UIL Social Studies: Empire of the Summer Moon

Adobe Walls
buffalo hunters camp which was attacked by Native Americans led by Quanah Parker
Indian Agencies
-administered the Indian Act of 1867 in the Aborignal communities. Had extraordinary powers. The agents displaced Aboriginal leaders so to institute a new way of living consistent with the intentions of the Government at that time.
Don Juan Bautista de Anza
Governer of the province of New Mexico from 1777-1787, won a battle against Comanche Chief Cuerno Verde on August 15th 1779 and later convened with Comanche chiefs to draw up some of the only peace treaties that were honored in the American West
Apaches
is the collective name for several culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United States. These indigenous peoples of North America speak a Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) language, and are related linguistically to the Athabaskan speakers of Alaska and western Canada. However, the Navajo is clearly related to this group through culture and language. formerly ranged over eastern Arizona, northwestern Mexico, New Mexico, and parts of Texas and the Great Plains.
Apacheria
land claimed and dominated by the Apache
Battle of Blanco Canyon
In the afternoon of October 9, 1871, the cavalry force reached the White River and Blanco Canyon. Late that evening Quanah Parker personally led a small Comanche force which stampeded through the cavalry camp, driving off sixty-six horses. The next morning, a unit of cavalry set off down the canyon in pursuit of Indians who were seen driving what appeared to be stolen cavalry horses. As the pursuing cavalry reached the top of a hill on the top of the canyon, they found a much larger party of Indians, who were waiting in ambush. The cavalry fought their way clear, but suffered the loss of one cavalryman, the sole Army fatality of the entire campaign. Lt. Robert Goldthwaite Carter and a detail of five men mounted a rear guard action against the Comanches, and the remainder of the unit retreated. This action won Lt. Carter the Medal of Honor.[1]

Mackenzie’s main column and the Tonkawa scouts, hearing the gunfire, advanced and probably saved the detachment from slaughter, as more Comanche had managed to surround the retreating unit. With the arrival of the main cavalry column, Quanah Parker and his warriors retreated. The Comanches fought their way up the walls of Blanco Canyon, sniping at the oncoming troopers and taunting their Tonkawa enemies before disappearing from the Army’s sight as they went over the Caprock Escarpment, and onto the Llano Estacado

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Buffalo Guns
Powerful rifles with telescope used by hunters to kill buffalo; led to the slaughter of millions of buffalo on the plains.
Buffalo Soldiers
Nickname for African-American soldiers who fought in the wars against Native Americans living on the Great Plains during the 1870s
Kit Carson
United States frontiersman who guided Fremont’s expeditions in the 1840s and served as a Union general in the Civil War (1809-1868), A frontier trapper and guide of the 1800s. He helped open the California territory to U.S. settlers . He was also a renowned Indian fighter. ——–also helped settle Nevada. Author of Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina.
Cherokee
The main Indian tribe of the “Five Civilized Tribes”. In Georgia they made remarkable efforts to adopt the “white” ways of life as they abandoned their semi-nomadic life and formed a government. This tribe was the most important in the Indian attempts at “Americanization”. Although their efforts were remarkable, the white government declared their council illegal and took over.
Cheyennes
Indian people who became nomadic buffalo hunters after migrating to the Great Plains in the eighteenth century.
-suffered greatly after Sand Creek Massacre
Cholera
an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
Samuel Colt
This inventor patented the six-shooter pistol, which was used often during the Mexican war. He later used the concept of mass production in his factory to produce them more quickly.
Colt Revolver
Pistol that used a revolving chamber to rapidly fire shots. First used by the Texas Rangers
Comanche
a member of the Shoshonean people who formerly lived between Wyoming and the Mexican border but are now chiefly in Oklahoma
Comancheria
Comanche territory
(covered parts of Mexico, TX, Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, New Mexico)
Comancheros
Traders from New Mexico who encouraged Native American raids by accepting cattle, horses and property taken from settlers, and trading for guns and ammunition.
Comanche Moon
Many Comanche raids were conducted under the bright spring and summer moon
Council House Fight
1. Meeting with Comanches in San Antonio in 1840 where Comanches brought Matilda Lockheart;
2. Angry Texas troops tried to take the Comanche negotiators hostage until the Comanches freed their captives
3. Comanches resisted and in the fight 7 Texans and 35 Comanches died
4. Comanches killed many of their white hostages to avenge the Comanche deaths
5.”Also called “the greatest blunder in the history of Texan- Native American relations”
Creeks
known as one of the “Five Civilized Tribes” by the white settlers in America. Located in primarily Georgia, they were forced to move beyond the Mississippi into Oklahoma and Alabama as a result of the Indian Removal Act, which was passed in 1830.
George Custer
He was a former general of the Civil War. He was nicknamed the “boy general.” During the Sioux War of 1876-1877 he attacked 2,500 Sioux warriors near the Little Big Horn river in Montana and was completely wiped out. He and his 264 men’s defeat was partially due to when two supporting columns failed to come to their rescue as reinforcement.
Dragoons
mounted infantrymen with muskets, pistols, and sabers
Five Civilized Tribes
The Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes, all located in the southeast. They were considered civilized by whites because they followed many of their practices.
John “Rip” Ford
Commander of Texas Rangers who developed a successful strategy of pursuing and confronting the Comanche. It led to the successful confrontation in 1858 at the Battle of Antelope Hills.
Fort Houston
Where survivors of Parker’s Fort raid escaped to near modern-day Palestine and Dallas (TX)
Fort Sill
Is an army post near Lawton, Oklahoma and remains the only active army installation of all the forts on the South Plains during the Indian Wars. Fort Sill was staked out on January 8, 1869 by Maj. Gen. Phillip H. Sheridan and was originally called Camp Wichita.
Charles Goodnight
with his friend Oliver Loving, he created the Goodnight-Loving Trail, route for getting cattle from Texas ranches to beef markets in Wyoming
John “Jack” Hays
famous Texas ranger
fought for Texas independence
High Plains
Rough, semi dry, rising gently to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. (To the west–covering Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona.)
Buffalo Hides
demand for these increased nearly leading to this animals’ extinction; a new tanning technology added to demand for these
Battle of Honey Springs
The goal of this battle was to stop the Confederates from attacking Ft.Gibson. The battle was bloody, large, and the most decisive Civil War battle in Indian Territory. The Union won this battle.
Sam Houston
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863), First president of the Republic of Texas
Howitzers
A cannon having a comparatively short barrel used especially for firing shells at a high angle for reaching a target behind cover or in a trench.
Indian Bureau
Name given to the governmental department set up by President Grant to oversee the affairs of Native Americans under the control of the Federal Government.
Indian Territory
An area to which Native Americans were moved covering what is now Oklahoma and parts of Kansas and Nebraska
Isa-Tai
Comanche medicine and con man who helped Quanah lead a coalition of Native American tribes during the raid on Adobe Walls
Kiowas
group of people who moved form south Dakota and Montana in the late 1700s, who often joined the Comanches in battle
Kotsoteka Comanches
Buffalo eater tribe of the Comanches. Lived in the Canadian River valley in present-day Oklahoma and the Texas Panhandle
Mirabeau Lamar
Elected president of the Republic of Texas in 1838, sought to drive the Comanches out of Texas with the policy “extinction or expulsion”
Lipan Apaches
hunted and farmed, moved to south Texas to avoid the Comanches, their enemies
Llano Estacado
a large semiarid plateau forming the southern part of the Great Plains
Ranald Mackenzie
U.S. colonel who became famous fighting American Indians on the Texas frontier; defeated the Comanche at Palo Duro Canyon by destroying their villages, horses, and supplies
Mackenzie’s Raiders
U.S. army colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie’s troops who achieved great fame fighting on the Texas Frontier.
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from “sea to sea,” from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Medicine Lodge Treaty
The Kiowa, Comanche, Kiowa-Apache, Cheyenne, and Arapaho signed this treaty which stated that these Plains Indians would have to live on reservations, learn to farm rather than roam the prairies, and learn and live the white man’s way of life. The Indians in return would be protected from white hunters, receive food and clothing, and have its own reservation.
Nautdah
Cynthia Ann Parker’s Comanche name.
Cynthia Ann Parker
captured as a young child by the Comanches and adopted their culture; mother of Quanah Parker
Nermernuh
The Comanche’s name for themselves meaning “the people”
Nokoni Comanches
The Wanderers, or “middle” Comanches, who lived in North Texas and Oklahoma
Office of Indian Affairs
Handled the government’s other interactions with Indians, including negotiating treaties, managing schools, and overseeing trade. Created in 1824 as part of the War Department, so the Office cooperated with the military in removing Indians from lands needed for American expansion and in protecting citizens who relocated.
Palo Duro Canyon
2nd largest canyon in the United States—More than 100 miles long and in most places 6 miles wide–800 feet deep, The home base of Comanches led by Quanah Parker., Mackenzie raided and destroyed homes here, killing all horses and mules left behind. Resulted in surrender to Indian Territory.
Benjamin Parker
Benjamin was killed by the Comanches when they came to the left open Parker Fort for the false purpose of directions to the watering hole.
Quanah Parker
An influential leader of the Comanche. He was also the son of Cynthia Ann Parker.
Parker Raid
Battle where Cynthia Ann Parker was held captive and one of the most famous events in the history of the American frontier. May 19, 1836 in Texas, near modern-day Dallas
Parker’s Fort
Fort founded by the Parker family near present-day Mexia.
Peanuts
Quanah Parker’s brother who escaped with him at the Battle of Pease River.
Battle of Pease River
Attack on a Comanche camp by Sul Ross’s Texas Rangers and members of the Second Calvary. Ended with the Death of Peta Nocona and capture of Cynthia Ann Parker, Quanah’s parents.
Penateka Comanches
The Honey Eater tribe of the Comanches. Territory stretched deep into Texas and was the largest band.
Peta Nocona
Chief of the Comanche band Noconi. He led his tribe during the extensive Indian Wars in Texas from the 1830s to 1860. He was the son of the Comanche chief Iron Jacket and father of chief Quanah Parker. His band Noconis, or Wanderers, or travelers were named after him. Nocona, Texas is named after the Noconi leader.[1]

Despite Sul Ross’s claim that Nocona was killed at Pease River, his son insisted he was not present, and died several years later. This claim is supported by Texas historian John Henry Brown. Brown had already disputed the identity of the person killed at Mule Creek, before Quanah came onto the reservation, stating he was told the name of the man killed at Pease River was Mo-he-ew, not Peta Nocona.

Plains Indians
There were many Plains Indians in the West before Americans began spreading in that direction in large numbers. Some were in alliances, others were close to always fighting. Most were warlike, but not on the same scale as they would have to be on when whites moved in. Some were farmers and many were dependent on the Buffalo. Posed a serious threat to western settlers because, unlike the Eastern Indians from early colonial days, the Plains Indians possessed rifles and horses.
Rachel Parker Plummer
She was captured along with others at Parker’s Fort and wrote descriptively about her capture by the Comanches.
Battle of Plum Creek
was a clash between militia and Rangers of the Republic of Texas and a huge Comanche war party under Chief Buffalo Hump, which took place near Lockhart, Texas on August 12, 1840, following the Great Raid of 1840 as the Comanche war party returned back to West Texas.
Prairie
large area of level or rolling land with grass but few or no trees
Prairie Flower
She was Cynthia’s daughter. She died shortly after being taken from the Indians by the Texas Rangers.
Quahadi Comanches
The Antelopes, Quanah’s band, who lived in the head streams of the Colorado, Brazos, and Red rivers in Northwest Texas.
Battle of the Red River
September, 1872 decisive battle led by Mackenzie against Quahadi and Kotsoteka Comanche on North Fork of Red River; winter camp and all supplies in village of 262 lodges destroyed; many captives taken which in turn were then traded to Indians for white captives.
Red River War
U.S military campaign created to rid the Southern plains of Comanche, Kiowa, Southern Cheyenne, and Arapaho in 1874
Indian Reservations
Indians were sent to reservations to “protect their culture”. In reality, these reservations just pulled Indians off of lands the whites wanted and kept them separate from American society.
Sul Ross
… (September 27, 1838 – January 3, 1898) was the 19th Governor of Texas (USA), a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War, and a president of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, now called Texas A&M University he suffered severe injuries while fighting renegade Comanches. After graduation Ross joined the Texas Rangers, and in 1860 led troops in the Battle of Pease River, where he rescued Cynthia Ann Parker, who had been captured by the Comanches as a child.
San Saba Massacre
Lipan Apaches tricked the Spanish into building in Comanche territory as a buffer against them. The people in the mission were massacred by the Comanches.
Indian Scouts
enlisted not only introduced working capital among the Apaches but was an effective means of tracking down Indian offender. the scouts were an impressive sight possessing great stamina toughness and sharp intelligence. as illustrated the western Apache scouts usually wore scarlet headbands/
Sharps Rifles (Big Fifties)
Powerful single shot rifles that fired .50 caliber rounds. Used by buffalo hunters against buffalo and Comanche warriors.
Fort Sill
Is an army post near Lawton, Oklahoma and remains the only active army installation of all the forts on the South Plains during the Indian Wars. Fort Sill was staked out on January 8, 1869 by Maj. Gen. Phillip H. Sheridan and was originally called Camp Wichita.
Taibos
Comanche word for Anglo-Europeans
Texas Rangers
A militia originally formed by Stephen F. Austin in 1823 to protect the territory of Texas against American Indian raids.
Tonkawas
A tribe that lived in Central Texas where they developed a reputation as fierce warriors and skilled hunters; they were nomadic hunters, following herds of bison and other small game and were longtime enemies of the Apaches. Sometimes, this tribe joined the Europeans in fighting the Comanches. These Native Texans lived around present Austin.
Yamparika Comanches
Yap Eaters, northern most band of Comanches who inhabited the lands south of the Arkansas River