Who conducted the “Grant Study,” which involved Harvard University men in their early 30s and their late 40s who had initially been interviewed as undergraduates?
Jacob, who is 45, has amassed a lot of wealth but has not done anything to benefit the next generation. According to Erikson, he is in a state of _____.
The Berkeley Longitudinal Studies
Which research project studied more than 500 children and their parents in the 1920s and early 1930s and then again as they entered midlife, resulting in the book Present and Past in Middle Life?
Overload; squeezed; sandwich
Today, many middle-aged adults are responsible for their children as well as for their aging parents, leading some to call them the _____ generation.
Extensive interviews with 40 middle-aged men
Seasons of a Man’s Life by Daniel Levinson was based upon the results of:
The term “_____” generation refers to a situation in which the middle generation alternates attention between the demands of grown children and their aging parents.
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Socially disadvantaged inner-city men born about 1930; Socially advantaged Harvard graduates born about 1920; Middle-SES, intellectually gifted women born about 1910
George Vaillant performed longitudinal studies of adult development and aging on which THREE of the following groups?
The number of adult children with living grandparents is expected to plateau in the next 20 years.
Which of the following statements about grandparenting and longevity is FALSE?
(1) The current trend in delaying childbearing is likely to offset the increasing longevity of grandparents somewhat.
(2) The number of adult children with living grandparents is expected to plateau in the next 20 years.
(3) In 2000, 40% of 10-year holds had four living grandparents.
(4) In 1900, only 4% of 10-year-olds had four living grandparents.
Paul Costa and Robert McCrae conducted the _____ Study using their five-factor personality test.
Historical; gender; culture
What are three major contexts that influence development in middle adulthood?
Mills College Study
The _____ profiled 132 women in the late 1950s to assess adult personality development.
Openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism make up the _____ _____ factors of personality, according to one influential trait theory.
When men face stress, they are more likely to respond in a _____-or-_____ manner, becoming aggressive or withdrawing socially.
_____ believed adults males undergo four conflicts during midlife, whereas _____ believed the main conflict is that of generativity versus stagnation.
loyalty; security; mutual emotional interest
In middle adulthood, affectionate or companionate love increases. This form of love includes the quality of _____.
Forty year old Maritska, wishes to establish a pediatric AIDS foundation overseas. According to Erikson, she is focused on establishing a sense of _____.
Which of the following is not a style of grandparenting described by researchers?
B2B (Back-to-Bedroom) kids; boomerang kids
Young adults who return to their parents home to live are sometimes called:
The timetable according to which individuals are expected to accomplish life’s tasks
Which of the following defines the social clock?
(1) The difference in social relationships as a person moves through the phases of life
(2) The accomplishments a person has based on the sociohistorical context in which the person is raised
(3) The ability of an individual to monitor relationships over time
(4) The timetable according to which individuals are expected to accomplish life’s tasks
According to Erikson, _____ develops when middle-aged adults sense they have not done anything for the next generation.
Parents who experience empty nest syndrome
Who among the following are MOST likely to experience a decline in marital satisfaction?
(1) Parents who experience empty nest syndrome
(2) Parents who have their adult children return home after initially moving out
(3) Parents who do not live vicariously through their children
(4) Parents who successfully send children into adulthood
In which TWO of the following areas are parents and their adult children most similar?
(1) Work orientation
(2) Gender roles
The stress of life events alone influences a person’s development.
Which of the following is NOT a belief attributed to the contemporary life-events approach?
(1) The impact of life events on development depends on a person’s ability to adapt and cope.
(2) Life events are mediated by things like physical health and family supports.
(3) The stress of life events alone influences a person’s development.
(4) The impact of life events depends of the sociohistorical context of the event.
Children who spent more time in shared activities with their parents
Children who were given more financial support by parents earlier in their lives
Who among the following groups of adult children are most likely to provide social support for their older parents?
(1) Children who grew up in divorced households.
(2) Children who had unresolved or difficult relationships with their parents early in life
(3) Children who spent more time in shared activities with their parents
(4) Children who were given more financial support by parents earlier in their lives
Romantic love is stronger in _____ adulthood, whereas _____ love increases in middle adulthood.
Women without children who pursued low-level work; family-oriented women; career-oriented women
The Mills College Study distinguished which of the following main groups among the Mills College women?
On average, perceptions of personal control _____ after middle adulthood.
Married men were more likely to be involved with which family group?
(1) Friend’s kin
(2) Wives’ kin
(3) Associates’ kin
(4) Own kin
Historical contexts are also known as _____ effects.
concerns about weight
Which of the following is the most frequently reported daily hassle in middle age?
(1) Physical appearance
(2) Home maintenance
(3) Concerns about weight
(4) Misplacing or losing things
Verbal, physical, or emotional abuse
Alcohol or drug abuse
Which of the following are some of the main reasons middle-aged and older women gave for initiating a divorce?
(1) Verbal, physical, or emotional abuse
(2) Financial inadequacy
(3) Alcohol or drug abuse
Levinson’s The Season’s of a Man’s Life
The view that adults experience a midlife crisis was based on findings from:
Authority over certain younger kin
An increase in geographical mobility
An increase in status and recognition
Which of the following are advantages experienced by women who reach middle age in nonindustrialized societies?
(1) Societies monetary gains
(2) Authority over certain younger kin
(3) An increase in geographical mobility
(4) An increase in status and recognition
Determining life goals
According to Levinson, a person between the ages of 28 and 33 is faced with which of the following tasks?
(1) Creating a dream for one’s life
(2) Reaching stability in a career
(3) Determining life goals
(4) Finding intimacy
Sometimes called “helicopter parents”
Engaging in “permaparenting”
Impeding their own postparenting lives
Parents who don’t let go of their young adult children are:
Friendships that begin in childhood and remain into adulthood are often _____ (more distant/deeper) than those that begin in middle adulthood.
George Vaillant used data collected from individuals when they were 50 to predict whether they would end up in which of the following categories?
Parenting, teaching, and involvement in the community are examples of how middle-aged adults can develop _____.
What percentage of adults responded that adults have a duty to care for their aging parents?
Which of the following characteristics is not necessarily reflective of relationships in middle adulthood?
(2) Mutual emotional interest
(4) Physical attraction
Developing a stable life structure
Exploring the possibilities for adult living
According to Levinson, the two major tasks to be mastered in early adulthood are:
The individual variations views
Which of the following views states that middle-aged adults interpret, shape, alter, and give meaning to their lives?
(1) Erikson’s psychosocial theory
(2) The individual variations view
(3) Vaillant’s views based on the “Grant Study”
(4) Levinson’s seasons of life view
Not smoking or abusing alcohol
Healthy weight and exercise
Mature adaptations and quality education
According to Vaillant, which of the following behaviors at age 50 were linked to reaching 80 in a good place?
(1) Not smoking or abusing alcohol
(2) Healthy weight and exercise
(3) Mature adaptations and quality education
(4) Stable marriage
(5) Activism and community involvement
Being ambitious versus being satisfied with life as it stands
According to Levinson, which of the following is NOT a major conflict that an adult male must come to terms with during the transition to middle adulthood?
(1) Being destructive versus being constructive
(2) Being masculine versus being feminine
(3) Being ambitious versus being satisfied with life as it stands
(4) Being young versus being old
A majority of grandparents who move in with their adult children are in poverty.
Which of the following statements about grandparents is FALSE?
(1) Almost half the grandparents who move in with their children are immigrants.
(2) Nearly half the grandchildren who move in with a grandparent are raised by a single grandmother.
(3) The majority of grandparents raising grandchildren are under the age of 65 when their grandchildren move in with them.
(4) A majority of grandparents who move in with their adult children are in poverty.
The Gusii culture in Kenya define progress through life’s stages in terms of:
Levinson’s work included no statistical analysis
The original Levinson data included no females
Which of the following are criticisms about Levinson’s Seasons of a Man’s Life?
(1) Levinson’s work included no statistical analysis.
(2) The original Levinson data included no females.
(3) Levinson did not actually interview people but instead based his conclusions on personal observations.
(4) Respondants may have distorted memories or forget parts of their past.
empty nest syndrome
Parents who live vicariously through their children and who report a decline in marital satisfaction when their children leave the home are experiencing:
Which theorist headed the study of 132 women at Mills College in the late 1950s?
Separation of immediate and extended family members
Discrepancies between acculturation levels within the family
Relocation to a new community without a social network
Immigration increases intergenerational stresses on Mexican families due to:
Having wealth and income
According to Vaillant, which of the following characteristics at the age of 50 was NOT predictive of being in the “happy-well” category at 75 to 80 years of age?
(1) Being well-educated
(2) Having wealth and income
(3) Empathizing with others
(4) Getting regular exercise