U.S. History Chapter 26

What were the Soviet security concerns?
They believed communism was a superior economic system that would eventually replace capitalism and that the Soviet Union should encourage communism in other nations.
What were American economic concerns?
They believed that when nations seal themselves off economically, it forces them to go to war to get the resources they need. In 1945 Roosevelt and his advisers were convinced that economic growth was the key to world peacr. They wanted to promote economic growth by increasing world trade.
What was the Yalta conference?
A soviet result on the Black Sea with Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin
Where was the first issue discussed at Yalta?
Poland. Roosevelt and Churchill both argued that the Poles should be free to choose their own government
What was the Declaration of Liberated Europe?
Asserted “the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live.”
What four zones was Germany divided upon?
Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and France. They same countries would divide the city of Berlin, even though it was in the Soviet zone. Stalin wanted to weaken Germany economically.
What is the Potsdam Conference?
Where Truman and Stalin went to work out a deal on Germany.
What are satellite nations?
The Communist countries of Eastern Europe. They had to remain Communist and friendly to the Soviet Union.
What was the long telegram?
Kennan responded about the Soviet view of the world.
What was the Truman Doctrine?
Truman’s speech upon Congress to ask for $400 million to fight Communist aggression in Greece and Turkey. Its goal was to aid “free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures” Its immediate effects were to stabilize the Greek government and ease Soviet demands in Turkey
What was the Marshall Program?
Would give European nations American aid to rebuid their economies.
What was the Berlin airlift?
Cargo planes supplied Berliners with food, medicine, and coal.
What was NATO?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization–a mutual defense alliance. Allowed West Germany to rearm and join its organization. Soviet Union responded by organizing military alliance in Eastern Europe, became known as the Warsaw Pact. U.S. created the Organization of American States(OAS) in 1948+ the Southeast Asia Treaty Organ-ization (SEATO) in 1954
Who led Communist forces in China? Nationalist gvnt?
Mao Zeong for Communist forces and Chiang Kai-shek for the Nationalist government.
Who sent the Nationalist gvnt $2 bil?
United States sent the Nationalist gvnt $2 bil.
What capital did the Communists capture in 1949?
Beijing.
Defeated nationalists fled to which small island?
Taiwan (Formosa)
What groups signed the treaty of friendship and alliance in 1950? What did Western leaders fear with this being done?
People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union. They feared China and the Soviet Union would support Communist revolutions in other nations
What was MacArthurs mission?
Introduce democracy and keep Japan from threatening war again
According to the US, which country was the key to defending all Europe? Asia?
Europe: West Germany; Asia: Japan
Which type of gvnt was organized in the north? South?
North: Communist Korea; South: American-backed
Where did MacArthur push the North Koreans?
Yalu River, the border of China.
Who was the man Truman fired and why?
MacArthur and for insubordination.
Truman remained committed to what?
Limited war (a war fought to achieve limited objective)
Name the changes in policy after the Korean war?
Ridgeway replaces MacArthur; war settled into small battles; in Nov.1951 peace negotiations began but an armistice won’t get signed till Jul.1953; U.S. embarked on major military buildup; Cold War expands to Asia
Which war marked and important turning point in the Cold War?
Korean War
What was the Loyalty Review Program?
Truman’s action to confirm fears that Communists had indiltrated the gvnt abd increase fear of communism
What was HUAC?
House Un-American Activities Committee. Hoover formed this to investigate Communist and Fascist activities in US.
What did the Taft-Hartley Act require?
Union leaders to take oaths they were not Communists
What act did McCarthy pass and what did it state?
McCarran Act. World Communism has at its sole purpose the establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship
What was McCarthy looking for in which he took onto the television? What was televised?
Spies. Army-McCarthy hearings were televised
What did the USSR test in 1953?
Hydrogen bomb or H-bomb
What did families build to protect themselves after a nuclear bomb blast?
Fallout shelter
Who published the book “Tomorrow!”?
Wylie in 1954
After Truman decided not to run, who did the Democrats choose? Republicans?
Democrats: Stevenson; Republicans: Eisenhower
What was the first artificial satellite to orbit earth?
Sputnik by the Soviets
What did the U.S. take as a sign they were falling behind the Soviet Union in missile technology?
Sputnick
Where did Eisenhower go which would cause war?
Korea
What seperated North Korea and South Korea?
A “dimilitarized zone” (DMZ)
What conducted covert operations?
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Where did CIA’s operations take place?
Developing nations
What two countries did covert operations take place in?
Iran and Guatamala.
Which Communist country delivered arms to Guatamala?
Czechoslavakia
Who was the leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin?
Khrushchev
An uprising in which country forced Khrushchev to reassert Soviet power and superiority of communism?
Hungary
From where did Krushchev demand the US, Great Britain, and France withdraw troops?
West Berlin
Eisenhower and Krushchev agreed to a what in Paris?
A summit

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