U.S. Citizenship and Government Term 2

Senators who consider issues related to farming are most likely to be members of a subcommittee of which standing committee?
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry
Who decides which bills are important enough to send to the House for all members to consider?
a standing committee
Which committee must consider a bill before the bill can be considered by the full House?
the Rules Committee
Each statement about bills becoming laws is true except _____.
Most bills that are considered become laws. (maybe)
The floor leader of the major party that holds fewer seats in a house of Congress is called _____.
the minority leader
Which of the following describes the Cloture Rule?
Three fifths of senators can vote to limit debate on a subject to 30 hours of floor time.
What is a standing committee?
a permanent committee that considers particular topics
Which is an important power of committee chairmen?
They decide which bills to consider.
The members of a conference committee are chosen by _____.
the leaders of the House and Senate
What happens when a bill is pigeonholed?
It is set aside and no longer considered.
Who serves as the presiding officer of the Senate?
the Vice President of the United States
Where do subcommittees get their members?
from the standing committee
What happens after the President vetoes a bill?
It is returned to the house where it was introduced.
What happens after both houses pass the exact same bill?
It goes to the President.
What is the next step after a conference committee completes its work on a bill?
Both houses vote on the bill again.
Which is the first task of the House of Representatives after it is called to order?
to choose a Speaker of the House
Sometimes, people appear before a committee to provide more information related to a bill. What is this called?
a public hearing
What happens after the President signs a bill?
It becomes a law.
What happens next after a bill reaches the floor of the House?
It is given a second reading.
Most of the work in Congress is done by _____.
the standing committees
As the main author of American foreign policy, the President acts as the nation’s _____.
chief diplomat
Who received the second largest number of electoral votes in the 1796 election?
Thomas Jefferson
_____ are voters who have not decided on a candidate at the start of a presidential campaign.
Swing voters
Under a proportional system, what happens if a candidate wins at least 15 percent of the primary votes?
The candidate gets the number of delegates that matches the share of the votes.
What does it mean that the Vice President is “only a heartbeat away” from the presidency?
The Vice President is first in the order of succession.
If the House fails to choose a President by January 20, the 20th Amendment says that _____.
the Vice President shall act as President
A President who has only served one term _____.
usually runs for a second term
The formal qualifications for people who wish to be President are established by _____.
the Constitution
After a period of presidential disability, who informs Congress that the President is ready to resume office?
the President
What significant experience did Vice President Joe Biden bring to office?
foreign relations
Which candidate’s performance in the first televised debate helped his campaign?
John F. Kennedy
Who served the most terms as President of the United States?
Franklin Roosevelt
Political parties first _____ to nominate presidential candidates.
used congressional caucuses
The _____ makes the formal selection of the President and Vice President.
electoral college
Under the proportional plan to reform the Electoral College, each candidate would _____.
get a share of the electoral vote
Which Framer presented the plan for a body of presidential electors?
Alexander Hamilton
The President proposes a highway construction bill to Congress and then pressures lawmakers to pass the proposed legislation. Which role is the President fulfilling?
chief legislator
Presidential electors were chosen to represent the interests of their _____.
states
What difficulty arose from the presidential election of 1796?
The President and Vice President belonged to different parties.
The vice presidency has taken on more importance in recent years because of _____.
the influence and experience of recent Vice Presidents
To handle the government’s many domestic and foreign affairs, the Constitution gives the President broad powers to act as the nation’s _____.
chief executive
What happened in 1841 after President William Henry Harrison died in office and has continued to be the practice for filling a presidential vacancy ever since?
the Vice President became the President
The selection of delegates to the national convention produces _____.
conflict in each party (maybe)
The proposed national popular vote plan to reform the Electoral College calls for _____.
states to amend their election laws
Why does New Hampshire hold its primary first?
A state law says it must hold the first primary.
An order the President gives based on the authority of the Constitution is called _____.
an executive order
Which President made the decision to drop the atomic bomb in 1945?
Harry Truman
Which is not a judicial power of the President?
issuing a signing statement
Which is true about the President’s role as commander in chief?
The President stays in close contact with military leaders.
In the nation’s history, Presidents have used military force _____.
to act quickly in times of danger to the United States
When the President is elected, the U.S. Chief Justice _____.
administers the oath of office
A President’s executive order is based on authority given by Congress or _____.
the Constitution
A pact between the President and the head of foreign country is called _____.
an executive agreement
In the United States, the terms of a treaty cannot _____.
go against the Constitution
When the President approves a bill but also explains his plans to enforce the new law, _____ is issued.
a signing statement
Why is it important that troops can only remain in a foreign country for 60 days unless Congress approves?
It prevents the President from having too much power.
For which branch of government is the President responsible?
the executive
President George W. Bush sent troops to Afghanistan and Iraq _____.
with the approval of both houses of Congress
Most Presidents are in favor of the line-item veto because it gives them more power over _____.
federal spending
Where does the President get the power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States?
the U.S. Constitution (maybe)
Which process is used to select more than half of federal civilian workers?
civil service examination (maybe)
What was a consequence of President Johnson ignoring the Tenure of Office Act?
He was impeached.
The President cannot use judicial powers in cases of _____.
impeachment
When President Franklin Roosevelt was elected, the country was _____.
in an economic depression
A person who helps manage relations between countries is known as _____.
a diplomat
Which group is at the second highest level of the executive branch’s bureaucratic pyramid?
the Executive Office of the President
Which agency within the Executive Office of the President is responsible for how natural resources are used?
the Council on Environmental Quality
Which executive department is responsible for producing currency, borrowing money, and managing the public debt?
the Department of Treasury
Which groups serve as the main sources of advice for the President?
the Cabinet and Executive Office of the President
How do the leaders of independent regulatory commissions obtain their positions?
They are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate.
Why did Congress establish the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958?
to help develop peaceful uses for the exploration of outer space
Which agency advises the President about the safety of the country?
the National Security Council
FBI, IRS, FCC, and CIA are all abbreviations for _____.
federal agencies
People who support the President in the Executive Office work in which type of agency?
a staff agency
The _____ hires, promotes, and pays people who work for the federal government.
Office of Personnel Management
With the growth of the Executive Office of the President, the importance of the Cabinet has _____.
decreased
Which is true about executive departments?
Many departments have offices across the United States.
How is the Office of Management and Budget influenced by the President?
It focuses on funding programs important to the President.
A _____ is a way of selecting individuals from a group.
draft
Most of the people in the Executive Office work _____.
in the White House
Each of the following is a bureaucrat except _____.
an administrative assistant of a top executive (maybe)
The Office of the United States Trade Representative advises the President on _____.
issues related to foreign trade
Which is given goals to meet?
line agencies
Which was not one of the original executive departments?
the Department of Agriculture
Which of the following about independent executive agencies is not true?
They advise the President on policy matters.
The phrase domestic affairs refers to things that happen _____.
in the United States
Which is an example of civilian control of the military?
The President orders the Unified Commanders to conduct a military operation.
Which nation has threatened world security in recent years because of its interest in becoming a nuclear power?
North Korea
Ambassadors cannot be arrested, sued, or taxed in the country where they are serving because of _____.
diplomatic immunity
Who is commander in chief of the armed forces?
the President of the United States
What was the main reason for American involvement in the Vietnam War?
to prevent communism from spreading in Southeast Asia
The United Nations International Court of Justice acts as the _____.
World Court
The _____ is responsible for handling U.S. foreign aid programs.
U.S. Agency for International Development
What is the name of the peace agreement that President Carter helped create between Israel and Egypt?
the Camp David Accords
Which division of the United Nations has the main responsibility for keeping international peace?
the Security Council
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) is a military force created by which organization?
the United Nations
(maybe)
Each military department—army, navy, and air force—is lead by its own _____.
civilian secretary
Which U.S. government department is responsible for carrying out foreign affairs and diplomacy?
the State Department
Which is a separate service within the Navy Department?
the Marine Corps
Which marked the end of the U.S. policy of avoiding involvement in the affairs of other countries?
World War II
In the 1800’s, many Americans believed in the policy of Manifest Destiny. What did this mean?
The nation’s mission was to expand to the Pacific Ocean.
After World War II, many countries believed in the principle of collective security, which means that _____.
nations should act together to promote peace
_____ uses violence or force to achieve political goals.
Terrorism
Why does the State Department promote fair voting practices in foreign countries?
to advance democracy
How are votes distributed in the United Nations General Assembly?
Each nation receives one vote.
Which can exercise both original and appellate jurisdiction?
the Supreme Court
A good clue that a judge is practicing judicial activism is when he or she _____.
interprets the law according to newer values
Which statement about the Supreme Court is true?
It issues decisions that cannot be appealed.
Who has the power to appoint Supreme Court justices?
the President
Which created the courts of appeals?
Congress
Jurisdiction refers to the authority of a court to _____.
hear a case
How many judges does the Court of International Trade have?
9
Which is one of the three actions the Supreme Court may take when it reviews a case?
send the case back to the lower court
Why do people ask appellate courts to review their cases?
They feel that their trials were unfair.
The Supreme Court is more likely to consider reviewing a case if _____.
it raises a constitutional question
What is a majority opinion?
the statement written to explain why the decision was made
The Supreme Court declares an executive order unconstitutional. This is an example of _____.
judicial review
Military commissions were created by _____.
an executive order signed by President Bush in 2001
Which is a difference between the special courts created by Congress and the constitutional courts?
Judges in the special courts do not serve lifetime appointments.
Decisions of the U.S. Tax Court may be appealed to _____.
the federal courts of appeal
District courts are the only federal courts that _____.
use a jury
Which court hears appeals about claims for benefits from people who have served in the armed forces?
the Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims
How did the national judiciary function under the Articles of Confederation?
There was no national court system under the Articles of Confederation.
Unlike the other courts of appeals, the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit _____.
hears cases from all over the United States
A person who loses a decision in the Court of Federal Claims _____.
can appeal the decision to the Court of Appeal for the Federal Circuit
How many courts of appeals are in the federal judicial system?
13
What are courts-martial?
special courts that try cases involving offenses against military law
What court is concerned with appeals of decisions in patent, copyright, and international trade cases?
the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
The United States Tax Court was set up to _____.
hear appeals regarding payment of federal taxes (maybe)
One Supreme Court justice is assigned to each _____.
court of appeals
The President and the Senate appoint a U.S. attorney for each _____.
federal judicial district
Judicial restraint means that a judge will consider _____ when making decisions about a case.
precedent
What happens after a Supreme Court justice is appointed?
The justice must be approved by the Senate. (maybe)
What was established in Article III of the Constitution?
the judicial branch
What did the Supreme Court decide regarding military commissions in a 2006 ruling?
The President cannot set up military commissions without an act of Congress.
How is a civil case different from a criminal case?
A civil case involves a noncriminal matter.
What are military commissions?
special courts set up by the executive branch to try suspected terrorists
The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in cases _____.
involving two or more states (maybe)
After the President appoints a new Supreme Court justice, which committee holds hearings to consider the qualifications of the appointee?
the Senate Judiciary Committee (maybe)
What does it mean when a Supreme Court justice issues a dissenting opinion?
The justice disagrees with the majority opinion.
Presidents will often choose federal judges from _____.
their own political party
What is a majority opinion?
the statement written to explain why the decision was made
The United States has _____ court systems.
two separate
A person who loses a decision in the Court of Federal Claims _____.
can appeal the decision to the Court of Appeal for the Federal Circuit
Which is true about the U.S. Tax Court?
It is not really part of the special court system. (maybe)
Which is true about the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces?
It is a civilian tribunal.
Why are there an odd number of justices on the Supreme Court?
to prevent a tie when voting on a case
In addition to local courts, the District of Columbia also has _____.
a district court (maybe)
Each of the following is a duty of a U.S. marshal except _____.
deciding cases (maybe)
A dispute over the terms of a contract is an example of a _____.
civil case
What part of the Constitution prohibits the government from setting up or supporting any one religion?
the Establishment Clause
Why has the Supreme Court upheld laws that require advance notice and permits for protests in public places?
because protests can threaten the peace
Which kind of speech does the government limit on radio and television broadcasts?
obscene language
American citizens’ right to free speech is guaranteed by _____.
the 1st Amendment
_____ are the protections granted by government.
Civil rights
A demonstrator carries a sign that features a logo expressing disagreement with a government policy. The demonstrator’s sign is an example of what kind of protected speech?
symbolic speech
Shield laws protect _____.
freedom of the press
In McCollum v. Board of Education, why did the Supreme Court strike down a public school “released time” program?
The religious classes were held in public facilities.
Each of these activities is protected by the constitutional right of free expression except _____.
A blogger publishes secret national security information.
In the United States, which groups are allowed to hold meetings?
any groups
What does the Free Exercise Clause state?
It protects a person’s right to believe whatever he or she chooses about religion.
The Supreme Court has ruled that a citizen of the United States cannot be convicted using evidence that was obtained illegally. Which amendment did the court use to reach this decision?
the 9th Amendment
Which case was the Supreme Court’s first ruling on the Establishment Clause?
Everson v. Board of Education
The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution to limit the power of _____.
the national government
Which refers to a series of Supreme Court rulings that used the 14th Amendment to protect basic rights of citizens from state governments?
the process of incorporation
Which is true about the right of association?
It is not an absolute right.
Which protects a peaceful political organization from having to report its membership to the government?
right of association
Each of the following is part of the Lemon Test for determining whether state aid to church schools is constitutional except _____.
The aid must not cost the state any money.
The right of free speech protects each of the following activities except _____.
spreading false statements that damage someone’s reputation
Which limitation can local governments place on the right of assembly?
They may require a permit for a public gathering.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has each of these powers except _____.
censoring programs before they are broadcast
The following practices are protected under the Free Exercise Clause except _____.
forcing one’s beliefs on others
Which is an example of the constitutionally guaranteed freedom of assembly?
A group gathers to pursue a common purpose.
The relocation of U.S. citizens of Japanese descent during World War II was a violation of which constitutional principal?
limited government (maybe)
The government may prohibit an assembly for any of the following reasons except _____.
what might be said
The Supreme Court has ruled that states can require the owners of shopping centers to allow which activities on their property?
petitions
Which power is given to Congress by the “clear and present danger” rule?
the power to prevent harmful speech against the government
When the Declaration of Independence says that unalienable rights are “endowed by their Creator,” it means those rights are _____.
absolute and cannot be surrendered
Why has the Supreme Court upheld laws that require permits for protests in public places?
because some protests can pose a danger to other citizens
Which case was the Supreme Court’s first ruling on the Establishment Clause?
Everson v. Board of Education (maybe)
Where did the colonists get the belief in personal freedom?
They brought it from England.
Three years after its original ruling, the Supreme Court reversed its opinion about which law?
a law requiring students to salute the flag
Why is the 9th Amendment important?
It declares that people have rights that are not specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
Which accurately describes the principle of prior restraint?
The government may not ban speech before it is expressed.
In Cox v. Louisiana, 1965, the Supreme Court upheld limitations on which public gatherings?
parades near a courthouse
Based on previous Supreme Court rulings, which would be considered a display of the Ten Commandments that does not violate the Constitution?
a large cultural and historical display
Which principal behind the Constitution guarantees that a person’s basic freedoms cannot be taken away?
limited government
Guarantees of personal freedoms against possible threats from the government are called _____.
civil liberties
In the 1925 case Gitlow v. New York, the Supreme Court ruled that _____.
rights guaranteed by the Bill of Rights must also be guaranteed by the states
In Everson v. Board of Education, why did the Supreme Court allow the state to provide busing for church schools?
The busing was necessary for student safety.
Which is true about religious guarantees under the 1st Amendment?
People may worship as they choose, or not at all.
How do the rights of assembly and petition apply to private property?
People cannot trespass, even to express political views.
When people are treated unfairly because of their race, religion, gender, age, or physical condition, they experience _____.
discrimination
An effort to violently overthrow or harm the government is called _____.
sedition
In Bigelow v. Virginia, 1975, the Supreme Court extended protection to which form of speech?
slander (maybe)
Which form of commercial speech was ruled to be protected by the Constitution in a Supreme Court decision?
prescription drug advertising
Which is an example of libel?
printing lies about a private citizen
What did the Supreme Court’s decision in Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, 2000, rule about the right of association?
States cannot force associations to accept members.
What is one reason the Supreme Court ruled that chaplains can offer prayers in Congress and in state legislatures?
Prayers have been offered in those places since colonial times.
Which is the only crime defined in the Constitution?
treason
Why did Congress and individual states pass preventative detention laws?
to safeguard the public
In District of Columbia v. Heller, the Supreme Court found that the District of Columbia’s strict gun control law _____.
was unconstitutional
How did the Revolutionary War influence the inclusion of the 2nd Amendment in the Constitution?
The British had tried to take weapons away from colonists.
How has the Supreme Court interpreted the 6th Amendment guarantee of a speedy trial?
It is different in each case. (maybe)
The guarantees of due process imply a right _____.
of privacy
In the case of Rochin v. California, the Supreme Court ruled that the _____.
14th Amendment was violated
According to the Constitution, when can a writ of habeas corpus be taken away?
only if public safety is in jeopardy
Until the Civil War, the protection of civil rights had been left mostly to _____.
individual states
Which constitutional amendment introduced the right of due process?
the 5th Amendment
In its 1972 Furman v. Georgia ruling, why did the Supreme Court strike down all state laws allowing the death penalty?
It determined judges and juries had too much power.
How does the Supreme Court usually rule in cases that involve overcrowding in prisons?
It rejects the “cruel and unusual” argument.
The Supreme Court has adopted the exclusionary rule to protect citizens from _____.
illegal searches
_____ may suspend a writ of habeas corpus in a time of war.
Congress and the President
The Supreme Court has ruled that the military draft and imprisonment _____.
do not violate the 13th Amendment
Which of the following is payment of bail supposed to guarantee?
The accused person will attend the trial.
Which problems can arise regarding police power and the rights of citizens?
Police power might violate privacy rights.
If the police broke into a person’s home illegally to look for evidence, that could be _____.
a procedural due process violation
To ensure a fair and impartial jury in a federal case, the jury members must _____.
come from the state or district where the crime took place
A new sentencing law is enacted and the punishment is applied to a person who committed a crime five years ago. This is an example of what?
an ex post facto law
What is the difference between de facto segregation and de jure segregation?
De facto segregation exists even though it is not required by law.
In addition to the 14th Amendment, which part of the Constitution says that states cannot discriminate unfairly?
the 5th Amendment
Which is true about the efforts to cut immigration in the 1920’s?
People from Northern Europe had the best chance of immigrating.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., attempted to bring about changes in _____.
equal rights
Which is an example of de facto segregation?
Families of the same race live in the same neighborhood.
Which are banned from entering the United States?
criminals
Recent Supreme Court rulings have indicated that affirmative action programs in schools _____.
should not rely too much on race (maybe)
Which describes aliens?
people from other countries
Naturalization is a process by which _____.
a person becomes a citizen of another country
Which Supreme Court ruling said that affirmative action programs must show some “compelling governmental interest”?
Adarand Constructors v. Pena
The Civil Rights Act of 1968 was considered an important victory for the civil rights movement because it meant that _____.
homeowners could not refuse to sell or rent property to families with children
Public lands set aside by the government for Native Americans are called _____.
reservations
Denaturalization is _____.
the removal of citizenship by court order
Why is the Civil Rights Act of 1964 an important act of legislation?
It bans discrimination based on race in government and business.
Which is true when comparing men and women in the workplace?
Women are paid less, on average, than men.
_____ applies to laws that touch on the basic rights of a “suspect class.”
The strict scrutiny test
Title IX was largely responsible for the growth of _____.
women’s sports at the high school and college levels
According to the Supreme Court, how should men and women be treated?
Some laws that discriminate between men and women are constitutional.
Today, which group of immigrants is given special preference?
families and highly skilled workers
In 1790, the U.S. government did not count _____ as part of the population.
Native Americans
Senators who consider issues related to farming are most likely to be members of a subcommittee of which standing committee?
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry
Where is a bill sent if it is approved after the third reading?
to the president of the Senate
Which is the best example of the seniority rule?
A four-term senator is appointed to an important job over a first-term senator.
What is the Committee of the Whole?
House members acting as one large committee
What is a joint resolution?
a proposal for action that has the force of law when passed
Who presides over the Senate when the president of the Senate is not present?
the president pro tempore
What is one difference between how debates are scheduled for discussion in the Senate and the House?
The Senate has one calendar.
What is one similarity between joint committees and conference committees?
Both are made up of members from both houses of Congress.
Who is the most important leader in both houses of Congress?
the Speaker of the House
What is an idea for a new law or a change to an old law called?
a bill
The _____ requires that every bill, order, and resolution be presented to the President.
Constitution
Who usually handles bills on the Senate floor?
the majority leader
Who is the leader of the House of Representatives?
the Speaker of the House
What must happen before a bill is presented for discussion to the entire House or Senate?
A standing committee must approve it.
Which is not a responsibility of a subcommittee?
to appoint committee members (maybe)
On which House calendar would a bill that deals with money or property be placed?
the Calendar of the Committee of the Whole
What type of committee includes members from both houses of Congress?
a joint committee
One of the President’s main duties is to _____.
carry out federal laws
A pact between the President and the head of foreign country is called _____.
an executive agreement
If the President does not agree with a law, it is his or her responsibility as chief executive to _____.
rule the law unconstitutional (maybe)
When the President accepts the legal existence of another country, it is known as the power of _____.
recognition
With the exception of federal judges, what is true about the President’s removal power?
The President may remove whomever he or she appoints.
Which action can Congress take to check the power of a presidential veto of a bill?
override the President’s veto
It is not uncommon for an executive agreement to be made _____.
after a treaty is made (maybe)
Sometimes people worry that the President will make decisions _____.
in secret or illegally
Which speech is the President required by the Constitution to give?
the State of the Union address
How is an executive agreement different from a treaty?
An executive agreement does not require Senate approval.
The President takes action to solve problems in various areas such as civil rights, with the approval of _____.
Congress
Which refers to the President’s military role?
commander in chief
What is the President required to do within 48 hours after sending troops to another country?
report to Congress in writing
The President’s appointment power comes from _____.
the Constitution
The Constitution grants the President the power to veto legislation and Congress the power to override that veto. Which principle of government is described in this statement?
checks and balances
Which legislative power has never been used by a President?
adjourning Congress
Most of the current powers of the President are _____.
not written in the Constitution
Which is true about the executive branch?
It has 15 executive departments that do the work of the federal government.
The Food and Nutrition Service is part of _____.
the Department of Agriculture
The individuals and agencies in _____ are responsible for directly assisting the President.
the Executive Office of the President
The President’s traditional group of advisers is called _____.
the Cabinet
What is the main responsibility of the Selective Service System?
to select people for military service
Why was the passage of the Pendleton Act historically significant?
It made the quality of someone’s work the basis for hiring.
_____ are the agencies of the executive branch that make up the Cabinet.
Departments
In what area does the Office of Policy Development provide advice to the President?
domestic affairs
Within the Executive Office of the President (EOP), which is the main responsibility of the Office of Administration?
to assist and support the other units of the EOP
After the Office of Management and Budget identifies how federal money should be used, who authorizes the spending?
the Congress
Which type of unit is charged with regulating business?
a commission
The infantry, artillery, and armored cavalry are all part of which military department?
the army
Who was the first secretary of state?
Thomas Jefferson
Which region of the world did the United States help to rebuild with the Marshall Plan?
Western Europe
Which division of the United Nations is called “the town meeting of the world”?
the General Assembly
The Korean War ended with what result?
a democratic government in South Korea and a communist government in North Korea
Which statement describes the policy of deterrence that the United States adopted after World War II?
Build a strong military to prevent attacks from other countries.
Which is not one of the top five countries to which the most members of the U.S. armed forces are deployed?
Canada
The Marshall Plan was a foreign aid program put in place _____.
after World War II
Which is responsible for securing U.S. borders and ports?
the Department of Homeland Security
Beginning in 1899, the Open Door policy increased trade between the United States and which nation?
China
Offices that are concerned with _____ focus on the nation’s relationships with other countries.
foreign affairs
Which is not a part of U.S. foreign policy?
interstate commerce
Which is the main responsibility of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence?
gathering information needed to protect the country
In the Lend-Lease program, the United States provided foreign nations with military and other supplies in return for _____.
land for American military bases
A legal document issued by a nation that identifies a person as a citizen of that nation is called a _____.
passport
The NATO nations have agreed that in the case of an attack against a member nation, _____.
all other member nations will help defend it
A person appointed by the President to represent the United States in a foreign country is _____.
an ambassador
What was the cause of the first Gulf War in 1991?
Iraq had invaded the country of Kuwait.