Unit 1 Ch. 1

Which United States-born newborn would currently have the longest life expectancy?
Marie, who is a white female
Aging is most accurately defined as involving _____ in the maturing organism.
both negative and positive changes
By 2030, when most members of the baby boom generation will have retired, adults 65 and older will represent approximately what percentage of the U.S. population?
20%
Random assignment helps ensure
similarity of treatment groups prior to the treatment.
The category of “teenager” best exemplifies an age
grade.
Dr. Hu is interested in children’s affective responses to studying science. She spends many hours sitting quietly and observing in elementary school classrooms during science instruction, and makes careful notes on all she observes. While observing, Dr. Hu is careful not to interact with the children or to interfere with their behavior in any way. This form of data collection is known as
naturalistic observation.
Maturation is best defined as
the biological unfolding of genetic potential.
An fMRI uses magnetic forces to measure _____ in an active area of the brain.
blood flow
Smoking cigarettes and having lung cancer are highly correlated events, and people often logically conclude that smoking must cause the cancer. It is hypothetically possible, however, that having lung cancer causes one to crave nicotine and thus it leads to smoking. This example illustrates the issue of
a reversed cause-effect relationship.
Sol is investigating the effects of divorce on children’s self-esteem. His initial sample consists of a group of 10 five-year-olds, which he plans to follow over a period of at least 15 years. When this group of children reaches age 15, Sol adds a second group of five-year-olds to his study, and plans to follow them for another 15 years. Sol’s overall plan is best classified as a _____ research design.
sequential
If the correlation between listening to country music and passing general psychology is found to be -.8, then one could rightly conclude that _____ country music listeners pass the class.
few
Manuel hoped to graduate from college by age 22 but finds himself enrolling for the first time at age 52. The anxiety Manuel feels because of this situation may be best explained by the concept of
a social clock
A key limitation of the experimental method is that it
cannot be used to assess many interesting questions due to ethical reasons.
Which is NOT a major shortcoming of self-reports?
Standardizing the self-report measure results in difficulty in comparing the responses of two different individuals who have completed the self-report.
Male social age grades for the Arusha people of East Africa include
junior warriors and retired elders.
Dr. Benjamin Spock wrote a popular book for parents, providing information on what behaviors can be expected of typical infants at specific ages. This sort of publication primarily reflects which goal of developmental psychology?
Description
Which statement concerning the pre-seventeenth century conception of childhood is most accurate?
Pre-seventeenth century adults held views toward childhood that are different from most modern parents.
Which of the following is true of the average life expectancy in the United States?
It is higher for black females than for white males.
The term _____ concerns an individual’s sense of the age at which he or she should experience certain events.
social clock
Hermes is currently in the “emerging adulthood” stage of development. As such, he would most likely
believe in a life of limitless possibilities.
Dr. Wells has proposed that the center of the Earth consists of large open areas that contain air and water and may be inhabited by some life form. This proposition is best described as a
theory
In DeLoache’s study of the relationship between types of training and vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary acquisition represented the _____ variable in the experiment.
dependent
The key element of the scientific method is the belief that _____ should determine the merits of an idea.
systematic observation
Environmental impacts include all _____ that influence our development.
external physical and social conditions
The American Psychological Association and the Society for Research on Child Development guidelines for ethics in research stipulate all of the following EXCEPT
testing participants using multiple measures.
When making a decision on whether or not to follow the latest diet trend, Jillian focuses on what the best scientific research has to say about the topic of nutrition. This indicates that Jillian believes in engaging in _____ practice.
evidence-based
Which statement is NOT an assumption of the lifespan perspective?
Development focuses on gains not losses.
Dr. Dré is very interested in infants’ reactions to different music styles. In order to study the phenomena, he built a special lab crib containing audio speakers. He then individually brings six-month-olds into the lab, places them in the crib, plays rap music, and watches each baby’s reactions. Given this description, Dr. Dré appears to be using the _____ technique.
structured observation
Albert, a developmental psychologist, conducts research on children’s emotional reactions to studying math in school. Albert is concerned with children’s _____ development.
psychosocial
Male social age grades for the Arusha people of East Africa include
junior warriors and retired elders.
Diversity can be based on
race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status.
According to the lifespan perspective, development is
multiply influenced and involves multiple disciplines.
A true experiment involves the _____ of the independent variable.
manipulation
Dr. Johnson exclusively researches how people adapt to economic, psychological, and physical changes in old age. Given this emphasis, Dr. Johnson appears to be a(n)
gerontologist.
Which statement best characterizes individuals in the “emerging adulthood” period of development?
Young people who are neither adolescents nor adults
The average life expectancy for a newborn in the United States is _____ years.
78
Which best describes the relationship between maturation and genes?
Maturation is driven by a plan contained in the genes.
A specific prediction about what will hold true if we observe a phenomenon is called a
hypothesis.
The deterioration of organisms (including humans) that leads inevitably to their death is best called
biological aging
In a psychological experiment, a researcher always
manipulates some aspect of the environment and then measures the effect on behavior.