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Tourism Management

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————————————————- Managing Adventure & Sports Tourism Environments COURSE MODULE: TRM341 BA. HONS STRATAGIC TOURISM MANAGEMENT Word Counts ————————————————- Managing Adventure & Sports Tourism Environments COURSE MODULE: TRM341 BA. HONS STRATAGIC TOURISM MANAGEMENT Word Counts Acknowledgement I would like to thank my lecturer Mr Li Yee for his guidance in this report.

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Acknowledgement1 Introduction3 Destination4 Implemented Strategies7 Effectiveness of Implemented Strategy10 Recommendations11 Conclusion18 References20 Introduction “Sports tourism can be defined as travels away from one’s primary residence to participate in sports activity for recreation or competition, travel to observe sport and grassroots or elite level. And travel to visit a sport attraction such as sports hall of fame or Water Park”. Gibson, Attle, Yiannakis, 1997) On the other hand adventure tourism can be simply defined as Recreational travel including variety of rugged activities for adventure. Adventures and sports tourism can benefit economies by providing a fast source of income for local government and community, supporting the sustaining improvement and protection for environment and encouraging culture exchange between the developed countries and the developing world.

If the undeveloped tourism destination do not focus on their tourism, it will be really hard for them to improve their poor situation of economic, environment and culture. Adventure and sports tourists can be attract for a certain destination by looking at the facilities and environment of that place such as; hotels services, price of goods in the area, transport services, travel agencies, guides, airlines, social and cultural aspects of life and most important sustainable natural resources. Ralf Buckley, 2006) A tourism sports destination can be attractive for many reasons; different types sports activities in big city or some time big sports events in small cities, beautiful islands or beach, recreation activities, sports activities for family fun etc. most of all a unique atmosphere of sport and adventure. Destination In perspective of West Cambria sports and adventures tourism it provides to tourists; Attractions which related to sports such as sports theme park, hiking, bungee jumping etc.

West Cambria tourism site has highest mountain such as scafell, including stunning coastline and wastwater, also resorts can be include with sports tourism activities. According to Cumbria tourism statistics, each year 35 million day trippers and 5 million overnight visitors spend their night; Cumbria is a place where tourists get a chance to attend all the sports events. As a developed and well established destination; the Ecological environment of sports and adventures tourism is not only about green tourism but also deeply related with socio culture with Cambria tourism.

Naturally sustainable environment of sports and adventures tourism in west Cambria also socio-culturally respectful and have a huge effect on both the natural environment and the human population including man made tourism destination. Sustainable environment of west Cambria tourism often involves locals of remote areas experience and interacting with foreigners. Multi-Sport Activities: it is physical outdoor activities. Rafting, mountain biking, climbing, surfing, diving, etc. all offered in the same package. West Cambria tourism provides these sports facilities.

Sports included in west Cambria: Angling, Archery, Athletics, Badminton, Baseball & Softball, Basketball, Boccia, Bowls, Canoeing, Cricket, Cycling, Dance, Disability Sports, Fencing, Football, Golf, Gymnastics, Handball, Hockey, Judo, Netball, Orienteering, Outdoor Activities, rounder, Rowing, Rugby, Running, Sailing & Windsurfing, Scuba & Snorkelling, Snow sports, Squash & Racket ball, Swimming, Table Tennis, Tennis, Triathlon, Volleyball, Walking Water, Polo, Weight Lifting and Wheelchair Basketball. The relationship between sustainable tourism and others

As a sports destination Sports destination West Cumbria tourism has all the potentiality to be sustainable. According to West Cumbria adventure and sports tourism, relationship between ecological and socio cultural can be compare through their essential facts for each other; Ecological factors relate to socio cultural environment 1. Air quality of the area, 2. Transportation, Parking facilities 3. Pollution discharge process, 4. Water quality for sports activities, 5. Waste management facilities; 6. Land and Coastal resources etc. Socio-cultural fact relates to Ecological environment . Balanced population of the area, 2. Health care facilities for local and tourists. 3. Population employment patterns, job market freedom and locals attitudes to work, 4. Social attitudes and Lifestyle and cross cultural understanding. 5. Roman Heritage 6. Locals cultural activities & interests on tourism 7. Financial services, investment 8. Resorts, hotel and camping services 9. Entertainment facility and tourist Information service provider. Adventure and sports tourism has brought people into contact with each other in west Cambria.

As ecological tourism has an educational element it can foster understanding between people and cultures and provide socio-cultural exchange between hosts and tourists. This increases the chances for people to develop mutual sympathy and understanding and to reduce prejudices. A Socio cultural and ecological relationship has added more vitality of west Cambria communities in many ways. Such as; sports events and adventures activities of the local residents where they have been the primary participants and spectators. Often these are refreshed and developed in response to tourist interests.

Implemented Strategies The West Cambria tourism is an award winning destination for tourism in 2011; it is also one of the most spectacular beaches in UK and an area that has been popular for many years. To develop Adventure and sports tourism Allerdale Borough Council and Carlisle Leisure limited on 1 April 2004 developed a sustainable tourism strategy. The aim was to balance the need to manage and stimulate sports tourism to the area with the need to avoid damaging the very natural assets on which the tourism industry depended. Interest in the idea of sustainable tourism is greatest in those countries where there is a high level of interest in sustainable development in general. ” (John Swarbrooke, 1999) To ensure the strategy was tailored to the needs of the area, authorities engaged in a considerable amount of consultation prior to writing the document. This involved meetings with key stakeholders, National benchmarking survey of tourism authority; the result of this consultation was that many valuable ideas generated via the process made it into the strategy and action plan.

Following the secondary method of research; the implemented strategic objectives can be pointed out 1. More visitors from outside the region 2. More overnight visitors 3. More business and high-value leisure visitors 4. More private sector tourism investment. Enhancing the West Cumbria tourism for residents and visitors to create: 1. World-class cultural/sport/leisure facilities 2. High standards of quality 3. Avenues for learning, business support and careers 4. Jobs and economic benefit through sports and adventure tourism 5. Sustainable development (environmentally, socially, economically) 6.

Local and regional pride. Some of the tourism vision can be explained as follows; Performance of tourism businesses 1. To encourage businesses to invest in the range and quality of their facilities where required 2. To encourage the entire sector to value customer service and to invest in staff skills. Marketing promotions/Events and festivals The strategy focuses on sports events and festivals, in particular those that have the potential to attract new visitors to the region, generate short breaks and which also positively add to the image and profile of the West Cumbria region.

Where possible these major events and festivals should reinforce other market growth opportunities. The strategy also recognises that locally distinct events can enhance sense of place, sense of community and add value to the visitor experience. They create new opportunities for visitor spends particularly for shopping and for eating and drinking. Collectively they can strengthen the regional events and festivals profile. Hospitality Services The restaurant, hotels, bar etc. rowth opportunity as being about the quality of the eating experience; the presentation of the food, the ambience of the eating out experience including genuine customer service. It may also be about local produce and the provenance of food. Destination management Implemented strategy can be explained as; 1. Working with local businesses to drive up quality, encourage use of local produce and enhance the customer service 2. To invest in the presentation and marketing of farmers markets and food and drink events 3. To use food and drink as one ocus for destination marketing where it presents a strong and quality experience 4. To encourage all aspects of the food and drink sector that deal with consumers to value customer service and the skills of their staff and invest in them. West Cambria tourism implemented strategy can be summarised as; 1. provide all sports and adventures visitors a high quality, enjoyable and fulfilling experience 2. To ensure that tourism meets its potential as a driver of the local economy, bringing prosperity and jobs throughout the area 3. To ensure local communities are not adversely affected by tourism 4.

To develop the appreciation of west Cambria distinctiveness as somewhere to live, work and visit 5. To encourage tourism enterprises, their suppliers and customers to reduce the impact of tourism on the environment. Implemented strategy can be summarised as; The objective is to retain the economic and social advantages of tourism development while reducing or mitigating any undesirable impacts on the natural, historic, cultural or social environment. Allerdale tourism council play an important role in ensuring the continued appeal of tourism in the tourist area. Effectiveness of Implemented Strategy

Bruce J. Dierenfield (2003:p,212) Found that although there are numerous negative influence of hosting sport tourism because of the expected benefit for the community and local business often cause potential host community to ignore any negative impact that may occur. These include: putting the country in global world, showing the destination, promoting political system, creating new business, attracting investment, creating job and urban renewal including housing, and infrastructure will contribute to the development of the country, and benefit citizens over a long period of time.

Positive sides: sports adventure tourism development plan for west Cambria, mainly focused local benefits; Current strategy can helps raise funds for environmental protection, research and education through a variety of mechanisms, sports events entrance fees, hotel, airline and airport taxes and voluntary contributions. The local community also can be benefited. The jobs created by tourism can act as a very important motivation to reduce emigration.

Local people can also increase their influence on tourism development, as well as improve their job, earnings prospects, through tourism-related professional training, development of business and organisational skills. Sports tourism can bring people into contact with each other and, as tourism has an educational element, it can foster understanding between peoples and cultures and provide cultural exchange between hosts and guests. Because of this, the chances increase for people to develop mutual sympathy and understanding and to reduce their prejudices.

Negative Sides: Sports tourism development can creates additional demand for land and competition from the growing potential buyers. The demand for more hotels and tourist facilities brings sources of income to builders, real estate agent and landowners but the local residents are forced to pay more for their homes and larger tax duties increase in land values. In addition, increasing demands for basic services and goods from tourists will often cause price hikes that negatively affect local residents whose income does not increase proportionately.

On the other hand, the development of tourism may cause inflation in prices of goods. The issue with seasonal workers is another negative aspect. They face job insecurity, due to the completion of projects. Thus, there will be lack of guarantee of employment from one season to another. Recommendations Developed transportation: Sport-tourism is a powerful force for development that encourage investment in infrastructure projects such as airport , roads that can be enjoyed by local people as well as tourist who came to use them. Joy Standeven, Paul de Knop, 1999, p 66) Travel service providers in the tourist destination area, such as airlines, railways, and bus service need to be sufficient and well developed to avoid all sort of hassle might impact for tourist or destination. To achieve greater competitive advantage; transport companies should have a sophisticated planning; the transportation sector is always a large and growing market in UK tourism. Security and personal safety: Security is a major issue for any tourism destination, for a large destination security sometime maybe it’s not enough to only depending on local police or community service.

Private security services can be included, with modern camera technology, professionals to maintain successful tourism destination. The best course of action is to blend human security with technology. Managing adventure and sports safety remains an important topic to tourism industry. Perceived or real threats to sports person safety have immediate impacts on a destination’s reputation and can dramatically affect visitation. If visitor health and safety is not well managed, adverse incidents can significantly impact on the profitability and sustainability of an individual business, community or destination.

So it’s should be a compulsory objective for tourism organiser to have sufficient safety services. Developed infrastructure: Tourist development indicates that infrastructure accordingly developed. The provision of infrastructure- the construction of roads, and the system of electricity supply, water supply and sewages disposal, hospital, churches, schools and shop become necessary when an area is developed for the tourism. Indeed, in regions away from the main cities, a kind of micro-urbanization has to take place to attract tourists who assemble in such places to escape environmental monotony of their workday in cities.

The tourists are prepared to live in the clusters of cottages but at the same time they demand most of the modern comforts to which they are accustomed with the possibility of a shopping centre, amusements and services to be made available at hand. Capacity of accommodating sports tourists: Carrying capacity for tourism is similar in some ways to ecological carrying capacity and different in others. Ultimately, physical resources limit both population and tourist levels. A dearth of land, shortage of food, or decline in water quality and availability will quickly put the brakes on both types of growth.

But for tourism, cultural resources are also a concern. A well-developed tourism destination should provide an efficient accommodated service for their tourists. Technology applied to the provision of sports and adventure activities: The technological environment plays a huge role and influence on the Sport-tourism through globalization due to the innovation of technological thought. For example the implication of restaurants and hotels has been joined by the technological strategy which connects the world through electronic business to exchange goods and services.

Furthermore the internet has revolutionised the way executive and business partners operate and cash rings are replaced by credit and debit card payment system. This technological change will allow the use of electronic transfer fund to be more accurate on the information exchange and the target market (Weed et al, 2004: p, 33) Sport tourism may benefit from technological innovation such as currency exchange rate, details about accommodation, climate, culture, language, entertainment places, and requirement entry for visa.

The technology infrastructure has opened a new way for Sport tourism to reach the outside world and enter to the competitive edge in the market share. (Devine et al, 2009: p, 17). As the technology evolves and develops within the Sport tourism, stakeholders will find themselves with clear opportunities and one challenge emerging from this will be to streamline and simplify the transaction and consumption of products. This will require looking at global shift in consumer attitudes, tracking new motivations or opportunity in order to communicate and convince consumers (Knowles et al, 2004: p, 32).

Technological developments are increasing rapidly. New recreation products, such as all-terrain vehicles and wind surfers, provide new ways for people to satisfy their recreational preferences. New production Technologies and materials offer recreation and tourism businesses ways to reduce costs and improve the quality of their products/services. Advances in telecommunications have and will continue to create new promotional opportunities. Technological innovations, in relation to jobs and the home, have resulted in increased leisure time for many people.

Nowadays sports have become a part of our life. Sports have become one of the best interests of the people. Indoor sports activities for tourism is very popular fast growing. Sports are mainly related with the physical element of the body such like running, throwing, jumping, sliding, hitting, shooting, catching etc. , and at present time all those sports are depending on technological supports, as technology helps to give a fair result in any sports competition as well as sports person safety. Technology applied in modern gym helps to improve physical stamina through different level of exercise.

For example, Technology applied Sport tourism includes rafting, Para gliding, bungee jump with crane, sky diving, and many more. Provision of diversified activities Diversified activities for tourism destination can create opportunity for more profits in local business. A tourism destination diversification can be point out as; Tourist Accommodation: Bed and breakfast hotel, resorts, camping facilities or caravan sites. Tourist recreation: Trekking holidays, heritage attractions, sports events and festivals, mountain biking/walking routes, clay pigeon shooting, archery, quad biking .

Strategies can be including for Successful development: 1. Seasonal sports tourism offer 2. Marketing on Sports and adventures tourism activities 3. Ensuring each year sports tourism events got different attractions 4. Identifying major activities what can bring more tourists 5. Infrastructure investment targeting diversified activities More activities can be added as west Cambria has a suitable for sports and adventures tourism; 1. Horseback riding 2. Hang gliding, 3. Ballooning, 4. Parachuting Professionalism of service staff The professionalism in sports and adventures tourism is very vital.

Becoming sports trainer or guide for tourism activities increased responsibility for the profession; Most of the time a destination future depends on their professional services. Professionalism can create demand for sports tourism, as a well-trained sports guide or trainer does mistake in rare occasion and that attracts sports tourists. Political stability Political stability can create significant impact on any tourism industry; an unstable political condition can spoil major sports events, same time it can ruin the economic development of Destination.

A stable optical situation can creates; good economy, jobs, use of resources and growth of development. The government significantly by their activities may seriously influence the economic and non-economic opportunities essential in the creation of the conditions that conduct to the development of a business. Whether the Sport tourism development is encouraged or blocked, depends very much on the government policy and political view. (Tom Hinch, James Higham, 2011 p 206) Economic status of the destination

Foreign Exchange Earnings: The spending of traveller brings income to the hosting country and possibly will stimulate a significant investment to finance growth in other economic sectors. An important indicator of sports tourism development is it’s generate foreign exchange earnings The economic impact of tourism is massive. Tourism is generally regarded as labour-intensive. It generates direct full time employment in such formal sectors as hotels, restaurants, transport services, travel agencies, guides and foreign airlines, etc.

Costs: In business, cost is usually a monetary valuation of (1) effort, (2) material, (3) resources, (4) time and utilities consumed, (5) risks incurred, and (6) opportunity forgone in production and delivery of a good or service. All expenses are costs, but not all costs (such as those incurred in acquisition of an income-generating asset) are expenses. A large number of deal and money will be costing the host destination of the event and local taxpayers for Sport tourism development. Developers will need the government to improve infrastructure which includes the airport, roads and others which are costly activities for the government. ports and adventures tourism development costs can be divided in two parts, if the negative aspects of costs can be save than there will be benefit, on the other hand positive has always profitable for stake holders. Positive Costs | Negative Costs| 1. Tourist spending money returned to local economy as it is spent over and over again. | 1. Over tourism can effects social community; such as tourism can increase drug related activities. | 2. Diversify and stabilize the local economy. | 2. Illegal prostitution can be harmful for sports destination.

As tourists has a weak side for sexual activities. | 3. Governments get a chance to add up extra tax through tourism. | 3. Overcrowding and congestion. | 4. Fosters conservation and preservation of natural, cultural and historical resources. | 4. Crime activities can be increased. | 5. Encourages the preservation and celebration of local sport events or festivals. | 5. Natural resources and historical sites can be damaged for overcrowding. | 6. Local charity can raise fund through regular tourism. | 6. Over development can be cost local government. | 7.

Tourism money can be spending to create more technological development in activity area. | 7. Developers from outside the destination can take the profit away. | From an economic point of view of the above table showcasing the region and its natural beauty should enhance its reputation as an attractive tourist destination. Good organisation and infrastructure could be highlighted to further promote investment in sports destination. More convenient and modern venues are likely to attract higher number of spectators and perhaps host upcoming mega-events which will generate higher income to the destination.

Conclusion Sport and adventure tourism development can benefit economies by providing a fast source of income for local government and community, supporting the sustaining improvement and protection for environment and encouraging culture exchange between the developed countries. In perspective of the west Cambria tourism, with major sports or adventure events can speed up the development and growth and these includes; Tourists’ arrivals: sports team or sports man, media, officials and fans arriving into the destination from across the country and across the world for the events.

Destination revenues: money spent by visitors spending time in the destination over the period of the sports events. Investment in destination: money injected into the west Cambria destination for infrastructure development. Employment for locals: many of the locals will have the opportunity to get employed in during the sports events. Skills development: knowledge and skills transfer which result from sports events preparations which remain in the minds and lives. Popularity: By building of profile of the Cambria tourism as a host destination through media exposure of the event.

The long-term benefits of a sports destination far outweigh the short-term cost. Though creating a modern facilitate destination can destroy some part nature. In that case developers should focus without destroying the nature adopting Sustainable tourism. Sustainable tourism is considerably beneficial in the respect of environment. For developing tourism business, most developed destination provides financial support or material resource for the conservation of the local environment and natural resources.

It can create balance between limits and usage of nature through monitoring and planning; to ensure that sustainable tourism can be managed besides developed sports tourism. Sustainable development of sports destination must include the interests of all stakeholders including local communities, visitors, related business industry and government. Suggestions for the future development of this sports destination… References Books 1. Weed M, Bull, C, 2004. Sport tourism: Participants, policy and providers, 4th Edition. London UK: Elsevier’s Science and Technology. E-Books 2. Tim Knowles, Dimitrios Diamantis, Joudallah Bey El-Mourhabi, J. 2004.

The Globalization of Tourism and Hospitality: A Strategic Perspective. 2nd Edition. London: Thomson Learning Available at: http://books. google. co. uk/books? id=uEi5NkHg0ZsC;printsec=frontcover;dq=The+Globalization+of+Tourism+and+Hospitality:+A+Strategic+Perspective;hl=en;ei=Y1HhTqinF9Do8QOmzPD_Aw;sa=X;oi=book_result;ct=result;resnum=1;ved=0CEMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage;q=The%20Globalization%20of%20Tourism%20and%20Hospitality%3A%20A%20Strategic%20Perspective;f=false Articles: 3. Devine, A, Boyle, E, Boyd, S, 2009. Towards a theory of collaborative advantage for the sport tourism policy arena. Available

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