a belief shared by many Americans in the mid-1800s that the United States should expand across the continent to the Pacific Ocean
empire of liberty
people believed that manifest destiny was to take over Canada, Mexico, Caribbean and Pacific Islands.
led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States.
Antonio Lopez De Santa Anna
Mexican president who led an army against Texas
old Spanish mission that is remembered for the battle fought their for Texas’ independence
famous hero who fought at the Alamo and died
U.S. politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States
Battle of San Jacinto
final battle of the Texas Revolution; resulted in the defeat of the Mexican army and independence for Texas
the Oregon trail
Hundreds of thousands of settlers traveled west by wagon trains across this path to the Pacific coast
James K. Polk
wanted to settle Oregon boundary dispute with Britain, wanted to aquire California and wanted to incorrperate Texas into union.
fifty-four forty or fight
A slogan that refers to the latitude 54-40, the northern limit of the disputed Oregon territory between America and the British.
Whig president who nearly destroyed the Compromise of 1850 before he died in office
John C. Fremont
Presidential nominee for Republicans in election of 1856, founded and explored california in preceding decades.
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico
Allowed people of the territory to decide the status of slavery there; later named popular sovereignty
political party dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery
California Gold Rush
Migration of thousands of people to California (in 1849) after gold was discovered there
The Compromise of 1850
series of bills that wanted to resolve the territorial and slavery controversies, a victory of self interest
Stephen A. Douglas
a senator from Illinois proposed breaking up the “omnibus bill”
Fugitive Slave Act
Law that provided for harsh treatment for escaped slaves and for those who helped them
a railroad that connected the eastern United States to the western United States. The railroad firmly bonded the West Coast the Union, created a trade route to the far-east, and helped the western expansion
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865.
gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
attempted to create a major revolt among the slaves
senator who made speech criticizing proslavery senators
System of work in which employees have the right to leave their employer and their job for better opportunities
It emerged in the 1850s as an antislavery party and consisted of former northern Whigs and antislavery Democrats.
American politician and 15th president of the US. He was chosen as the Democratic nominee for president in 1856 for being politically experienced and not offensive to slave states.
Dred Scott vs. Sandford
1857 Supreme Court decision that stated that slaves were not citizens; that living in a free state or territory, even for many years, did not free slaves; and declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 Dred Scott case that declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional
successful lawyer who wanted to become more involved in politics in Illinois
a series of debates between Republican Abraham Lincoln and Democrat Stephen Douglas during the 1858 U.S. Senate campaign
Harper’s Ferry raid
he South saw the act as one of treason and were encouraged to separate from the North, and Brown became a martyr to the northern abolitionist cause