U.S. Government and Constitution

The origins of representative democracy can be traced to ___________________.
ancient Rome
Who benefited from the Magna Carta?
English Nobility
What was guaranteed in the English Bill of Rights?
freedom from taxation without representation
Whose ideas about government greatly influenced the men who drafted the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution?
John Locke
What was the colonists’ primary complaint about the rule of the British Crown?
They were subject to heavy taxes from the British Crown.
What four things were components of the Coercive Acts?
*closure of the port of Boston
*dissolution of the Massachusetts legislature
*requirements to quarter British soldiers
*Establishment of martial law
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Which event directly resulted from the Coercive Acts?
the meeting of the First Continental Congress
Which section of the Declaration of Independence contains arguments on the right to revolution?
the second section, based on Lockean philosophy
Who was given the primary responsibility for drafting the Declaration of Independence?
Thomas Jefferson
What were the main ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence?
individual liberties and the government’s duty to protect them
The Framers of the Constitution listed the following as the function(s) of American government:
*promote the general welfare
*establish justice
*provide for the common defense
*ensure domestic tranquility
The Articles of Confederation specified that the United States would be which form of government?
a republic
What concerned the Founders in drafting the Articles of Confederation?
*arbitrary monarchical power
*the ability of the people to check the power of the government
*the large size of the colonial territory
*mob rule
True or False A bicameral legislature was a component of the Articles of Confederation.
False
A bicameral legislature was not a component of the Articles of Confederation(Congress had a single chamber).
What led the Founders to realize that the Articles of Confederation needed to be reconfigured?
*the vulnerability of the new nation due to the lack of an executive *the disproportionate power held by the states
*crises like Shays’ Rebellion
*the inability of the national government to control financial concerns and raise taxes
As the Constitution was being drafted, who was most in support of equal representation in the national legislature?
small states, such as Rhode Island
What was the plan for representation that was incorporated into the Connecticut Compromise?
Each state would be proportionally represented in one house of a bicameral legislature.
What was Shays’ Rebellion?
a rebellion by farmers in western Massachusetts attempting to prevent their lands from being foreclosed upon
What year was the Constitution ratified in?
1788
What year was the Bill of Rights ratified in?
1791
How many terms did George Washington serve as president before leaving office?
2
Marbury v. Madison confirmed the Supreme Court’s power to declare laws passed by Congress unconstitutional. What did the case involve?
a disputed appointment to a minor government post
Virginia Plan
a plan, unsuccessfully proposed at the Constitutional Convention, providing for a legislature of two houses with proportional representation in each house and executive and judicial branches to be chosen by the legislature.
New Jersey Plan
a plan, unsuccessfully proposed at the Constitutional Convention, providing for a single legislative house with equal representation for each state.
Great Compromise
a compromise adopted at the Constitutional Convention, providing the states with equal representation in the Senate and proportional representation in the House of Representatives.
Bicameralism
(of a legislature) consisting of two chambers
3/5th’s Compromise
A compromise between the Northern States and the Southern States: slaves would not be counted as whole persons for the purposes of representations, but they would not be excluded from the population count either.
Republicanism
U.S. government is not a direct democracy. Citizens elect officials to represent their interests in government. Designed to be efficient and help balance competing views.
Separation of Powers
Each branch has its own power base and specific roles to perform. Prevents any one branch from being too powerful.
Checks and Balances
Each branch has the ability to negate/cancel actions taken by the other branches.
Supremacy Clause
Article VI, Section 2, of the U.S. Constitution is known as the Supremacy Clause because it provides that the “Constitution, and the Laws of the United States … shall be the supreme Law of the Land.” It means that the federal government, in exercising any of the powers enumerated in the Constitution, must prevail over any conflicting or inconsistent state exercise of power.
Full Faith & Credit Clause
Article IV, Section 1, of the U.S. Constitution—provides that the various states must recognize legislative acts, public records, and judicial decisions of the other states within the United States. It states that “Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State.”
Enumerated powers
The enumerated powers are a list of items found in Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution that set forth the authoritative capacity of Congress.[1] In summary, Congress may exercise the powers that the Constitution grants it, subject to explicit restrictions in the Bill of Rights and other protections in the Constitution.
Reserved powers
a political power that a constitution reserves exclusively to the jurisdiction of a particular political authority.
Federalism
Power & authority are divided between national & state governments. The national government is supreme.
Which civil liberties are found in the First Amendment?
• right to peaceful assembly
• freedom of religion
• right to petition the government
• freedom of the press
• freedom of speech
What is a fundamental principle found in the Articles of Confederation?
Each state retained ultimate control and power within its boundaries
What was one aspect of the Great Compromise?
There would be a bicameral legislature incorporating both equal and proportional representation.
Which aspect of the Constitution is not found within the Articles of Confederation?
representatives elected by popular vote
What is the definition of republicanism?
vesting political power in representatives
How were the writers of the Constitution able to resolve the issue of any one branch of government from becoming too powerful?
They divided power among three distinct and separate branches of government.
Why did the Framers of the Constitution build gridlock and delay into the structure of the government?
to prevent the abuse of political power through checks and balances
Which Article of the Constitution discusses the legislative power of government, including the bicameral Congress, congressional selection, and 17 enumerated powers?
Article I
Why did the Founders want the amendment process to be difficult?
to allow for only the most important changes to be implemented
Which topics were discussed in the five sections of the Declaration of Independence?
• the colonists’ philosophical right to revolt
• the Crown’s oppressive actions against the colonies
• the circumstances leading to the colonists’ revolt
• the colonists’ absolution of allegiance to the Crown
• the colonists’ failed attempts at reconciliation with the Crown
How can the Constitution be amended?
• by having both houses of Congress pass a proposal by two thirds vote, which is then ratified by the states
• by having three fourths of the state legislatures ratify proposed amendments
What advantage does a proposed constitutional amendment have once it is approved by Congress?
It has a good chance of being ratified
How did the states finally resolve the Federalist/anti-Federalist debate?
the Great Compromise
What is true of representative democracy?
• It requires more attention from voters.
• It is a slower and more deliberate process
Why would state governments object to the expansion of federal power via mandates?
• The national government often provides no funding to assist states in meeting new national standards.
• The national government can penalize states with lack of funding if they do not meet new national standards.
to impose federal requirements on states based on Supremacy Clause
Commerce Clause
enumerated power given to federal government to regulate interstate business
Commerce Clause
division of power between the federal government and state governments
federalism
to reduce government rules and allow more freedom for business
new federalism
federal and state governments working independently of each other
dual federalism
federal programs that require state compliance but do not proved resources
unfunded mandates
What is the definition of federalism?
the division of power between the national and state governments
How has Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal expanded the power of the federal government?
President Roosevelt created new programs and agencies to assist states fiscally, thus mixing national and state responsibilities.
What is a weakness found within the principle of federalism as it relates the U.S. government?
It multiplies government programs and services and leads to budgetary inefficiency.
What are some policy areas were states are now required by the federal government to follow federal laws because of coercive federalism?
• national defense
• poverty
• education
What is a key concept of federalism in the U.S. government?
Dividing power between two levels of government prevents either from becoming too powerful.
What impact did the Supreme Court’s ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) have on changing the judicial precedent of the past 70 years?
The Court determined that the “separate but equal” concept was false when it came to education.
Which four tactics were used by disenfranchised ethnic minorities to pursue full civil rights protections in the United States?
• boycotts
• sit-ins
• picketing
• voting
What is a key change to civil rights for women that can be found in U.S. history?
The Nineteenth Amendment was added to the Constitution.
What key change was made to the Constitution to allow greater civil rights?
slavery and the subsequent ratification of the Fourth Amendment
What is an example of how the Supreme Court has had an impact on the First Amendment right to freedom of speech?
Political advertising by corporations is considered a First Amendment right.
How does the “clear and present danger” test intersect with the First Amendment?
Anti-American speech-making is not considered dangerous according to the Supreme Court.
How did the Supreme Court’s decision in Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) affect religious establishment?
It created a standard of three criteria for weighing the constitutionality of any government action involving religion.
What is the Supreme Court’s role in interpreting civil rights?
*They use their power of judicial review to define what civil rights are and who they should be extended to.
*They determine the cases on which to base rulings.
What was a major provision of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
banned any discrimination based on race, color, religion, and national origin
What is the difference between civil liberties and civil rights?
Civil liberties protect citizens from government infringement, whereas civil rights deal with guaranteeing freedom to all citizens.
granted women the right to vote
Nineteenth Amendment
unwelcome advances, favors, and other verbal or physical conduct affecting employment, work performance, or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment.
sexual harassment
guarantees equal treatment and bans discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin
Civil Rights Act of 1964
state and local acts that mandated segregation in public places
Jim Crow Laws
positive liberties associated with protective actions that the government must take
civil rights
policies aimed at expanding educational and employment opportunities for minority groups
affirmative action
favoring rights of minority groups at the expense of the majority
reverse discrimination
time period when confederate states were rebuilt and reintegrated into the Union
reconstruction
prohibits government from favoring religion
Establishment Clause
protection against illegal imprisonment requiring the detained to have access to judge
habeas corpus
government must protect legal rights of citizens and mandates equal treatment
due process
protects rights of citizens to practice religious beliefs
Free Exercise Clause
restraints on government to protect individual freedom
civil liberties
political speech, symbolic speech, and freedom of assembly and the press
protected speech
evidence gathered illegally cannot be used in a trial
exclusionary rule
How was congress able to use the political conditions of the Reconstruction to pass amendments addressing the rights of African Americans?
• Several Southern states were denied representation in congress as a result of their rebellion against the Union.
• Several Southern states had to accept the new amendments focusing on the rights of African Americans in order to be fully admitted back into the Union.
How many Senate representatives and House representatives does the Constitution guarantee each state will minimally have?
two senators, one house representative
granted power to try impeachment cases, approve presidential appointments, and ratify treaties
Senate
granted power to originate revenue bills and initiate impeachment proceedings
House of Representatives
less formal in organization and more personal in communications
House of Representatives
435 member, apportioned according to state population
House of Representatives
100 members, apportioned equally among states
Senate
Members tend to become issue specialists within their policy niches
House of Representatives
Order the process in which bills become law from first (1) to last (6).
1. Bill is drafted and introduced
2. referred to a committee and subcommittee for a hearing , vote, and markup
3. sent to a conference committee to reconcile discrepancies between the House version and the Senate version
4. reported to the full chamber for a hearing and vote
5. sent to both the House and Senate for approval
6. sent to the president for a signature
Which two ways can the majority party influence legislation through committees?
*The majority party decides which committees to send legislation to, which can help or harm a bill.
*The majority party selects committee chairs, who can choose to work on or sit on bills.
Which federal bureaucracies were added to the executive branch by President George W. Bush in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001?
• Transportation Security Administration (TSA)
• Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
In regards to foreign policy, which step is necessary if the president wants to sign a treaty?
gaining consent of 2/3 of the senate
What is the primary purpose of the federal bureaucracy?
to help the executive branch implement and enforce laws that have been passed by congress
What is the primary purpose of the judicial branch?
to interpret the law
What is the Appellate Jurisdiction power of the Supreme Court?
It allows the Supreme Court to hear cases that have been tried in lower courts.
Which roles and responsibilities under judicial review are unique to the federal Supreme Court?
*can declare acts of other branches of government unconstitutional
*can decide how a law should be enforced
Who appoints and approves Supreme Court justices?
the president appoints, the Senate approves
a tactic used to delay or prevent action on a bill by extending the debate on it
filibuster
those who currently hold political office
incumbents
one political party controls presidency and another controls parts of the legislative branch
divided government
required regular redistricting based on latest census data
Baker v Carr
congressional direction of money spent on specific projects benefiting personal districts
earmarks
the powers and responsibilities of the president specifically listed in the constitution
expressed powers
the right of the Chief executive to withhold information from Congress or the courts with the understanding that secrecy is necessary to maintain the freedom of information inside the White House
executive privilege
a law that limits presidential use of military forces to 60 days, with an automatic extension of 30 additional days if requested by the president
War Powers Resolution
powers of the national government that are not listed in the Constitution, but that the president claims are necessary to fulfill the constitutional powers
implied powers
powers given to the president by congressional vote
delegated powers
independent bureaucracies with jurisdiction over commerce, economics, communications, and elections
cabinet department
executive and congressional review of the actions of government bureaucracy
regulatory commissions
largest federal government bureaucracies within the president’s cabinet
government corporations
government sponsored and funded businesses that provide public services for fees, e.g. Amtrak, US Postal Service
government corporations
a term describing the powerful alliance among congressional committees, bureaucratic agencies, and interest groups
iron triangle
government services awarded to outside contractors
privatization
a complex set of relationships between individuals, groups of citizens, the media, the bureaucratic agency, and the congressional committee with jurisdiction over those policies
issue network
the authority of a court to hear cases that have been tried, decided or reexamined in other courts
appellate jurisdiction
the ability of the Supreme Court to determine if an action taken by the executive branch or a law passed by congress is in accordance with the Constitution
judicial review
the authority of a court to hear a case before any other court does
original jurisdiction
an order to a lower court to produce a certified record of a case so that the Supreme Court can determine if any errors occurred during the trial that warrant a review of the case
writ of certiorari
an approach to judicial decision making whereby judges apply their authority to bring about specific goals
judicial activism
a document submitted by interest groups interested in a case whereby they attempt to provide information that may be used to decide the case
amicus curiae
an approach to judicial decision making whereby judges defer to the democratically elected branches of government
judicial restraint
the Supreme Court practice by which the court agrees to hear a case if four or more justices vote to hear it
rule of four
What are three Express Powers granted to the president in the Constitution?
• grant pardons and reprieves
• enter treaties
• appoint judges and ambassadors
What do “trustee” elected representatives base their political action and legislative votes on?
personal beliefs and goals
What were the main factors that allowed the executive branch to expand its size during the New Deal?
• The Supreme Court interpreted the commerce clause of the Constitution in a way that allowed federal government to grow.
• The Great Depression caused widespread hardship, prompting a desire for the federal government to act.
Political Scientist Richard Neustadt wrote that along with the expressed, implied and delegated powers a president also has the power of persuasion which is:
how the president’s job performance depends on his interpersonal and practical political skills
In what way did the Progressive Era stimulate bureaucratic growth?
Progressives called for policy reforms and increased regulation of businesses in order to protect workers
Which factors strongly impact how broadly bureaucratic powers are interpreted?
• the specificity of the legislation
• the administrator enforcing the legislation
In which ways has it been suggested that the functioning of bureaucracy be changed?
• through privatization-outsourcing government services to private contractors
• through devolution-shifting federal programs to be state-run
Which court case first established the rule of judicial review that is still used today?
Marbury v. Madison
Why is it important that the power to appoint and approve judges be split between the executive branch and the legislative branch?
• judges have a large effect on both the executive and legislative branches, so it is important that the decision be split
• judges serve for life and therefore have a long-lasting effect on policy, so both branches should have a say
What are the two judicial philosophies that often influence decisions of judges?
• judicial restraint
• judicial activism
If a particular voter tends to be conservative concerning economic issues but liberal concerning social issues, which socialization factors have likely contributed to this?
• religious affiliation
• education
Ensures that one sector of the population is not overrepresented
random sampling
Guards against people being led to respond a certain way based on wording
phrasing
Guards against people being led to respond a certain way based on how questions are arranged
order of presentation
Minimizes the margin of error by using a large enough group of people
size of the poll sample
What do political parties do?
seek to influence government by getting members elected to public office
What two tasks would a person working for the national party organization not perform?
• dictate the campaign strategy to the candidates competing for office
• lobby Congress on behalf of their favored policy items
What are three disadvantages of the two-party system?
• It leads to increased polarization.
• It is slow to change.
• It limits voter choice.
Republican or Democrat?
reforming the TSA for security and privacy
Republican
Republican or Democrat?
lowering government spending on social programs
Republican
Republican or Democrat?
Support affirmative action programs
Democrat
Republican or Democrat?
rebuilding lower class security
Democrat
Republican or Democrat?
maintaining government spending for the military
Republican
Republican or Democrat?
continuing space exploration
Democrat
process by which one develops political values and opinions
political socialization
views about the purposes and scope of government
political values
basic knowledge of state, national, and global politics
political knowledge
an organized coalition of interests that seeks to influence government and policy by getting members elected to public office and by coordinating the actions of elected officials
political party
produces a lasting electoral realignment where groups of voters shift their loyalty from one party to another over several elections
critical election
the document or statement developed by a political party to include its official positions on issues of public concern
party platform
an electoral system with two dominant political parties dominating national elections
two-party system
What is the reasoning that some elected leaders use when choosing to ignore public opinion?
• Public opinion can change rapidly, so elected officials should protect against inconsistent laws and policies.
• The public is often not educated enough to fully know all factors surrounding an issue.
Which of the following scenarios demonstrates a likely influence political parties may have on voters?
*An incumbent president has told voters to reelect him to office, so the voters do reelect him and other member of his political party.
*An outgoing president has left the economy in a recession so voters will not vote for the candidate from the same party.
As political knowledge and education increases and in turn shapes political opinion, what also increases?
political participation
Which individuals would be most likely to participate in voting?
• individuals whose parents are politically engaged
• individuals who have a master’s degree
What are two aspects of a candidate’s character that voters commonly look at to influence their voting decisions?
• intellect
• religion
How has a decline in civic engagement affected the United States?
reduced voter turnout
How is the president of the United States elected?
indirectly through elector’s votes from each state
What is an open primary system?
a system where voters are not required to be registered with a political party and may choose the ballot of either party when voting
What is an example of a hard-money contribution?
small individual donations to the campaign of the candidate
statistic representing the number of voters who cast a ballot in a given election
voter turnout
combination of education, occupation, and income use to gauge one’s position in society
socioeconomic status
federal elections occurring between presidential election years
midterm elections
degree of civic connectedness within a political community
social capital
culturally acceptable political activity that communicates preferences through established institutions
conventional participation
unregulated donations to party organization to cover their operational expenses
soft money
a national election held every two years as required by the Constitution
general election
party meetings held every four years to establish the party platforms and officially nominate presidential candidates to run in the general election
national conventions
A preliminary election conducted within a political party to select its candidates for the general election
primary election
donations given directly to a candidate for congressional office or the presidency
hard money
What are two strengths of the Electoral College system?
• it preserves the principle of federalism in the Constitution
• it makes the election process easier from a technical perspective
Why are opinion polls important to politicians?
• they can predict election
• they can inform policy by showing what the people want
What is a reason that campaigning has become more candidate-centered?
Political reforms to the primary system have put more electoral power into the hands of the voters.
Classify the following interest group as either a private interest group or a public interest group.

business

private
Classify the following interest group as either a private interest group or a public interest group.

civil rights

public
Classify the following interest group as either a private interest group or a public interest group.

professional

private
Classify the following interest group as either a private interest group or a public interest group.

trade

private
Classify the following interest group as either a private interest group or a public interest group.

consumer advocacy

public
Classify the following interest group as either a private interest group or a public interest group.

environmental

public
How do professional lobbyists persuade lawmakers?
• by providing current and meaningful information to the politicians
• by making campaign contributions to targeted elected officials
Which actions do interest groups perform to affect change in government?
• establish political action committees to raise money to contribute to campaigns
*lobby politicians to persuade them about a certain cause
What might be a primary reason that an interest group would stage a demonstration?
to get media attention
those who benefit from a collective effort without working toward its achievement
free riders
groups that are created primarily to support or oppose candidates for elective office, although they are not allowed to coordinate their activities with a specific candidate or political party
527 organization
organization that are established by individuals or private groups with the aim of raising money to contribute to candidates for elective office
political action committee
political activity that aims to influence government policy making
lobbying
Categorize the following statement as an advantage or disadvantage of interest group politics.

slow down policy making process and sometimes obstruct policy action altogether

disadvantage
Categorize the following statement as an advantage or disadvantage of interest group politics.

provide organizational framework necessary or mobilization of shared interest and collective action

advantage
Categorize the following statement as an advantage or disadvantage of interest group politics.

provide valuable resources and expertise on complex policy issues for decision makers and general public

advantage
Categorize the following statement as an advantage or disadvantage of interest group politics.

foster a less transparent and accountable mode of politics

disadvantage
Categorize the following statement as an advantage or disadvantage of interest group politics.

encourage conflict

disadvantage
Categorize the following statement as an advantage or disadvantage of interest group politics.

pressure government for change

advantage
How do interest groups mobilize followers to their cause and overcome the collective action problem?
• by providing material benefits such as discounts, services, and information
• by offering social advantages from working with people with a common goal
What do interest groups do?
• educate voters about a set of issues
• raise money for their cause
How do news media play a role in setting the political agenda?
by determining which and how much coverage issues will receive
From which mass media do a majority of individuals receive their news?
television
What are some of the roles of the media in a democratic society?
A: choose two:

* persuade voters to change their opinion on policy issues
** to help judges become aware of the ramifications of their decisions
* to elected officials to office
** to set the political agenda for elected leaders and the public
(Not sure of the answer, can’t seem to find it anywhere.)

What is the media functioning as when it is being critical of the actions taken by political leaders and warns the public about those actions?
watchdog journalism
Which is a benefit of new media for the electorate?
stories that may not have received attention through mainstream media may be available through other outlets
private ownership of media which encourages journalistic practices driven by increasing advertising revenue, circulation, and profit margins
market-driven journalism
defamation in oral form
slander
the process of presenting issues to catch the government’s attention
agenda setting
groups that are organized to monitor government activity and educate the public on various aspects of the political process
watchdogs
defamation in written form
libel
the process by which media encourages viewers to interpret journalistic stories in a particular way
framing