U.s. History Chapter 11-12

Stock Market
an exchange where security trading is conducted by professional stockbrokers
Bull Market
a market characterized by rising prices for securities
Margin
a permissible difference
Margin call
a demand by a broker that a customer deposit enough to bring his margin up to the minimum requirement
speculation
continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature
bank run
widespread panic in which great numbers of people try to redeem their paper money
installment
Buying an item on credit with a monthly plan to pay off the value of the good
invest
provide with power and authority
black tuesday
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929
Hawley-Smooth Tariff
encouraged to buy USA made and raise the tarrif on all imported goods but it didnt work bc other countries raised our tariff
Bailiff
an officer of the court who is employed to execute writs and processes and make arrests etc.
hobo
a migratory worker or homeless vagabond
Soap opera
a serialized program usually dealing with sentimentalized family matters that is broadcast on radio or television (frequently sponsored by a company advertising soap products)
colleague
a person who is member of your class or profession
technique
a practical method or art applied to some particular task
dust bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
grant wood
U.S. painter noted for works based on life in the midwest (1892-1942); his most famous painting is American Gothic.
public work
projects such as highways, parks, and libraries built with public funds for public use.
relief
the act of reducing something unpleasant (as pain or annoyance)
foreclose
to deprive a mortgagor of his or her right to redeem a property; to shut out or exclude
reconstruction finance corporation
Congress set up $2 billion. It made loans to major economic institutions such as banks, insurance companies and railroads.
bonus army
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
polio
an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord
gold standard
A monetary system in which paper money and coins are equal to the value of a certain amount of gold
bank holiday
any of several weekdays when banks are closed
fireside chats
The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.
apparent
clearly apparent or obvious to the mind or sensesh
ideology
an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation
new deal
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt’s economic policies were implemented
hundred days
the special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months: 100 days.
Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC)
Provided employment to young men by sending them to camps in national parks and forests – plant trees, build reservoirs, etc.
Deficit Spending
government practice of spending more than it takes in from taxes
Binding Arbitration
negotiation in which union and management must accept an impartial observer’s resolution of a dispute
Sit-Down strike
method of boycotting work by sitting down at work and refusing to leave the establishment
American Liberty League (ALL)
a conservative anti-new deal organization; members included alfred smith, john w. davis, and the du pont family. it criticized the “dictatorial” policies of roosevelt and what it perceived to be his attacks on the free enterprise system.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
New Deal program that employed men and women to build hospitals, schools, parks, and airports; employed artists, writers, and musicians as well
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
Created to insure fairness in labor-managment relations and the mediate employers’ desputes with unions.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
created by John L. Lewis for unskilled labor, organized “sit-down strike” against GM to work for recognition
Social security act
created a tax on workers and employers. That money provided monthly pensions for retired people.
court packing
attempt by Roosevelt to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70 who had been there for at least 10 years. Wanted to prevent justices from dismantling the new deal. Plan died in congress and made opponents of New Deal inflamed.
broker state
role of the government to work out conflicts among competing interests groups
safety net
government programs that protect people experiencing unfavorable economic conditions
frances perkins
(born Fanny Coralie Perkins, lived April 10, 1882 – May 14, 1965) was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition
henry morgenthau
Treasury Secretary, he led a group who favored less spending and a balanced budget, the slow pace of recovery, he thought, resulted from the reluctance of businesses to invest
john maynard keynes
English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)
alfred e smith
He was the Democratic presidential candidate in the 1928 election. He was the first Catholic to be elected as a candidate.
walt disney
United States film maker who pioneered animated cartoons and created such characters as Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck
john Steinbeck
American novelist who wrote “The Grapes of Wrath”. (1939) A story of Dustbowl victims who travel to California to look for a better life.
william faulkner
United States novelist (originally Falkner) who wrote about people in the southern United States (1897-1962)