations.
b. financing.
c. platforms.
d. the staffing of government jobs.
e. All these answers are correct.
e. All these answers are correct.
The history of democratic government is virtually synonymous with the history of
a. high voter turnout.
b. the separation of powers.
c. economic recessions.
d. protest movements.
e. political parties.
e. political parties.
Roughly how much of campaign spending is devoted to producing and airing televised political advertisements?
a. one-half
b. three-quarters
c. one-quarter
d. one-third
e. one-tenth
a. one-half
Party dealignment is
a. essentially the same as party realignment.
b. a process that has discouraged the formation of third parties.
c. a process that has strengthened the major parties.
d. a process that refers to American political parties in the early 1800s.
e. None of these answers is correct.
e. None of these answers is correct.
Political parties in the United States originated partly as a political feud between
a. Marshall and Adams.
b. Adams and Jackson.
c. Lincoln and Douglas.
d. Cleveland and Bryan.
e. Hamilton and Jefferson.
e. Hamilton and Jefferson.