Tissue Level Of Organization

1) Which one of the following is not one of the four main tissue categories?
A) neural tissue
B) osseous tissue
C) epithelial tissue
D) muscle tissue
E) connective tissue
Osseous Tissue
The tissue that always has a “top” and a “bottom” is
A) epithelial tissue.
B) apical tissue.
C) connective tissue.
D) muscle tissue.
epithelial tissue
Characteristics of epithelia include all of the following except
A) avascularity.
B) extracellular matrix.
C) attachment.
D) polarity.
extracellular matrix
4) The junction type that lets neighboring cells exchange small molecules is the
A) tight junction.
B) desmosome.
C) hemidesmosome.
D) gap junction.
gap junction
Functions of epithelia include all of the following, except
A) supporting muscle cells.
B) providing physical protection.
C) producing specialized secretions.
D) absorption.
E) controlling permeability
supporting muscle cells
6) Epithelial cells that are adapted for absorption or secretion usually have ________ at their free surface.
A) junctional complexes
B) microvilli
C) mitochondria
D) Golgi complexes
E) cilia
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7) A type of intercellular junction that stops materials from crossing an epithelium between cells is termed a(n)
A) gap junction.
B) occluding junction.
C) desmosome.
D) intermediate junction.
E) All of the answers are correct
occluding junction
8) Dead skin cells are shed in thin sheets because they are held together by “spots” of proteoglycan reinforced by intermediate
filaments. Such strong intercellular connections are called
A) tight junctions.
B) intermediate junctions.
C) desmosomes.
D) junctional complexes.
E) gap junctions.
Epithelial cells exhibit modifications that adapt them for
A) conduction.
B) circulation.
C) secretion.
D) support.
E) contraction
10) Epithelium is connected to underlying connective tissue by
A) a basal lamina.
B) proteoglycan.
C) interfacial canals.
D) a reticular lamina.
E) keratin.
a basal lamina
Which tissue lines the small intestine and the stomach?
A) simple squamous epithelium
B) pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
C) stratified squamous epithelium
D) simple columnar epithelium
E) simple cuboidal epithelium
simple columnar epithelium
A layer of glycoproteins that prevents leakage of materials from connective tissues into epithelia is the
A) integral proteins.
B) lamina lucida.
C) ground substance.
D) matrix.
E) lamina densa.
lamina lucida
Epithelia specialized for providing sensations of smell, taste, sight, equilibrium, and hearing are known as
A) psychoepithelia.
B) neuroepithelia.
C) multilaminar epithelia.
D) neuropsychoepithelia.
E) protective epithelia.
Germinative cells
A) make up most of the epithelial type of tissue.
B) start in the superficial layers of epithelial tissue.
C) cannot divide.
D) cannot function in the repair of epithelial tissue.
E) divide continually to produce new epithelial
divide continually to produce new epithelial
In stratified epithelia adapted to resist mechanical forces, which of the following types of cell-to-cell junctions are especially
A) tight junctions
B) hemidesmosomes
C) basolateral junctions
D) desmosomes
E) gap junctions
Close examination of a healthy organ reveals a lining of several layers of cells. The layers do not contain any blood vessels and
one surface of the cells lines the cavity of the organ. This tissue is a type of:
A) muscle tissue.
B) neural tissue.
C) connective tissue.
D) epithelium.
Examination of a tissue sample reveals groups of cells united by junctional complexes and interlocking membranes. The cells
have one free surface and lack blood vessels. The tissue is most likely ______ tissue.
A) epithelial
B) neural
C) connective
D) muscle
E) adipose
Transitional epithelium is found
A) lining the urinary bladder.
B) lining the stomach.
C) lining kidney tubules.
D) lining the ducts that drain sweat glands.
E) at the surface of the skin.
lining the urinary bladder
The heart and blood vessels are lined by
A) transitional epithelium.
B) simple columnar epithelium.
C) pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
D) simple cuboidal epithelium.
E) simple squamous epithelium.
simple squamous epithelium
You would find pseudostratified columnar epithelium lining the
A) urinary bladder.
B) stomach.
C) secretory portions of the
D) surface of the skin.
E) trachea.
Glands that secrete their product by the bursting of cells are
A) apocrine glands.
B) holocrine glands.
C) sudoriferous glands.
D) merocrine glands.
E) endocrine glands.
holorcrine glands
Cells that are flat and thin are classified as
A) columnar.
B) blasts.
C) transitional.
D) squamous.
E) cuboidal.
Mesothelium is to the body cavities as endothelium is to the
A) urinary bladder.
B) heart and blood vessels.
C) kidneys.
D) mouth.
E) large intestine.
heart and blood vessels.
The epithelia that line body cavities and blood vessels are classified as
A) stratified squamous.
B) transitional.
C) simple cuboidal.
D) simple squamous.
E) stratified cuboidal
simple squamous
Glands that secrete hormones into the interstitial fluid are
A) exocrine glands.
B) endocrine glands.
C) merocrine glands.
D) interstitial glands.
E) holocrine glands.
endocrine glands
The two major types of cell layering in epithelia are
A) simple and proper.
B) squamous and simple.
C) cuboidal and columnar.
D) simple and stratified.
E) stratified and
simple and stratified
The epithelium that forms air sacs in the lungs is
A) simple squamous epithelium.
B) simple cuboidal epithelium.
C) transitional epithelium.
D) stratified squamous epithelium.
E) simple columnar epithelium.
simple squamous epithelium
The function of simple cuboidal epithelium is
A) storage.
B) absorption and secretion.
C) support.
D) phagocytosis.
E) protection.
absorption and secretion
The study of cells shed from epithelial surfaces, often for diagnostic purposes, is termed
A) exfoliative cytology.
B) physiology.
C) histology.
D) embryology.
E) anatomy
exfoliative cytology
Secretions through a duct might provide ________, whereas ductless secretions act as ________.
A) enzymes; hormones
B) odors; alarms
C) transport media; physical protectors
D) lubrication; lubricators
E) superficial relief; interstitial fluid
enzymes; hormones
The Pap test for cervical cancer utilizes
A) embryology.
B) exfoliative cytology.
C) anatomy.
D) histology.
E) physiology.
exfoliative cytology.
Cells that are specialized for secretion
A) are usually squamous.
B) have a small nucleus.
C) have a free surface that is flat.
D) exhibit polarity.
E) are found only in the digestive system.
exhibit polarity
Watery perspiration is an example of a(n) ________ secretion.
A) merocrine
B) apocrine
C) holocrine
D) mucous
E) serous
Which of the following statements about simple epithelia is false?
A) They afford little mechanical protection.
B) They are characteristic of regions where secretion
or absorption occurs.
C) They cover surfaces subjected to mechanical or
chemical stress.
D) They are avascular.
E) They line internal compartments and passageways
They cover surfaces subjected to mechanical or
chemical stress.
The pancreas produces ________ secretions.
A) exocrine and endocrine
B) mucous
C) secretory
D) serous
E) merocrine
exocrine and endocrine
Unicellular exocrine glands secrete
A) milk. B) sweat. C) sebum. D) insulin. E) mucus.
A gland formed by cells arranged in a blind pocket with a single unbranched duct would be called
A) tubuloalveolar.
B) simple alveolar.
C) compound alveolar.
D) simple tubular.
E) compound tubular.
simple alveolar
Which of the following tissues are classified as “connective tissue proper”?
1. areolar connective tissue 2. adipose tissue
3. fibrocartilage 4. dense irregular connective tissue
A) 3 and 4 B) 1, 2, and 3 C) 1 and 3 D) 1, 2, and 4 E) 1 and 2
1. areolar connective tissue
2. adipose tissue
3. fibrocartilage
Which cell produces the protein fibers in areolar connective tissue?
A) squamous cell
B) chondroblast
C) chondrocyte
D) fibroblast
E) adipocyte
Blood is which type of tissue?
A) epithelial
B) muscle
C) mesenchyme
D) nerve
E) connective
The sticky material between cells of areolar connective tissue is called the
A) cytoplasm.
B) crista.
C) ground substance.
D) cytosol.
E) gel matrix.
ground substance
Cells that store fat are called
A) melanocytes.
B) podocytes.
C) adipocytes.
D) cellulocytes.
E) macrocytes.
The framework or stroma of organs such as the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes is made up of ______ tissue.
A) loose connective
B) reticular connective
C) adipose
D) irregular dense connective
E) regular dense connective
reticular connective
The dominant fiber type in dense connective tissue is
A) actin.
B) elastin.
C) connectin.
D) myosin.
E) collagen.
Each of the following is an example of dense connective tissue, except
A) aponeuroses.
B) ligaments.
C) tendons.
D) elastic tissue.
E) areolar tissue.
aerolar tissue
The three categories of connective tissues are
A) areolar, adipose, and dense tissues.
B) connective tissue proper, fluid connective tissues, and supporting connective tissues.
C) connective tissue proper, cartilages, and bone.
D) epithelial, muscle, and neural tissues.
E) glandular, exocrine, and endocrine.
connective tissue proper,
fluid connective tissues, and supporting connective tissues.
Two classes of macrophages include
A) microphages and adipocytes.
B) mast cells and basophils.
C) fixed macrophages and free macrophages.
D) neutrophils and eosinophils
fixed macrophages and free macrophages.
Two types of microphages include
A) neutrophils and eosinophils.
B) mast cells and basophils.
C) fixed macrophages and free macrophages.
D) microphages and adipocytes.
E) mesenchymal cells and melanocytes.
neutrophils and eosinophils.
Tissues that provide strength and support for areas subjected to stresses from many directions are
A) dense irregular connective
B) reticular tissues.
C) ligaments.
D) tendons.
E) areolar tissue
dense irregular connective
What type of cell makes up almost half the volume of blood?
A) phagocyte
B) platelet
C) monocyte
D) leukocyte
E) erythrocyte
Wharton’s jelly is a form of
A) embryonic epithelium.
B) ground substance.
C) Marfan’s syndrome.
D) mucous connective tissue.
E) collagen fibers.
mucous connective tissue.
Which of the following connective tissue cells produces collagen?
A) mast cell
B) macrophage
C) adipocytes
D) lymphocyte
E) fibroblasts
________ attach skeletal muscles to bones, and ________ connect one bone to another.
A) Tendons; ligaments
B) Aponeuroses; tendons
C) Reticular tissues; tendons
D) Ligaments; aponeuroses
E) Ligaments; tendons
Tendons, ligaments
The three types of protein fibers in connective tissue are
A) collagen, reticular, and elastic.
B) polar, cellular, and permeable.
C) loose, dense, and irregular.
D) tendons, ligaments, and elastic ligaments.
E) cartilage, bone, and collagen.
collagen, reticular, and elastic.
White fat is found in ________, while brown fat is found in ________.
A) adults; infants
B) infants; adults
C) women; men
D) adolescents; adults
E) men; women
adults; infants
Cells that engulf bacteria or cell debris within loose connective tissue are
A) fibroblasts.
B) mast cells.
C) melanocytes.
D) macrophages.
E) adipocytes.
Loose connective tissue functions in all of the following ways, except
A) provide strong connections between muscles and
B) storing triacylglycerols.
C) supporting epithelia.
D) anchoring blood vessels and nerves.
E) filling spaces between organs
provide strong connections between muscles and bones
Antibodies are produced by
A) microphages.
B) macrophages.
C) plasmocytes.
D) fibroblasts.
E) mast cells.
59) Cells that respond to injury by dividing to assist in connective tissue repair are
A) lymphocytes.
B) mast cells.
C) fibroblasts.
D) plasmocytes.
E) mesenchymal stem cells
mesenchymal stem cells
The most common type of cartilage is ________ cartilage.
A) hyaline
B) fibrous
C) ligamentous
D) osseous
E) elastic
Osseous tissue is also called
A) fat. B) cartilage. C) ligament. D) bone. E) cellulite.
Chondroitin sulfate is abundant in the matrix of
A) adipose tissue.
B) epithelial tissue.
C) cartilage.
D) areolar tissue.
E) elastic connective tissue.
Which type of connective tissue is found in the trachea and between the ribs and sternum?
A) elastic
B) areolar
C) dense regular
D) hyaline cartilage
E) fibrous
hyaline cartilage
A tissue with a gel matrix and cells inside lacunae is
A) dense regular connective tissue.
B) epithelium.
C) cartilage.
D) bone.
E) areolar connective tissue.
Cartilage is separated from surrounding tissues by a fibrous
A) periosteum.
B) perichondrium.
C) matrix.
D) canaliculi.
Chondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to
A) neural tissue.
B) bone.
C) epithelium.
D) fat.
Damage to a joint cartilage is affecting which type of tissue?
A) loose connective tissue
B) dense connective tissue
C) supporting connective tissue
D) fluid connective tissue
E) adipose tissue
supporting connective tissue
Unlike cartilage, bone
A) has cells within lacunae.
B) has a matrix that contains
C) is highly vascular.
D) has an outer covering.
E) is a connective tissue.
is highly vascular
Which of the following membranes line cavities that communicate with the exterior of the body?
A) pleural
B) cutaneous
C) synovial
D) mucous
E) serous
The reduction of friction between the parietal and visceral surfaces of an internal cavity is the function of
A) cutaneous membranes.
B) synovial membranes.
C) the lamina propria.
D) mucous membranes.
E) serous membranes.
serous membranes
The serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity is the
A) pleura.
B) peritoneum.
C) pericardium.
D) perichondrium.
E) periosteum.
Adhesions between abdominopelvic organs occur when
A) serous membranes are damaged.
B) mucous membranes are damaged.
C) synovial membranes are damaged.
D) nerve cells are damaged.
E) muscle is damaged.
serous membranes are damaged
Microscopic examination of a tissue reveals a loose framework of fibers embedded in a large volume of fluid ground substance
and adipocytes and mast cells fibers. This tissue would most likely have come from the
A) bony socket of the eye.
B) superficial fascia between skin and muscle.
C) inner wall of a blood vessel.
D) spleen.
E) lungs.
superficial fascia between skin and muscle
The framework of connective tissue between the skin and underlying muscles is called the
A) deep fascia.
B) subserous fascia.
C) subcutaneous layer.
D) dermis.
E) superficial fascia.
superficial fascia.
Which of these refers to the dense connective tissue that surrounds a muscle and blends with the tendon?
A) subserous fascia
B) deep fascia
C) superficial fascia
D) hypodermis
E) subcutaneous layer
deep fascia
Tissue that is specialized for contraction is ________ tissue.
A) epithelial
B) muscle
C) loose connective
D) dense connective
E) nerve
Myosatellite cells are found in association with
A) skeletal muscle.
B) cardiac muscle.
C) involuntary muscle.
D) smooth muscle.
E) both smooth and cardiac muscle.
skeletal muscle
Intercalated discs and pacemaker cells are characteristic of
A) smooth muscle tissue.
B) nerve tissue.
C) all types of muscle tissue.
D) skeletal muscle tissue.
E) cardiac muscle tissue.
cardiac muscle tissue
The muscle tissue that shows no striations is ________ muscle.
A) multinucleated
B) skeletal
C) cardiac
D) voluntary
E) smooth
Tissue that is specialized for the conduction of electrical impulses is ________ tissue.
A) osseous
B) epithelial
C) neural
D) connective
E) areolar
All of the following are true of neurons, except that
A) when mature, they lose the ability to divide.
B) they conduct a nervous impulse.
C) they are composed of a soma and axon.
D) they are separated from one another by synapses.
E) they are a very specialized form of connective
they are a very specialized form of connective
During an inflammatory response to injury, which of the following is the least likely in the region of the injury?
A) cold, pale skin
B) swelling
C) increase in histamine
D) increase in blood flow
E) increase in basophils
cold, pale skin
The permanent replacement of normal tissue by fibrous tissue is called
A) fibrosis.
B) cystosis.
C) necrosis.
D) apoptosis.
E) inflammation.
Tissue changes with age include all of the following, except
A) less efficient tissue maintenance.
B) more fragile connective tissues.
C) decreased ability to repair tissue damage.
D) proliferation of epidermal cells.
E) thinner epithelia.
thinner epithelia