U.S. History Chapters 8-10

What was Washington’s strategy for creating a successful presidency?
Implanting his reputation for integrity into the office
Why did James Madison undertake the drafting of a Bill of Rights in 1789?
He believed it would soothe the divisions of the 1780s
What right was omitted in the Bill of Rights?
Voting
What was the republican notion about concerning marriage in the United States in the 1790s?
An affectionate marriage promotes women’s service to their husbands and families so that men can better serve the public good
How did the creation of the United States Post Office in 1792 aid in stimulating the American economy?
It led to a surge in public and private road building to facilitate the transport of mail
What accounted for the 35% increase in the US population between 1790-1800?
Larger average family size and adequate food and land resources
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James Madison objected to the proposals in Alexander Hamilton’s Report on Public Credit because they profited speculators along with…
Leading to high taxation
Why was Alexander Hamilton’s unsuccessful Report on Manufacturing designed to encourage?
Production of American made goods
Why did Alexander Hamilton advocate the US government’s assumption of the states’ wartime debts?
Hamilton wanted to cement the nation by consolidating federal power over the states
Why did American farmers oppose Hamilton’s new excise on whiskey?
Their livelihoods dependence on the grain they grew for the distillation of alcohol
What did the United States promise to do in the 1790 Treaty of New York?
Protect the borders of Creek boundaries
Who was Alexander McGillivray?
A creek Indian chief and cultural broker of Georgia
Why did necessity for western land intensify in the 1780s?
The American population expanded significantly between 1770 and 1790
The battle of fallen timbers in 1794 was a decisive event because it
Constituted a major defeat for the major tribes in the Northwest territory
Why did the American support for the French revolution lead to renewed conflict between the United States and Britain?
Britain and France went to war with one another in 1793 and both countries sought American favoritism
Toussaint L’Ouverture was known for
Leading the slave revolt in the Haitian Revolution
Until the adoption of the 12th amendment in 1804, the Vice President was
The runner up in the electoral college
Federalist president John Adams made republicans hopeful in 1797 when he
Pledged respect for the French and neutrality in foreign affairs
What did the XYZ affair of 1797 involve?
France’s refusal to extract a bribe from American officials
On what grounds did Republicans oppose Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798?
They conflicted with the protections guaranteed by the Bill of Rights
Which factor contributed to a rift between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson during the 1790s?
Hamilton believed that government was safest when in the hands of the commercial elite
Why was George Washington quickly and unanimously elected president in February 1789?
He personified the republican ideal of leadership
No one complained about the Bill of Rights failing to protect
the right to vote
According to Benjamin Rush, and other republican writers, how could women contribute to a better society?
by teaching sons virtue and good morals
Why did American cotton production experience a boom in the late 1790s?
The invention of cotton gin allowed greater production
What 1792 event stimulated road building?
The US Post Office was established
To restore faith in the credit of the federal government, Alexander Hamilton proposed
the assumption of the states unpaid war debts by the federal government
How did President Washington respond to the Whiskey Rebellion?
He nationalized the Pennsylvania militia
In 1794, General Anthony Wayne’s defeat of the Indians at Fallen Timbers resulted in
the Treaty of Greenville
How did most Americans react to the outbreak of the French Revolution?
They celebrated in the victory of the French people
How did the Haitian Revolution of 1791-1804 affect white America?
White Americans became fearful that the rebellion might spread to American shores
In the 1796 presidential election, opponents John Adams and Thomas Jefferson
ended up as president and vice president
How did the United States react to the XYZ affair?
Congress launched an undeclared war with France
Republicans used the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions to
oppose the Alien and Sedition Acts using state legislatures
What did Jefferson suggest in his inaugural address?
Party politics was not the most important thing in American democracy
republicanism
a social philosophy that embraced representative institutions, a citizenry attuned to civic values above private interests, and a virtuous community in which individuals work to promote the public good
gradual emancipation
laws passed in five northern states that balanced states’ civil rights against slaveholders’ property rights by providing a multistage process for freeing slaves, distinguishing persons already alive from those not yet born and providing benchmark dates when freedom would arrive for each group
Newburgh Conspiracy
A bogus coup staged by Continental army officers and leaders in the Continental congress in 1782-1783. They hoped that a forceful demand for military back pay and pensions would create pressure for stronger taxation powers. General Washington defused the threat
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
1784 treaty with the Iroquois Confederacy that established the primacy of the American confederation to negotiate with Indians and that resulted in large land cessions in the Ohio Country. Tribes nor present at Fort Stanwix disavowed treaty
Northwest Ordinance
land act of 1787 that established a three stage process by which settled territories would become states. It also banned slavery in the Northwest Territory. The ordinance guaranteed that western lands with white populations would not become colonial dependencies
Shays’s Rebellion
Uprising led by farmers centered in western Massachusetts. Dissidents protested taxation policies of the eastern elites who controlled the states’s government. Shay’s rebellion caused leaders throughout the country to worry about the confederation’s ability to handle civil disorder
Virginia Plan
plan drafted by James Madison and presented at the opening of the Philadelphia constitutional convention. Proposing a powerful three branch government, with representation in both houses of the congress tied to population, this plan eclipsed the voice of small states in national government
New Jersey Plan
alternative plan drafted by delegates from small states, retaining the confederation’s single house congress with one vote per states. Like the Virginia Plan, it enhanced congressional powers, including the right to tax, regulate trade and use force on unruly state governments
three-fifths clause
a clause in the Constitution stipulating that all free persons plus three fifths of all other people would constitute the numerical base for approaching both representation and taxation. The clause tacitly acknowledged the existence of slavery in the United States
Federalists
supporters of the ratification of the US Constitution in 1787-1788, became on the the two dominant political groups that emerged during the decade, supported Britain in foreign policy, and commercial interests at home. included George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams
Antifederalists
opponents of the ratification of the Constitution, feared that a powerful and distant central government would be out of touch with the needs of the citizens. complained that the Constitution failed to guarantee individual liberties in a bill of rights
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments in the Constitution, officially ratified by 1791. First through Eighth deal with individual liberties and the last two deal with boundary between federal and state authority
Report on Public Credit
Hamilton’s January 1790 report recommending that the national debt be funded but not repaid immediately at full value. Hamilton’s goal was to make the new country creditworthy, not debt free. critics complained that it would benefit speculators
Report on Manufactures
A proposal by Treasury Secretary Hamilton in 1791 calling for the federal government to encourage domestic manufacturers with subsidies while imposing tariffs on foreign imports. Congress initially rejected the measure
Whiskey Rebellion
July 1794 uprising by farmers in western Pennsylvania in response to enforcement of an unpopular excise tax on whiskey. The federal government responded with a military presence that causes dissidents to disperse before blood was shed
Treaty of Greenville
1795 treaty between the United States and various Indian tribes in Ohio. The United States gave the tribes treaty at $25,000. In exchange the Indians ceded most of Ohio to the Americans, brought only temporary peace to the region
Jay Treaty
1795 treaty between the United States and Britain, negotiated by John Jay. It secured limited trading rights in the West Indies but failed to ensure timely removal of British forces from western forts and reimbursement for slaves removed by the British after the Revolution
Haitian Revolution
the 1791-1804 conflict involving diverse Haitian participants and armies from three European countries; at end Haiti became free, independent black run country, fueled fears of slave insurrections in the United States
Republicans
One of the two dominant political groups that emerged in the 1790s. they supported the revolutionaries in France and worried about monarchical Federalists at home, included Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
XYZ affair
1797 incident in which American negotiators in France were rebuffed for refusing to pay a substantial bribe. The incident led by the United States into an undeclared war with France called the Quasi War, which intensified antagonism between Federalists and republicnas
Alien and Sedition Acts
1798 laws passed to suppress political dissent. The sedition act criminalized conspiracy and criticism of government leaders, the two alien acts extended the waiting period for citizenship and empowered the president to deport or imprison without trial any foreigner deemed a danger
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
1798 resolutions condemning the Alien and Sedition Acts submitted to the federal government by the Virginia and Kentucky state legislatures. The resolutions tested the idea that states legislatures could judge the constitutionality of federal laws and nullify them
Marbury vs Madison
1803 Supreme Court case that established the concept of judicial review in finding that parts of the Judiciary Act of 1789 were in conflict with the Constitution. The Supreme Court assumed legal authority to overrule acts of other branches of the government
Louisiana Purchase
1803 purchase of French territory west of the Mississippi River that stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada, nearly doubled the size of the United States and opened the way for future American expansion west
Lewis and Clark expedition
1804-1806 expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark that explored the trans-Mississippi West for the IS government. The expedition’s mission was scientific, political, and geographic
impressment
A British naval practice of seizing sailors on American ships under the claim that they were deserters from the British navy. Some 2500 American men were taken by force into service, a grievance that helped propel the United States to declare war on Britain
Embargo Act of 1807
Act of Congress that prohibited US ships from foreign ports and effectively banned overseas trade in an attempt to deter Britain from halting US ships at sea. The embargo caused grave hardships for Americans engaged in overseas commerce
battle of Tippecanoe
An attack on Shawnee Indians at Prophetstown on the Tippecanoe River in 1811 by American forces headed by William Henry Harrison, Indiana’s territorial governor. Tecumseh deepened his resolve to make war on the United States
War Hawks
young men newly elected to Congress of 1811 who were eager for war with Britain in order to end impressments, fight Indians, and expand into neighboring British territory, included Henry Clay, John Calhoun
Creek War
Part of the wat of 1812 involving the Creek nation in the Mississippi territory and Tennessee militiamen. General Andrew Jackson’s forces defeated the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814, forcing them to sign away much of their land
battle of New Orleans
the final battle won in the wat of 1812, fought and won by General Andrew Jackson and his militiamen against the much larger British army in New Orleans. the celebrated battle made no difference since the peace had already been negotiated
Hartford Convention
a secret meeting of New England federalist politicians held in late 1814 to discuss constitutional changed to reduce the South’s political power and thus help block policies that injured northern commercial interests
feme covert
legal doctrine grounded in British common law that held that a wife’s civic life was subsumed by her husband’s. married women lacked independence to own property, make contracts, or keep wages earned. The doctrine shaped women’s status in the early republic
Missouri Compromise
1820 congressional compromise engineered by Henry Clay that paired Missouri’s entrance into the Union as a slave state with Maine’s entrance as a free state. The compromise also established Missouri’s southern border as the permanent line dividing slave from free states
In 1777 the newly drafted Articles of Confederation defined the union as a loose confederation of states existing mainly to
foster a common defense
How did the confederation government government preserve the Revolution’s principle of taxation only direct representation?
Each state’s legislature had to approve the confederation’s tax bill assessed to the state
What did the five states without extensive land claims in the west propose about how the western lands should be used?
They asked that the land be reallocated as a large national domain that could be sold to settlers seeking to migrate
Why did many talented politicians prefer to devote their energies to state governments even after the ratification of the Articles of Confederation?
Congress was often deadlocked
All postcolonial American state constitutions drafted in the 1770s shared what conviction about government
it rested on the consent of the governed
Why did most states enact property qualifications to limit who could vote and run for elected office?
Many political leaders believed that only property owners possessed sufficient independence of mind to make wise political choices
Why were some states reluctant to include language pertaining to equality in their bills of rights and constitutions?
They were afraid the words could be construed to apply to slaves
How did the states of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia alter their laws regarding slavery in the eighteenth century?
rejected widespread emancipation, these states permitted individuals to emancipate their adult
What did the superintendent of finance, Robert Morris, suggest as a solution to the confederation’s postwar economic problem’s?
an import tax
What did the state of New York do after it failed to secure land from the Iroquois with an individual treaty?
sold the land even without the treaty
Why did Thomas Jefferson advocate giving, not selling, the land of the Northwest Territory to American settlers?
Jefferson wanted to encourage rapid democratic settlement and discourage land speculation
How did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 address issues facing African Americans?
It prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory
In 1786, a Massachusetts farmer and one time captain in the Continental army named Daniel Shays
led a tax revolt
The delegates meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 were supposed to
revise the Articles of Confederation
Which of the following was a critical difference between the Virginia and New Jersey Plans?
The Virginia Plan repudiated the principal of a confederation of states while the New Jersey Plan accepted the notion
The Great Compromise ended the impasse over what constitutional problem
apportionment of representation
What did the framers of the US Constitution create an electoral college to elect the president and vice president of the United States?
so that a US president would not owe his office to any state or national elected officials
Which states did Federalists target first in their strategy to ratify the US Constitution in 1787?
States most likely to ratify quickly
Antifederalists were convinced that under the Constitution elected representatives would always be
from the upper class
Which antifederalist conviction did James Madison challenge in essay number 10 of The Federalist Papers?
Republican government had to be small scale
Why was the presidential election of 1800 thrown into House of Representatives?
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr got an equal number of votes
What inspired Gabriel’s rebellion in Virginia in 1800?
The Haitian Revolution
What strategy did Thomas Jefferson employ the national debt?
He implemented significant reductions in military expenditures
How did American ships secure safe passage off the coast of North Africa from 1776 to 1801?
by paying tribute to Muslim coastal states
Why was Thomas Jefferson so alarmed by the rumor that France had taken possession of the trans-Mississippi territory?
Spain had been a weak neighbor but Jefferson knew that France, then ruled by Napoleon would not be
Why did Lewis and Clark and their crew appear to be peaceful to suspicious Indian tribes?
Sacajawea and her child accompanied them
How had the Comanche Indians defended their autonomy and territory against Spanish incursions in the 18th century?
By exchanging Spanish captives for guns and showing their willingness to use deadly force
After 1803, the British regularly practiced impressment which meant that they
took American sailors by force and compelled them to serve in the British navy to fight France
How did the embargo act of 1807 impact the US?
It closed down American exports, increased unemployment, and reduced government revenues
The social network that brought politicians together and facilitated communication for hiring and promotion during James Madison’s presidential administration included
weekly parties hosted by Dolley Madison at the presidential residence
How did Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa counter Indian territorial governor William Henry Harrison’s divide and conquer approach to the region’s Indian tribes after 1805?
they asserted that Indian lands were held in common by all tribes and could not be sold
Why did Congress pass the Non Intercourse act in 1809?
to open up trade routes to economic hardship at home
What did British soldiers do when they entered Washington in 1814?
set fire to much of the city including the White House and the capitol
Under the legal doctrine of feme covert wives had
no independent legal identity
In most Protestant denominations in the period from 1800 to 1825 white women made up the majority of
congregants
By the mid 1820s the total annual enrollment at the female academies and seminaries in the United States
equaled enrollment at male colleges
Which Americans were the most vigorous defenders of limited suffrage during the first third of the nineteenth century?
Members of the propertied elite
According the Missouri Compromise of 1820, Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state while balanced by Maine as a free state and
Missouri’s southern border would be the permanent line dividing slave from free states
Why did James Monroe issue the Monroe Doctrine in 1823?
Monroe wanted to discourage European nations from reconquering newly independent nations in South America
Why was John Quincy Adams’s victory in the 1824 election characterized as a corrupt bargain?
Adams appointed Henry Clay as secretary of state
According to the Articles of Confederation how many states had to consent to amend the government?
all 13
According to the Articles of Confederation how many states had to consent to pass laws?
9 out of the 13
Conflicts addressed at the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention
distribution of power, representation, slavery
bicameral legislature
two houses, proposed in the Virginia Plan, favored larger states
unicameral legislature
one house, proposed by New Jersey Plan, favored smaller states
Great Compromise
Connecticut Compromise, three branches, systems of checks and balances
Electoral college
process of voting for executive positions, each state sends electors equal to number of Congress people, based on population, initially winner was president and runner up was vice president
What was the new law concerning the number of states needed to amend the Constitution?
2/3 states needed
Slave trade compromise
stated that slavery could not be outlawed for 20 years
Federalists and Antifederalists
Federalists favored ratification of 7 articles
Antifederalists feared that too much government power would cause tyranny
Federalist papers
essays defending the Constitution written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton
strict constructionism
Constitution should be followed exactly with little room for interpretation, more power to states
liberal constructionism
Constitution can have interpretation nuances, more power to national government, George Washington
Judiciary Act of 1789
Constitution creates Judicial Branch, Supreme court and lower federal courts
four initial positions of the Cabinet
Attorney General Edmund Randolph
Secretary of War Henry Knox
Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of treasury Alexander Hamilton
Political parties
Federalists: National power, England, liberal constructionist, Northern states, favor abolition, industry
Republicans: State power, France, strict constructionist, Southern states, favor slavery, agriculture
Pinckney treaty
navigation rights, Spain concedes east of Mississippi river
Quasi War
undeclared naval war with France
Kentucky and Virginia resolutions
Kentucky written by Henry Clay, Virginia written by Thomas Jefferson, presented idea of nullification, states do not need to enforce acts deemed unconstitutional, reaction to Alien and Sedition Acts
Adams’s Judiciary act 1801
created Federalist judge positions right before he leaves office, makes President Jefferson’s and republican’s lives miserable
Judicial review
constitutionality of the law
result of Marbury vs. Madison
power of judicial review established, therefore limiting the power of the president
Federalist New England merchants who were upset with expansion, secession from Union, couldn’t get leader, eventually die out
First Barbary War
Tripolitan War, resulted from piracy and bribery of Tripoli, first war fought on foreign soil
Chesapeake Incident 1807
British ship opens fire on US ship, which is forced to surrender, US soldiers taken by British, results in Embargo Act
Who was opposed to war in the early 1800s?
Federalists
Treaty of Ghent
result of War of 1812