As social constructs change, some acts move from being deemed ________ to being declared _________, such as cell phone use while driving.
All of the following are types of prisons EXCEPT:
Highway patrol can investigate any major crime in the state they operate within.
Every court, not including the U.S. Supreme Court, is limited in terms of jurisdiction.
According to conflict perspective, conflict is often resolved when the group in power achieves _________.
The general purpose of the criminal justice system includes all of the following EXCEPT
The predictor variable X is also known as the __________ variable.
The term criminology was first coined by ___________.
Deviant acts are against the law or considered illegal
The _________ has been used to collect information annually on the use of illegal drugs by individuals in the United States and is one of the largest surveys of drug use ever conducted in the United States.
National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
____________ conditions of probation are those that require the offender to regularly report to their supervising officer, obey the laws, submitting to searches, and not possessing a firearm or using drugs.
____________ surveys 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students about substance and alcohol use to develop patterns.
Monitoring the Future
The state police have the additional function of _________ as compared to highway patrol.
the development of intelligence units
Social science is a difficult field in terms of establishing _________ in relation to postulated theories.
The earliest form of state police agency to emerge in the United States was the Texas Rangers.
Once an offender is convicted and sentenced, they can be given all of the following EXCEPT:
An example of a mala prohibita crime is prostitution.
When other factors (Z) are actually causing two variables (X and Y) to occur at the same time. When this happens, it may appear that as if X is causing Y, when in fact they are both being caused by Z.
Individuals awaiting trial are housed in prisons.
Courts of ____________ jurisdiction are limited in their jurisdiction decisions on matters of appeal from lower courts and trial courts.
The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 amended the original act to include crimes based on only physical disabilities, which should also be viewed as hate crimes.
Courts of general jurisdiction have the power and authority to try and decide any case, including appeals from lower courts.
The question, Why are some behaviors defined as criminal while others are not? is considered part of the conflict perspective.
Courts of ____________ jurisdiction do not have power that extends to the overall administration of justice; thus, they do not try felony cases and do not have appellate authority.
_________ is an example of residential sanctions (alternatives to jail or prison sentences).
When a judge combines probation and incarceration it is called shock incarceration.
The term criminal justice often refers to all of the following EXCEPT:
According to UCR data, violent crime in the United States has _________ in 5 and 10 year pattern comparisons
Ensuring that predictor variable (X) comes before an explanatory variable (Y) is termed correlation.
All of the following are considered federal law enforcement agencies EXCEPT:
Special Weapons and Tactics Teams
Statutory exclusion provisions exclude certain juvenile offenders from juvenile court jurisdiction; cases originate in criminal rather than juvenile court.
Crimes that are considered an act which is not inherently immoral, but become so because its commission is expressly forbidden by positive law are called ________.
Conflict perspective believes that people obey laws not for fear of punishment but, rather, because they have internalized societal norms and values and perceive these laws as appropriate to observe rather than disobey.
Participating law enforcement agencies are required to report on officers who are killed or assaulted and meet all of the following criteria EXCEPT:
wearing a uniform, with or without a badge
According to the text, journalists play a key role in examining crime by exploring what is happening in criminal justice and revealing injustices as well as new forms of crime.
The federal court stem is a three-tired model including all of the following EXCEPT
U.S. claims court
According to Hobbes, _________ motivates individual to cooperate in the formation of government and inspires them to obey the laws the government creates.
The characteristic of punishment postulated by Beccaria that he believed to be the most important was _____________.
Classical School theories emphasize individual decision making regardless of _________.
The treatment of Jean Valjean in Les Miserables (Valjean receives a lengthy prison sentence after stealing a loaf of bread for his starving loved ones) is an example of what type of government?
According to Beccaria, perfecting _________ is/are the, surest but most difficult way to prevent crimes . .
The ‘Panopticon’ was a structural design incorporating a wheel and spoke pattern for prisons Bentham created.
What country most strictly applied Beccaria’s ideas yet was the first to realize not everyone who commits a given act should be punished identically?
Beccaria was behind all of the following modern day criminal justice beliefs EXCEPT:
court proceedings should remain private
Cesare Beccaria’s background in law gave him insight into what was rational in legal policy.
The idea of hedonistic calculus was proposed by Beccaria and was an idea from the Classical School of thought.
The vital deterrent characteristics of punishment postulated by Beccaria are all of the following EXCEPT:
The ________________ is the predicted tendency of homicides to increase after an execution, particularly after high-profile executions.
All of the following are explanations given by Beccaria against the death penalty EXCEPT:
Cesare Beccaria is known as all of the following EXCEPT:
Father of Policing
Some of the primitive theories of crime and delinquency accurately predicted who would commit offenses.
Exorcisms are still used today by some religious institutions, including the Catholic Church.
According to a recent Gallup Poll, public whipping (caning) was supported by the American public.
In many ancient societies, what was the common response if an individual committed a criminal act?
perform an exorcism or surgery
A government, according to Cesare Beccaria, should strive for the greatest amount of happiness shared by the greatest number of people. This concept is termed _________.
Beccaria claimed torture should not be used against defendants. Although some countries still use torture, the former United States Attorney General Alberto Gonzalez wrote a memo stating that torture of terrorist suspects by the United States military was not to be condoned.
___________ was a form of punishment in which the limbs of a convicted criminal were tied to four horses and ripped from his torso as the horses were made to run in opposite directions.
__________ is used as the basis for United States policies on punishment for criminal activity because it focuses on individual responsibility.
Punishment given to an individual meant to prevent or deter other potential offenders from engaging in such criminal activity in the future is called _________ deterrence.
One of the unintended outcomes of public trials and punishment was __________.
_____________ is the paradigm that is best suited for analysis of what types of calculations go on in someone’s head before committing a crime.
Paradigms before the Enlightenment and contemporary times tended to focus on the human ability to choose one’s own behavior and destiny.
When was the concept of human decision-making and natural culpability acknowledged?
Age of Enlightenment
The get tough on crime movement was part of the liberal agenda.
The book The Origin of Species, written by ________, cast doubt on Classical and Neoclassical theories. This book introduced the concept that other influences of human behavior beyond free will and choice were at play.
The modern example of the Three Strikes Rule is given in relation to what characteristic of punishment?
United States’ citizens sometimes take for granted the right to a trial by their peers. During Lenin’s rule, the bench-trials of the old system in Russia produced a conviction rate of almost _________.
Beccaria set the standard for most modern systems of justice in guaranteeing rights to defendants when he reformed certain practices by doing away with _________.
All the Enlightenment philosophers had one common belief: punishment.
What book, written by Thomas Hobbes, proposed one of the first rational theories as to why people committed crime?
Specific deterrence is more important than general deterrence.
Identification of the experiential effect was the primary contribution of __________ studies of deterrence.
The ________ of being caught committing a crime (related to informal sanctions) is one of the most important emotional responses related to deterrence.
Informal sanctions and controls matter the most to the majority of society, as compared with other sanctions.
Robert Martinson’s review of ________________ concluded that nothing works because offending was not reduced.
One of the most valuable aspects of scenario research is that answers are __________, regarding perceptions of risk and severity of possible sanctions.
Among the individuals that are the most likely to be victimized due to their lifestyle of staying out late and socializing are young adults (teenage years to early 20’s).
The physiological pleasures of committing crime were emphasized for the first time by Jack Katz.
Deterrence research has shifted away from aggregate level units of analysis and toward ________ level
According to the Minneapolis, Minnesota, study, of the top 10 locations police were called, half were _________.
bars or places alcohol was served
People that fear punishment cannot be effectively deterred.
Cross-sectional studies have found that the ___________ of punishment was strongly associated with intentions to commit future crimes.
Individuals with nothing to lose are generally the individuals that will be deterred by increased sanctions and certainty of punishment.
One study from California suggests that three strikes laws reduced crime. The remaining studies on the three strikes laws across the United States have found the same results.
Lifestyle theory is merely an extension of ________, offering no new revelations for why some individuals are victimized more than others.
Routine Activities theory
Global positioning systems (GPS) used by police departments have been used to catch serial killers in the past.
The strength of routine activities theory is its elaboration on which two characteristics of routine activities theory?
lack of guardianship
The book ___________ written by Jack Katz was the first time the benefits of committing crime were emphasizedd.
seductions of crime
Virtually all Western criminal systems (including the United States) are based on the Classical and Neoclassical framework.
According to studies, most people that have never driven drunk have an unrealistically high likelihood of arrest.
Which of the following individuals would not be deterred from committing crime even with high celerity, certainty, and severity of punishment?
Are three strikes laws considered a general or specific deterrent?
neither general nor specific no consensus
Studies show that official deterrence is highly ineffective against criminal acts that involve all of the following EXCEPT:
Older female offenders
Findings show that states with death penalty statutes have lower murder rates as compared with states that do not have death penalty statutes.
Global positioning systems (GPS) have been used by authorities to predict all of the following EXCEPT ____________.
Areas with low fear of crime
Studies showing informal sanctions to be the source of most deterrent effects for individuals led to the creation of which theory?
rational choice theory
Aggregate studies have shown evidence that an increased certainty of punishment was associated with ________ crime for most serious offenses.
Males are more influenced by shame and moral beliefs when deciding to commit offenses as compared with females
Routine activities theory assumes that most crime occurs because most offenders leave their homes knowing they are going to commit a crime.
The __________ assumes that offenders will make a rational choice not to commit future offenses if they could go to prison for the rest of their life after committing three offenses.
three strikes you’re out policy
All of the following are considered formal controls or sanctions EXCEPT:
Stigmata are the way in which societies identify born criminals.
The lowest group on the ranked order of low IQ individuals according to Goddard was the _________.
Women are better at distinguishing the feeble-minded; therefore Goddard used women in his research at Ellis Island.
Lombroso examined the bodies of captured war criminals in his research concerning the born criminal.
What do minor physical anomalies indicate?
Darwin’s theory laid the groundwork for what major scientific theory of crime?
The manifestation of more than ____ stigmata indicated that an individual is atavistic and thus a born criminal.
William Sheldon’s new theoretical perspective merged what two (2) concepts? Choose all that apply.
According to Lombroso, people who are serious criminals are manifestations of higher forms of humanity in terms of evolutionary progression.
Several perspectives were created in the mid 1800s that were focused on determining which individuals or groups are most likely to commit crime. These perspectives were likely developed in relation to __________.
Lombroso was called as an expert witness in criminal trials to determine the guilt or innocence of the suspects.
Lombroso’s model of stigmata as predictors of antisocial problems is more accepted by _________ than they are by ____________.
modern medical science; criminologists
Lombroso developed his unchanging list of stigmata through his work as a physician.
The middle layer of tissue that includes the muscles, bones, ligaments, and tendons is called ____________.
According to Goddard, the biggest threat to the progress of humanity and the genetic pool was the _______.
Which researcher developed the measurement we know today as IQ?
The science of determining human disposition based on distinctions (bumps) in the skull.
____________ is the study of facial and other bodily aspects to indicate developmental problems, such as criminality.
According to the text, there is no difference between how a chemist feels about the behavior of particles and elements and how a positivistic scientist feels about human behavior.
What individual is known for labeling low IQ as feeble-mindedness?
Lombroso was awarded the title of the Father of Criminology out of respect for his theory.
Modern scientific studies show that perhaps the most vital part of the brain in terms of criminality regarding trauma is the ____________.
left temporal lobe
Originally, scientists would measure the volume of the brain in subjects that had died long before examination by pouring buckshot or ball bearings in the skull. Finding this method to be invalid, they switched to seeds for measurement.
Stigmata not only consisted of facial and bodily features, but also some extra physiological features, including what?
Lombroso is considered the Father of _________. Choose all that apply.
the Positive School
____________ is the perspective that assumes individuals have no free will to control their behavior.
Later studies of craniometry revealed _________ between size of the skull/brain and certain behaviors or personality traits.
a small correlation
The emphasis on science in criminology started in the _________ and provided a basis for what continues today.
According to Herrnstein and Murray, which ethnic group(s) scores the highest on IQ or intelligence testing? Choose all that apply.
All of the following are considered minor physical anomalies (MPA’s) EXCEPT:
Scientists and academics became aware that the Classical School and deterrence framework was not explaining what?
the distribution of crime
According to modern science and the creator of the measure, IQ cannot be changed. Whatever IQ individuals are born with stays with them the rest of their lives.
When Goddard determined his IQ measurement was flawed, he lowered the criteria for mental age from twelve (12) to ______.
All of the following are possible consequences of high levels of testosterone EXCEPT:
Increased sensitivity to pain
Investigations into Goddard’s research found that he altered many photographs to make the family members appear more evil and fit into the definition of stigmata.
__________ studied the Kallikak family to determine the link between heredity and criminality.
Studies of behavioral genetics regarding criminality or antisocial behaviors consistently show that heritability/genetic factors explain about ____ of the variance in antisocial behavior.
Individuals with this type of chromosomal abnormality are often very tall but slow in terms of social and intelligence skills
Although adoption studies have been criticized concerning selective placement, the ultimate findings of these studies are still _________.
Recent studies have found a consistent, strong connection between criminal behavior and exposure to high levels of lead.
The first major study concerning chromosomal abnormalities found the mutation XY was far more common in the Scottish male population of mental patients than in the general population.
Otherwise known as Klinefelter’s syndrome, the XYY mutation results in higher likelihood for homosexuality and other behaviors but is not typically linked to criminality.
Studies that examine the relative concordance rates for monozygotic and dizygotic twins.
The findings of most adoption studies support the idea that both biological and environmental factors contribute to the future criminality of youth.
The first major study concerning chromosomal abnormalities found that the genetic mutation of XYY occurs in about 1 of every _______ males.
Most illicit drug use brings forth pleasurable sensations though enhancing the levels of _________ in an individual’s system.
High levels of testosterone and other androgens tend to masculinize the brain away from risk-taking behavior.
Many of the identical twin pairs studied in the ‘separated at birth’ research knew they had a twin they were not living with.
The Kallikak and Jukes family studies did not have similar findings concerning criminality and heredity.
Adoption studies have found that the adopted children for whom __________ were the least likely to become criminal.
neither set of parents were criminal
The more the chromosomal mutation produce _______ hormones, the less likely individuals are to commit criminal acts.
Typically, the chromosomal mutations that occur in individuals are largely due to ___________.
A high proportion of females in prison for committing violent crimes did so while on their premenstrual cycle when they experience an influx of testosterone.
Studies of crime that focuses on the genetic makeup of individuals.
____________ examined male children born in Copenhagen and adopted early in life to determine the influence of nature versus nurture.
The environments in which the ‘twins separated at birth’ individuals were raised in were often __________.
The subjects of adoption studies were typically given up for adoption prior to what age?
The autonomic nervous system largely consists of the brain and spinal column and is responsible for our voluntary motor activities.
The findings of ‘twins separated at birth’ studies have shown that ______ have/has a significant impact on human behavior, especially regarding criminal behavior.
Taking into consideration all of the findings presented from the four different types of studies concerning the nature versus nurture debate, it is clear that biological factors tend to have the most influence on the criminalityof individuals
Who is credited with bringing intelligence testing to the United States?
All of the following are considered levels of low IQ by Goddard EXCEPT:
The only conscious domain of the psyche is the superego.
All of the following are considered factors that explain street crime through human nature and evolution EXCEPT:
changes in conceptual analysis
In early childhood, girls often gravitate toward the morality of justice while boys gravitate toward the morality of care.
The _______ is a standard for the insanity defense where offenders can claim that, due to mental disease, they were unable to control their behavior.
_______ refers specifically to antisocial personalities that are due to social or familial dysfunction.
While learning does have some influence on a person’s attachments, the key component is the biological function of survival.
_____ is considered a warning of looming danger or a painful experience.
When discussing the threat or menace myth, eugenicists were describing individuals who were considered harmless and often institutionalized.
People with low IQ scores are somewhat destined to be all of the following EXCEPT:
Attachment theory was influenced heavily by the work of Freud and other psychoanalytic theorists.
Destructive drives give individuals pleasure.
Wilson and Herrnstein named their theory operant-utilitarian theory of criminality because they often used concepts associated with operant psychology.
The book ________ resulted in a public outcry concerning the link between intelligence and criminality.
The bell curve
Stage ____ of the stages of reasoning consists of right being based on a higher order of applying principles to all humankind (being nonjudgmental and respecting all human life).
The term insanity is a ______ term.
__________ attachments are enduring and persistent. These attachments can sometimes last throughout a person’s life.
________ is considered the most controversial aspect of Wilson and Herrnstein’s theoretical perspective
biological make up
Originally, Eysneck focused on the two personality dimensions of neuroticism and extroversion.