Unit 1 Psychology

psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
behavior
any action or reaction of a living organism that can be observed
mental processes
unobservable qualities such as dreams, thoughts, and feelings
4 goals of psychology
To describe behavior, to explain why a behavior/mental process occurred, to predict/anticipate behavior/mental processes, to apply your psychological knowledge to attain your desired goals and prevent unwanted behaviors
Socrates and Plato
believed the mind is separate from the body and that knowledge is innate
Aristotle
said knowledge is not innate, but instead grows from experience
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Rene Descartes
agreed with Socrates and Plato about the existence of innate ideas and minds being “entirely distinct from body”; dissected animals and concluded that the fluid in the brain’s cavities contained “animal spirits” (first to think of the idea of nerve paths enabling movement)
Francis Bacon
a British scientist whose experiments focused on experiment, experience, and common sense
John Locke
argued that the mind at birth is a blank slate on which experience writes; ideas helped form modern empiricism
empiricism
the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation
Wilhelm Wundt
a German scientist who established the first psychological research lab in Germany, and was the first person to call himself a psychologist. He conducted experiments on elements of consciousness, such as sensation and perception; he pioneered introspection
Structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind
Edward Tichener
established the first psychological lab in the U.S.; trained his students to use introspection to identify structures of conscious experiments
because different people reported different things about themselves
Why did structuralism prove to be unreliable?
Functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function and how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish
William James
led the functionalist school of psychology which emphasized the function of behavior and human experiences
rejected
Functionalists __________ introspection as a method of gathering information
Psychoanalysis
founded by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud; focuses on the unconscious mind and the conflict between accepted norms and our unconscious sexual and aggressive desires
Sigmund Freud
believed that dreams, slips of the tongue, and memory blocks provide glimpses into the unconscious mind; also believed in free associations
Gestalt Psychology
born out of Germany, this focused on how our brain processes things in entirety as opposed to in pieces
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contribution that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
Charles Darwin
argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies
natural selection
the principle that traits contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological and psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
biological influences
natural selection of adaptive traits, genetic predispositions to environment, brain mechanisms, and hormonal influences
psychological influences
learned fears/expectations, emotional responses, cognitive processing, and perceptual interpretations
social-cultural influences
presence of others; cultural, societal, and family expectations; peer and other group influences; compelling models (media)
biological perspective
concerned with links between physiological bases (biology) and behavior; concerns the nervous system, the brain, and the endocrine system
evolutionary perspective
uses Darwin’s principles of evolution to try to explain psychological processes and phenomena; believe natural selection plays a key role in psychological processes
psychodynamic perspective
studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior; modern psychodynamics still places an emphasis on unconscious mental processes, but sexual drives are not as prominent
psychotherapy
focuses on repressed memories and free association; also concerned with dream interpretation and transference
transference
a projection of feelings about one thing onto something else
behavioral perspective
study observable behavior and its explanation; emphasizes observable behaviors that can be objectively measured
learned, controlled
Behaviorists believe that human behavior is ________ and so it can be _________.
Ivan Pavlov
a Russian physiologist who conducted a series of behavioral experiments, demonstrating that much behavior in animals is learned, not instinctive
John B. Watson
applied Pavlov’s work to human beings and believed humans could be socialized in any direction through learning
B.F. Skinner
an American psychologist who became a leading advocate of behavioralism; used reinforcement to modify an individual’s behaviors
humanistic perspective
studies behavior/mental processes in relation to a person’s potential for growth and personal fulfillment; emphasizes free will and choice
Carl Rogers
an American psychologist who believed every person has the ability to reach their full potential
Abraham Maslow
a key leader in the development of humanistic psychology
social-cultural perspective
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
developmental psychology
study physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the lifespan (“womb to tomb”)
cognitive psychology
experiment with how we perceive, think, and solve problems
educational psychology
study how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
personality psychology
investigate an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
social psychology
study how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
industrial-organizational psychology
applies psychological concepts to the workplace to optimize human behavior
human factors psychology
explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use
counseling psychology
assist people with problems in living (school, work, marriage) to achieve greater well-being
clinical psychology
studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy
D
Modern psychologists would more likely agree with which of the following?
A) Plato’s belief that the source of knowledge is innate
B) Socrates’ perspective that knowledge is preexisting
C) the Hebrew scholar’s idea that the heart is a source of thinking
D) Aristotle’s view that knowledge derives from experiences stored in memory
E) the idea that science should rely on principles derived from rational logic rather than data
experimentation and the tabula rasa
Francis Bacon and John Locke helped form modern science by stressing the importance of
inconsistent
One important criticism of introspection is that reported findings are often
philosophy and biology
Psychology initially developed from the fields of
a methodology that emphasizes explanation and evaluation
The scientific aspect of psychology is most concerned with
innate tendencies are to social experience
Nature is to nurture as
enhances the integrative explanation and understanding of behavior
Investigating human behavior from biological, psychological, and social-cultural perspectives
B
Which of the following professions would most likely treat individuals with psychological disorders?
A. Human factors psychologists and applied researchers
B. Clinical psychologists and psychiatrists
C. Cognitive psychologists and social psychologists
D. Counseling psychologists and psychometricians
E. Personality psychologists and basic researchers
B
Which of the following methods is the best way to enhance comprehension of your psychology text?
A. Read the chapter in one sitting
B. Actively process the information you are reading
C. Unquestionably accept the information as you read it
D. Have someone else read the text to you
E. Read for detailed information first without reading the headings
experience
Empiricism is the view that knowledge is predominantly derived from
isolate the underlying components of what they were studying
The school of psychology known as structuralism was analogous to attempts by physicians and chemists to
D
Which school of psychology stressed the adaptive value of consciousness?
A. Structuralism
B. Gestalt psychology
C. Psychoanalysis
D. Functionalism
E. Behaviorism
no women received doctorates in period 1, but a majority in period 2
The comparison of awarded doctoral degrees in psychology for the years 1879-1902 with the years 1996-2009 shows that
psychoanalysis and behaviorism
Humanistic psychology, which emphasizes human growth potential, was a reaction against
nature works on what nurture endows
A linguist who theorizes that the patterns of language acquisition are hard-wired into the brain, yet emphasizes that the particular language spoken by an individual is learned from the environment, would most likely contend that
E
Which of the following emphasizes the examination or study of mental processes?
A. Functionalism and structuralism
B. Behaviorism and the biological perspective
C. Psychoanalysis and functionalism
D. The cognitive perspective and behaviorism
E. Structuralism and the cognitive perspective
prescribe drugs
The majority of clinical psychologists are unlikely to
avoid reading about alternative explanations
An ineffective technique when studying for an introductory psychology course is to
psychodynamic
Which perspective would most likely explain anger as “an outlet for unconscious hostility”?
the nature-nurture issue
The debate on the relative contributions of biology and experience to human development is most often referred to as
psychiatrist
Which of the following professionals is also a medical doctor?
review
SQ3R is an acronym for survey, question, read, rehearse, and
social
Which of the following psychologists would most likely explore how we view and affect each other?
observation
For behaviorists, psychological science is rooted in
clinical
Which of the following psychologists would most likely conduct psychotherapy?
cognitive neuroscience
The study of mental activity linked with brain activity best describes
Wilhelm Wundt
The first psychological laboratory, opened in 1879, belonged to
functionalist
The __________ school of psychology focused on how mental and behavioral processes enable us to adapt and flourish
humanistic
The study of current environmental influences and the importance of satisfying the needs for love and acceptance best describe which school of psychology?
using psychological concepts to boost morale and productivity
Which of the following is the best example of applied research?
structuralists
Self-reflective introspection (looking inward) to discern the elements of experience best describes a technique used by
cognitive
Which perspective would most look at how our interpretation of a situation affects how we react to it?
psychology
The science of behavior and mental processes best defines