Understanding the Principles of Assessment
1. Understand the principles and requirements of assessment 1. Explain the functions of assessment in learning and development.
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Assessment is carried out to evaluate that learning has taken place. It measures the learner’s attainment of knowledge and skills in their particular learning area. Assessment encourages learners to ask questions on anything they have not fully understood, as learners know that they will have to prove their knowledge and understanding during assessment to the standards of the awarding body.
The anticipated outcome of assessment is that the learner will complete assessment to City and Guild standards within the time frame stated, with no assistance and show through answering questions that they have full understanding of the subject. 2. Define the key concepts and principles of assessment. Assessment has to remain fair, consistent and valid to ensure all learners have an equal and fair chance of receiving a fair assessment. An assessor cannot be swayed to give a learner an easier assessment because they favour the learner.
The assessment process may have to be adapted to be suitable to the learner’s needs but, needs to eventually lead to the same outcome. 3. Explain the responsibilities of the assessor. The role of the assessor is to assess the learner’s knowledge and performance in a range of tasks. This includes, ? Ensuring that the learner has demonstrated competence and knowledge in the assessment to the standard of City and Guilds criteria. ? Assessments need to be planned between the assessor and each learner; the learner needs to be fully aware of his/her responsibilities in the collection and presentation of evidence. The assessor then needs to observe the learners performance in their workplace or similar environment and can ask questions to confirm a learners understanding. ? Accurate and constructive feedback needs to be given to the learner whether they have passed the assessment or not. If the assessment has not been achieved the learner needs to be aware of why they did not achieve and how they can rectify this for the next time they are assessed. ? Records of the learner’s achievement must be kept up to date and be available for the learner to see. 4.
Identify the regulations and requirements relevant to assessment in own area of practice. As a tutor , I am required to discuss and set targets for the completion of tasks, units, skills development and observations to the City and Guild standards. This is to ensure the learner achieves their programme. I am responsible for the learners to complete the programme units with the time-scale stated by the awarding body, the time-scaled will initially be dictated by the Learning and Skills council but, learners will be assessed on an individual basis and time-scales adjusted to suit individuals.
As an assessor I have to set challenging targets, record their progress against their targets in the learners individual learning plan (ILP), monitor their progress with every 4 or 8 week reviews in which progress is discussed and targets are agreed and set for learner to work towards. Once assessment begins I have to give learners clear and constructive feedback on their achievement and progress, learner progress is monitored through 1 to 1 .. Each learner has a portfolio logbook that records the learner’s competence against the standards for the qualification they are working towards.
I have to ensure that the logbook is completed and kept up to date to show what progress has been made, and what areas of competence have yet to be achieved, this allows me, learner and visitor from the awarding body to easily track the learner’s progress. Once the learner has achieved their qualification, it is my responsibility to advise them of any further programmes they could do to develop their skills further. 2. Understand different types of assessment methods 1. Compare the strengths and limitations of a range of assessment methods with reference to the needs of individual learners. | | | |Assessment Methods |Strengths |Limitations | |Observation of performance in the work |Authentic |Demanding on assessors time | |environment |Low disruption to candidates workplace |Travel | | |Assesses real life skills. Need co-operation from candidate’s | | |Could help in integrating assessment across|workplace. | | |outcomes and units. |Reliability may be hard to achieve. | |Examining products of work |Authentic |Time-consuming with large groups. | | |Showcases learner’s skills. | | |Clear feedback back can be given on the | | | |work | | |Questioning the learner |Can occur naturally out of an observation |Is difficult to manage with larger numbers | | |Non-threatening to the learner |of learners | |Can be offered to learners with additional |Due to the range of responses from | | |support needs |learners, reliability may be difficult to | | |May fill in gaps in the learners portfolio |achieve. | |of evidence | | |Discussing with the learner |Learner may feel less threatened. |Time-consuming with large numbers of | | |More one to one |learners. | | |Could help less confident learner. | |Use of others (witness testimony) |Others may see areas which are normally |Authenticity of testimony could be | | |difficult for assessors to observe |questionable | |Looking at learner statements |Builds confidence in the learner’s |Learners with additional learning needs may| | |capabilities. |find it difficult. | |Understand the standards they are working |Does not show the learners practical | | |to. |ability. | |Recognising prior learning |Gauge the learner’s knowledge of learning. |Prior learning could be to a higher/lower | | |Recognise if any additional learning needs |standard | | |maybe required. | | . Understand how to plan assessment 3. 1Summarise key factors to consider when planning assessment. Key factors that have to be taken into consideration when planning assessment are; • Is learner ready? • Suitable time • Suitable model • Convenient for workplace • Suitable environment Is Learner Ready? To determine if the learner is ready for assessment, Assessment has to be planned between the assessor and each learner, together they must come up with a plan that will suit the learner’s employers and the unit the learner is to be assessed on.
As an assessor you have to be flexible to accommodate the learner. Suitable model The learner has to ensure the correct model is selected for assessment the learner is planning to do. For the colour unit (GH9), all models must have been skin tested 24-48 hours before the application of colour; this is a requirement to ensure insurance is valid. The correct model must be chosen so the learner can be assessed on what they plan, for example; a short haired client would not be suitable for a long graduation assessment. Convenient for workplace.
A good relationship has to be established between the assessor and the learners employers. The learners workplace needs to be aware of the learners progress throughout the course and when planning the assessment the assessor hs to contact the workplace to ensure it is a suitbale time for the learner to be assessed. Suitable place Observing the learner in their workplace is the most suitable place to assess the learner. Whilst in the workplace a holistic assessment is more likely to happen, as different units may also be assessed when the assessor only planned on one. . 2 Evaluate the benefits of using a holistic approach to assessment. An holistic assessment will make the learner feel comfortable and competent in their assessment as it gives the assessor the oppourtunity to see the learner in their workplace covering another unit or aspect of the learners course as it naturally happens. This could occur without the learner realising. An holistic approach will help the assessor to use their time more efficiently, as hopefully more assessment than planned will occur. . 3 Explain how to plan a holistic approach to assessment. The assessor has to take some responsibility for collecting and structuring evidence when planning an holistic approach to assessment, further evidence is collected through observation of the learner and questioning the learner. The learner can also collect evidence but, must be supported by the assessor. 3. 4Summarise the types of risks that maybe involved in assessment in own area of responsibility.
The types of risks that maybe involved in assessment of my own area are high, it is important for the assessor and learner to ensure the assessment is carried out in a safe environment. Learners must adhere to their own salon procedures and insurance policies. When assessing a learner at their workplace the assessor would have to ensure it was safe to do so, before the planning of assessment the assessor would have to make sure the workplace had carried out a risk assessment, have health and safety certificates, liability insurance, a first aid box, fire extingushers and fire procedures. . 5Explain how to minimise risks through the planning process. Risks will be minimised through the planning process by making sure the learner is complying with the worksplaces in-house policies (each salons policies will differ) and local by laws. The assessor must follow their policy and procedures when planning the assessment. The learner can be questioned on any of the policy and procedures and the learner has to be able to explain them. 4. Undertand how to involve learners and others in assessment. 4. Explain the importance of involving the learning and others in the assessment process. It is important to involve the learner and others in the assessment process so that the learners and employers know the progress of the learner and what the learner still has to achieve. If the employers know the learners know the learners progress they are more likely to encourage and motivate the learner, the employer may make time to train with the learner or let the learner observe other stylists work which will expand the learners skills and understanding.
Knowing the learners progress, employers may be able to observe a specific piece of evidence that has not occurred when the assessor has been present, when the assessor does visit the workplace the employers could provide the assessor with a witness testimony of the evidence they observed. 4. 2 Summarise types of information that should be made available to learners and others involved in the assessment process. Documentation Log books are given to each learner once registered on the course and are available to the learner and others and provide useful means of assessing the progress of the learners achievement and performance.
The log book documents the learners ability to carry out a range of tasks. This document works well for the assessor to minitor progress and any areas the learner may require more guidance. Log books are alos checked by the internal verifier once a unit is completed, to ensure everything is completed to the standards, also the log book may be sampled by an external verifier. Policies Policies are necessary to ensure learners and others know what is expected and what they have to achieve to gain the qualification. All learners will work against the same policies so each learner has to meet the same requirements to complete the qualification.
Procedure Procedures are in place for learners and others to follow, each assessment follows the same procedure and cannot be amended. Assessors work is sampled by IV’s to ensure each learner is being treat equally and fairly and that the assessment is following the standards procedure. Skills analysis Learners and others need to be aware of the learners skills, so guidance and further teaching can be given to the learner to pass assessment. If the learners has not passed assessment this is documented with constructive critism and help on areas the learner has missed. By keeping a record the learner can check and practice the skills. . 3Explain how peer and self-assessment can be used effectively to promote learner involvement and personal responsibility in the assessment of learning. to promote learner involvement a tracking grid is used for each individual learner. The tracking grid is for the learner to keep a record of their own progress on what they have practiced in salon, this encourages the learner’s development of skills as they can track what they need to practice and when they will be ready for assessment. Learners also reflect on what they have done, learnt and what they can learn from after each session by completing an end of day form.
The learners have to state what they have learnt, what they enjoyed the most and least and anything they have achieved in the session, there is also spave for the assessor/tutor to make comment on what they learner has done, these forms are filed and can be used for learners to reflect on. Learners are to approach the assessor once they feel ready to be assessed, the assessor has to advise the learner to look through the criteria of the unit the learner wants to be assessed on and the learner is to decide if they feel they can meet the criteria.
If the assessment id not achieved feedback is a must, by asking the learner ‘how they felt it went’ will encourage the learner to analyse their work and reflect on what they could do better next time to achieve the assessment. 4. 4 Explain how assessment arrangements can be adapted to meet the needs of individual learners. An assessor is the hairdressing sector would have to be flexible to fit in with the salons opening times. Many salons are closed Mondays but, open Saturdays.
In order to assess a learner it may require the assessor to work when they normally have a day off, work later or start earlier. If a learner was particularly shy the assessor may have to go at quieter times in the salon to carry out an assessment, if it is a busy salon the assessor has to ensure they do not get in the way whilst doing assessment. 5. Understand how to make assessment decisions. 5. 1Explain how to judge whether evidence is:- Sufficient A performace criteria is stated in each learners log book for each unit within the NVQ qualification.
The learner must achieve the stated outcomes to have sufficient evidence to meet the requirements. Authentic The learner is watched by the assessor from start to finish of the assessment to ensure outcomes are met and assessment is completed with the time scale stated by the standards. Current All assessments are recorded in the learners logbook, which is completed by the assessor dating and signing to confirm assessment has been achieved, the learner also signs the log book. Dating the log book ensures assessments are current. 5. Explain how to ensure that assessment decisions are:- Made against specified criteria The outcomes in the logbook for each unit ensure that the assessment decision is made against the specified criteria and that the learner is working to City and Guild standards. Valid To ensure the assessment is valid, the assessor has to ensure that the learner is being assessed against the correct standards. For example; if a learner was being assessed on styling hair (GH10), the assessor would not use change hair colour (GH9) standards to assess the learner against.
Reliable By following the standards set by City and Guild for each assessment, it ensures that the same result will be achieved. Fair By following the standards all assessments are fair. An assessors personal feelings about the learners cannot cloud cloud the assessors judgement. 6. Understand quality assurance of the assessment process. 6. 1Evaluate the importance of quality assurance in the assessment process. A trainee assessor is observed by an internal verifier, at Woodspeen Christopher Pauls, assessors are given 5 days notice before the observation.
The observations take place to ensure assessors are working to the same standards and that assessments are being completed correctly. The IV will also have interviews will the learners to see how they are learning and interacting with their assessor, this gives the learners to air any grievances they may have which they may have not wanted to discuss with their assessor. An IV will go through the learners logbook after the learner has been on the course for 6 months, this is to ensure that the assessors accupational competence is up to date.
The IVwill give feedback to the assessor verbally and written. The IV can sample the log book at anytime and will go through the whole log book again once the learner has completed. At Woodspeen Christopher Paul all assessors attend a standardisation meeting in which the assessors are split into small groups and given the same unit to work through and assess. The assessors then discuss their findings and work together so all assessors come to the same outcome, so all assessors is working to the same standards. 6. Summarise quality assurance and standardisation procedures in own area of practice. To ensure trainee assessors are correctly assessing they will be observed by the IV every 3 months, trainee assessor also have 100% sampling/counter signing which takes place initially and all assessment decisions will be countersigned by qualified assessors. Any problems that are identified during sampling the IV will follow up with discussion/training with the assessor involed. All evidence sampled in the log book is initialled in red by the IV, all feedback will be kept and dated for EV’s.
All these actions are taken to ensure every assessor is working to the standards set by the awarding body, ensuring there is standardisation within the assessors. 6. 3Summarise the procedures to follow when there are disputes concerning assessment in area of practice. Every learner has the right to a fair assessment process, if the learner feels that they have been treated unfairly they have the right to appeal the decision. There is a NVQ appeal procedure in line with the awarding body requirements and NVQ code of practice which must be followed.
The learner must first approach the centre lead internal verifier, if not resolved then to the centre manager, if the learner is still not happy with the outcome it will then be referred to the awarding body who will pursue the matter with the external or lead verifier. Assessment decision unfair Report to the internal verifier within 10 days Internal verifier to investigate within 10 days If problem not resolved it will be passed to centre co-ordinator who will give a decision within 10 days or within a time scale that has allowed for full investigation of the complaint
If still not resolved it will be passed to the awarding body within 10 days The final decision will rest with the awarding body. 7. Understand how to manage information relating to assessment. 7. 1Explain the importance of following procedures for the management of information relating to assessment. It is important to follow procedures when managing information relating to assessment to ensure all assessors are working to the NVQ standards. All information collected during assessment must be kept up to date and and follow the policies and procedures of the awarding body.
This information should be available to learners and others to see at any point. Following procedures in the assessment process enables internal and external verifiers track the work of the learners and sample work of the assessor to ensure everything is being done to the company and awarding body standards. 7. 2Explain how feedback and questioning contribute to the assessment process. The assessment process is to plan, assess, give feedback and develop.
Firstly, the assessor and the learner must come up with a plan for assessment, the assessor will write up the planned assessment plan before assessment begins, the learner is then assessed through observation and the assessor asking relevant questions, once assessment is completed feedback needs to be given to the learner from the assessor, if the learner has achieved the assessment feedback still needs to be given on what the learner did really well on anything they could still improve on and then a plan is made between the assessor and learner on what the assessor would like to see next assessment and how the learner can achieve and develop their skills for this. If the learner has not achieved the assessment constructive cristism is given to the learner, the feedback will be what they didn’t achieve on, what they did well and what they need to do to imporove, the learner will also be given a plan on what they need they need to complete to enable the learner to achieve assessment next time. The learners are given a 2 week period before they are assessed again to develop their skills. 8. Understand the legal and good practice requirements in relation to assessment. 8. 1Explain legal issues, policies and procedures relevant to assessment, including those for confidentiality, health, safety and welfare.