TOPIC 9: World Literature: Culture and Gender Relations

“The Golf Links”
by Sarah Cleghorn
The golf links lie so near the mill
That almost every day
The laboring children can look out
And see the men at play.
Source: Cleghorn, Sarah. “The Golf Links.” 1917. Eds. Pamela J. Annas and Robert C. Rosen. Literature and Society: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, Nonfiction. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1994. 676. Print.

Which text would be most appropriate to include in a pamphlet to be distributed in a campaign to end child labor?

NOT C
You are reading a text and you begin to notice that the author is consistently putting the hero and villain in different shades of the same color. Both often wear red, but the hero’s red is bright and vibrant while the villain appears in dark, muted shades. What is the archetype the writer is using?
NOT C
Source: Bulfinch, Thomas. “Callisto.” Book Trails to Enchanted Lands. Ed. Renee B. Stern. Chicago: Child Development, 1946. 145. Print.

Which archetype fits Juno in this story best?

NOT B
Source: Wykes, Walter. “Persephone.” Black Cat Poems. Capella University, n.d. Web. 21 June 2011.

How does presenting this story as a poem rather than a myth affect the message?

The poem allows the reader to empathize with Persephone more than the myth does.
Which definition applies to the term “genre” best?
literature grouped by structure and/or treatment of a subject
Source: “Facts on Child Labour.” ILO.org. International Labour Organization, June 2004. Web. 27 June 2011.

How would you describe the genre of this piece of writing?

nonfiction
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Source: “Facts on Child Labour.” ILO.org. International Labour Organization, June 2004. Web. 27 June 2011.

This article would be used best when the writer wants __________to persuade the audience.

to make an emotional appeal
Into which genre should a book or film about President Kennedy be placed?
nonfiction
Margarita is looking for information for her research paper about hunger in America. What genre should she search for her report?
nonfiction
When used as an archetype, which season is most often associated with rebirth and life?
spring
Pratap’s chief ambition was to catch fish. He managed to waste a lot of time this way, and might be seen almost any afternoon so employed. It was thus most often that he met Subha. Whatever he was about, he liked a companion; and, when one is trying to catch fish, a silent companion is best of all. Pratap respected Subha for her taciturnity, and, as everyone called her Subha, he showed his affection by calling her Su.

How does the author develop Pratap’s character in this passage?

NOT A
Which scenario is an example of a moral dilemma?
A man finds a wallet and must decide whether to return it or use the money to pay for his wife’s lifesaving surgery.
Once upon a time, late on a night of a full moon, she slowly opened her door and peeped out timidly. Nature, herself at full moon, like lonely Subha, was looking down on the sleeping earth. Her strong young life beat within her; joy and sadness filled her being to its brim; she reached the limits even of her own illimitable loneliness, nay, passed beyond them. Her heart was heavy, and she could not speak. At the skirts of this silent troubled Mother there stood a silent troubled girl.

Which possible topic does the above excerpt address?

loneliness
What is point of view?
the way the story is presented to the reader; who is telling the story
Which of the following represent elements of an author’s style?
language, sentence length, structure, and rhetorical devices
Her two elder sisters had been married with the usual cost and difficulty, and now the youngest daughter lay like a silent weight upon the heart of her parents. All the world seemed to think that, because she did not speak, therefore she did not feel; it discussed her future and its own anxiety freely in her presence.

Which point of view does this passage reveal?

third-person omniscient
The bridegroom came with a friend to inspect the bride. Her parents were dizzy with anxiety and fear when they saw the god arrive to select the beast for his sacrifice.

What is ironic about the use of “god” in this passage?

NOT C
The underlying meaning, or universal truth, found in a story is the story’s __________.
theme
Which moral dilemma do the characters in “Subha” face?
The parents must either deceive a man into marrying their daughter or keep her with them forever.
How can a reader determine the theme of a piece of literature?
by considering a character’s growth, the author’s tone, and the effect of the piece on the reader
What is verbal irony?
saying the opposite of what is meant
Banikantha’s house looked out upon the stream. Every hut and stack in the place could be seen by the passing boatmen. I know not if amid these signs of worldly wealth any one noticed the little girl who, when her work was done, stole away to the waterside and sat there. But here Nature fulfilled her want of speech and spoke for her. The murmur of the brook, the voice of the village folk, the songs of the boatmen, the cry of the birds and the rustle of trees mingled and were one with the trembling of her heart. They became one vast wave of sound which beat upon her restless soul.

Which device does this passage illustrate best?

NOT A
Source: Crane, Stephen. “War Is Kind.” War Is Kind. Project Gutenberg, Feb. 2006. Web. 12 May 2011.

Which device does the phrase “war is kind” illustrate best?

irony
Source: Chopin, Kate. “A Pair of Silk Stockings.” The Awakening and Selected Short Stories. Project Gutenberg, 11 Mar. 2006. Web. 12 May 2011.

Which point of view does this excerpt illustrate?

third-person omniscient
Which quotation is the best example of imagery?
“Fair is my love, when her fair golden hairs/With the loose wind ye waving chance to mark”
Which sentence illustrates the meaning of meter in poetry best?
Meter is the regular pattern of rhythm in a poem.
Why is hyperbole useful in poetry?
It allows the poet to emphasize something.
Source: Qabbani, Nizar. “Love Compared.” OldPoetry.com. OldPoetry.com, n.d. Web. 17 May 2011.

Which statement describes this poem best?

The poem uses imagery to show the speaker’s love.
Source: cummings, e. e. “my love.” OldPoetry.com. OldPoetry.com, n.d. Web. 17 May 2011.

Which line illustrates visual imagery best?

“filled with sleeping birds”
Which quotation is an example of imagery?
“Thy lips are like a thread of scarlet”
What is the definition of “sonnet”?
a 14-line poem that follows a particular rhyme scheme
What is “parody”?
a work intended to imitate and make fun of another; often used in satire
What is iambic pentameter?
lines of poetry with a pattern of 10 unaccented and accented syllables
Deliberately leaving details out of a piece of writing is called __________.
omission
Which statement describes Victorian gender expectations for women best?
The Victorian woman existed mostly in the “private sphere.”
The Victorian Era spanned the rule of __________.
Queen Victoria
The Victorian Era is known for its __________.
conformity, decorum, and etiquette
The Modern Era is known for its __________.
NOT B, C
What describes Woolf’s purpose in writing A Room of One’s Own best?
to persuade
[I]t would have been impossible, completely and entirely, for any woman to have written the plays of Shakespeare in the age of Shakespeare. Let me imagine, since the facts are so hard to come by, what would have happened had Shakespeare had a wonderfully gifted sister, called Judith, let us say.

Why does Woolf imagine the story of this gifted woman rather than writing a true story?

Gifted women poets in the Elizabethan Era were not given the chance to be successful and remembered.
What is women’s suffrage?
the act of giving women the right to vote and run for office
The Edwardian Era is known for its __________.
technological advances
The Edwardian Era spans the rule of __________.
King Edward the VII
What type of connections can readers make to texts?

I. text-to-self
II. text-to-test
III. text-to-text

I and III only
Which war began the Modern Era?
World War I
Text-to-self connections are made when the reader connects something in the text to __________.
something the reader has experienced
The Victorian Era is known as an age of __________.
prosperity