U.S. History I: Chapter 7

mass production
the production of goods in large quantities
Industrial Revolution
social and economic reorganization that took place as machines replaced hand tools and large-scale factory production developed.
cotton gin
made it possible for Southern farmers to grow short-staple cotton for a profit
War of 1812
fought by the United States of America against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, its North American colonies, and its Native American allies
American System
plan to unify the nation: included three points
-developing transportation systems and other internal improvements
-establishing a protective tariff
-resurrecting the national bank
a tax on imports or exports
“Era of Good Feelings”
period of time where people were pleased with the way the country was developing
the strong belief that the interests of a particular nation-state are of primary importance
loyalty to the interests of one’s own region or section of the country, rather than to the country as a whole
Rush-Bagot treaty
a treaty between the United States and Britain limiting naval armaments on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, following the War of 1812
Convention of 1818
set the boundary between the Missouri Territory in the United States and British North America (later Canada) at the forty-ninth parallel
Adams-Onis treaty
spain ceded florida to the united states and gave up its claims on oregon territory
Monroe Doctrine
-the US would consider such action “dangerous to our peace and safety”
-the US would not involve itself in European affairs or interfere with existing colonies in the Western Hemisphere
Missouri Compromise
-maine was admitted as a free state
-missouri admitted as a slave state
-all new states are to be free states
Democratic-Republican party
created to sabotage Adam’s policies when he was accused of stealing the presidency
spoils system
incoming officials throw out former appointees and replace them with their own friends
Indian Removal Act
under this law, the federal government provided funds to negotiate treaties that would force the Native Americans to move west
Trail of Tears
the cherokee were sent off in groups of about 1,000, many died and buried more than a quarter of their people
Tariff of Abominations
a “disgusting and loathsome” tariff, passed to protect the infant American industries
“The South Carolina Exposition”
theory presented by John Calhoun that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that they could refuse to enforce them.
a legal theory that a state has the right to nullify, or invalidate, any federal law which that state has deemed unconstitutional
Bank of the United States (BUS)
name for two national banks established by the U.S. Congress to serve as government fiscal agents and as depositories for federal funds
Pet banks
called this because of their loyalty to the Democratic party, Jackson appointed a secretary of treasury who was willing to place all government fund in these certain state banks
Whig party
political party formed by Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams and Daniel Webster; backed ideals of the American system
Panic of 1837
bank closings and the collapse of the credit system cost many people their savings, bankrupted hundreds of businesses, and put more than a third of the population out of work
“Hard Cider and Log Cabin” campaign
celebrated the election of William Harry Harrison and John Tyler, showed that Harrison was a man of the people
“King Andrew I”
symbolizes presidential power; portrays Andrew Jackson as a king
Eli Whitney
best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South
Henry Clay
an American lawyer, politician, and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives
John Marshall
the fourth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
John Quincy Adams
an American statesman who served as the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829
Andrew Jackson
the seventh president of the US
Daniel Webster
a leading American senator and statesman during the era of the Second Party System. He was the outstanding spokesman for American nationalism with powerful oratory that made him a key Whig leader
John C. Calhoun
an American politician and political theorist during the first half of the 19th century
Robert Hayne
an American political leader who served in the United States Senate from 1823 to 1832
Nicholas Bidle
an American financier who served as the second and last president of the Second Bank of the United States
Martin Van Buren
an American politician who served as the eighth President of the United States
William Henry Harrison
the ninth President of the United States, an American military officer and politician, and the last President born as a British subject. He was also the first president to die in office
John Tyler
the tenth President of the United States. He was elected vice president on the 1840 Whig ticket with William Henry Harrison, and became president after his running mate’s death in April 1841
Gibbons vs. Ogden
a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce
McCullouch vs. Maryland
established that the federal government has “implied powers” to carry out, without state interference, any and all rights given by the Constitution
Fletcher vs. Peck
The first case in which the Supreme Court ruled a state law unconstitutional
War of 1812, Jefferson’s embargo act
What 2 events turned the attention of the USA toward developing domestic industries?
American System, supreme court rulings, monroe doctrine, missouri compromise
What factors of the 1800s led to nationalism?
industrial revolution, northern and southern economy developments, slavery, missouri compromise
What factors of the 1800s led to sectionalism?
expansion of slavery and crop growth;
slaves + cotton gin = more money for landowner
How did the cotton gin impact southern agriculture and slavery?
to exchange goods between the north and south
How was the American System designed to unite the nation?
Henry C. Clay,
establish protective tariff;
resurrecting the national bank;
sponsoring the development of transportation systems as well as other internal improvements
Who developed the American System? What were its goals?
Tariff of 1816
The Second Bank of the US
Internal Improvements
most controversial: Tariff of 1818
Three parts of the American System; which was most controversial? Why?
Marshall made rulings based off the US Constitution and asserted right to review decisions
How did the Supreme Court rulings under Chief Justice John Marshall strengthen nationalism?
national security and westward expansion
What were the two main priorities of the US foriegn policy?
1. Maine = free state
2. Missouri = slave state
3. Missouri Compromise line; north is closed to slavery, south is open to slavery
Three parts of the Missouri Compromise
States came together as one union to work out a solution; but North and South had different resulting laws
How did the Missouri Compromise contribute to both nationalism and sectionalism?
Jackson did not consult Congress in policy making and used his power of the veto to assume control of the national government. He did not consider the people
Why was Jackson nicknamed “King Andrew I”?
Indian Removal policy
Nullification theory
a legal theory that a state has the right to nullify, or invalidate, any federal law which that state has deemed unconstitutional
Worchester vs. Georgia
a case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional
Andrew Jackson
Whose idea was the Nullification theory?
questioned the legality of applying some federal laws in sovereign states. started by john Calhoun. (jacksons vice-president.)
Title of Nullification pamphlet, 2 points of it
it regarded the states rights and wanted to distribute the benefit and burden of the union
how is the nullification theory related to America’s first plan of government?
angered at high priced foreign goods
Why did SC threaten to secede in 1832?
the south needed imported goods and the north did not so the tariff affected them in a bad way, the north gained all of the tax money, the south was based on agriculture and needed imported goods.
Why did SC call the tariff an “abomination”?