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Thesis: Violence and Mass Communication

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string(309) " multiple exposures to violence or victimization are at higher risk for mental health problems, behavioral problems, substance abuse, and delinquent behaviors \(Ford, Chapman, Hawke, & Albert, 2007; Ford, Elhai, Connor, & Frueh, in press; Saunders, Williams, Smith, & Hanson, 2005; Tuell, 2008\)\."

Effects of Exposure to Media Violence to the Psychological Development of the High School Students of Bulacan State University- Laboratory High School A Thesis Proposal Presented to Ms. Marjorie Miguel College of Arts and Letters Bulacan State University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Communication Arts II For the Degree of Bachelor of Arts in Mass Communication Major in Broadcasting By Calara, Jerica Mae S. P.

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Mendoza, Justine Mary Robert A. Navalta, Erl Chak S. J. Panti, Jeaneth D. P. Villalon, Maria Neren E. March 2012 BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY College of Arts and Letters

School Year 2011 March 22, 2012 Faculty of the College of Arts and Letters College of Arts and Letters Bulacan State University Malolos Bulacan To whom it may concern: Greetings! We, the Insiders from the freshmen of BA Mass Communication Major in broadcasting, are presenting our thesis proposal entitled “Effects of Exposure to Media Violence to the Psychological Development of the High School Students of Bulacan State University- Laboratory High School,” written by Jerica Mae S. P. Calara, Justine Mary Robert A. Mendoza, Erl Chak S. J. Navalta, Jeaneth D. P. Panti, and Ma. Neren E.

Villalon, guided and mentored by the Communication Arts II professor, Ms. Marjorie Miguel. This contains all the relevant information about media violence and its effects in the psychological development of an individual, particularly, the high school students of Bulacan State University. Rest assured that all the information contained in this proposal are true and reliable to best of our knowledge and beliefs. Yours truly, __________________ Ma. Neren E. Villalon Researcher ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to thank the Almighty Father for the blessing of wisdom, patience, and hardwork.

We will forever offer all our sacrifices and efforts to Him and without Him, this would never be possible. To our research adviser and mentor, Ms. Marjorie Miguel, we thank you for your guidance and understanding throughout the second semester, for you have taught us not only the lessons we need to learn in the school, but also the life lessons we have always needed. It is an honor to have you as our adviser. To our loving section, BAMC-1A, this research paper served as our stepping stone in achieving success. Behind the ideas and lessons we put in are also values that we should acquire as future media practitioners of our generation.

There are three more years ahead of us, and we hope to have a fruitful future ahead of us. Congratulations for finishing the first chapter of college life. To our family, your support and love will be cherished forever, for without you, we would never achieve everything we have now. “A hypocrite works only for himself, a man works for the benefit of others; A good man works for the Lord…” ABSTRACT Title: Effects of Exposure to Media Violence to the Psychological Development of the High School Students of Bulacan State University- Laboratory High School Researchers: Calara, Jerica Mae

Mendoza, Justine Mary Robert Navalta, Erl Chak S. J. Panti, Jeaneth D. P. Villalon, Maria Neren E. Research Adviser: Ms. Marjorie Miguel Due to the evolution of the fast-paced world, a more graphic violence is exhibited in media, which gravely affected the psychological development of the children and adolescents, causing them to acquire a more distinct and aggressive behavior towards other people. OBJECTIVE In this research, the group aims to provide sufficient information to educate people about the harms of exposure to media violence to the psychological development of an individual.

This would only be possible if people would really understand how important it is to guide their children properly. Furthermore, the researchers would like to promote a child-friendly media that would mold children into productive and morally-shaped professionals in the future. TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Cover Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 CHAPTER 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Significance of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Scope and Delimitation of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 CHAPTER 2 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Review of Related Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Review of Related Literature Local Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Foreign Literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Review of Related Studies

Local Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Foreign Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Conceptual Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Hypotheses of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 CHAPTER 3 Methods and Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Appendices Questionnaires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Experts’ Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Interview Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Curriculum Vitae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION Violence is never new to the society, and it is constantly alarming because it greatly affects the development of a child.

Whenever a person manifests any form of violence to a child, he imitates it in such a way that they think it is right, causing him to commit youthful crime. According to the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), there are more than 2,600 juvenile delinquency cases reported in 2009. A year later, the number reduced to 1,200. However, DSWD claims that there are still many unreported cases in the country (Diaz, 2011). Statistics on crime incidents from the Philippine National Police from January to August 2011 showed that crimes committed by children account for only 2. % (or 3,856) of the 176,703 reported crimes, as against the remaining 172,847 committed by adults. It goes to show that many children committed crime and had exhibited aggressive and negative behavior towards people, and one of the causes of this inexcusable behavior is exposure to violence. Ten things every juvenile court judge should know about trauma and delinquency. The majority of youth who develop a pattern of delinquent behaviors and experience subsequent juvenile court involvement have faced both serious adversities and traumatic experiences.

Research continues to show that most youth who are detained in juvenile detention centers have been exposed to both community and family violence and many have been threatened with, or been the direct target of, such violence (Abram et al. , 2004; Wiig, Widom, & Tuell, 2003). Studies also demonstrate that youth who have multiple exposures to violence or victimization are at higher risk for mental health problems, behavioral problems, substance abuse, and delinquent behaviors (Ford, Chapman, Hawke, & Albert, 2007; Ford, Elhai, Connor, & Frueh, in press; Saunders, Williams, Smith, & Hanson, 2005; Tuell, 2008).

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Any form of violence gravely deteriorates the psychological well-being of a child. That is why it is noted that the main focus in on one of the factors that affects the psychological development of an individual, and that is media violence. Exposure to any form of violence may contribute to the behavioral patterns of growing individuals especially to those who have witnessed it throughout their lives, which is now possible with television as the fastest portal of learning and violence. According to some, you are what you watch when it comes to violence in the media and its influence on violent behavior in young people.

The research published in February 2009 in the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, shows that even when other factors are considered, such as academic skills, encounters with community violence, or emotional problems, “childhood and adolescent violent media preferences contributed significantly to the prediction of violence and general aggression” in the study subjects (Buffington, et. al. ,2011). Media Violence – Introduction The debate over media violence has eluded definitive answers for more than three decades. At first blush, the debate is dominated by one question—whether or not media violence actually causes real-life violence.

But closer examination reveals a political battle. On the one hand, there are those who blame media violence for societal violence and want to censor violent content to protect children. On the other hand are those who see regulation as the slippery slope to censorship or a smokescreen hiding the root causes of violence in society. One thing is certain: the issue of media violence is not going away. Increasingly the debate is focusing on the “culture of violence,” and on the normalization of aggression and lack of empathy in our society. Media Violence Research

Research into the media and violence examines whether links between consuming media violence and subsequent aggressive and violent behavior exists. Although some social scientists support this link, methodological and theoretical problems with the existing literature limit interpretation of findings in this area. There is concern among some scholars that media researchers may have exaggerated effects (Ferguson & Kilburn, 2009; Freedman, 2002; Pinker 2002; Savage, 2004). These effects, such as aggression and patterns of violent behaviors are believed to be interrelated with visual representations of violence.

Complaints about the possible deleterious effects of mass media appear throughout history, even Plato was concerned about the effects of plays on youth. Various media/genres, including dime novels, comic books, jazz, rock and roll, role playing/computer games and many others have attracted speculation that consumers of such media may become more aggressive, rebellious or immoral. This has led some scholars to conclude statements made by some researchers merely fit into a cycle of media-based moral panics (e. g. Gauntlett, 1995; Trend, 2007; Kutner & Olson, 2008).

The advent of television prompted research into the effects of this new medium in the 1960s. Much of research has been guided by social learning theory developed by Albert Bandura. Social learning theory suggests that one way in which human beings learn is by the process of modeling. Through the videos, movies, clips, episodes, and even shows, violence is manifested in media that is why children tend to imitate aggressive behaviors. Their minds create an interpretation which could be later on seen on their actions.

These actions tend to shape them into violent individuals. From time to time, intellectual investigation and analysis about the effects of media violence and aggression to the psychological development of a child are being examined harmful influence of television violence and on how to create a child-friendly media that will help the parents mold their children into morally- shaped individuals. The researchers intend to apply the concepts of psychology in defining and explaining such terms that will justify the effects of media violence on the well-being of a child.

It is also necessary to use medical terms that will support the statements presented in this research, which will be explained further. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM There are many effects of exposure to media violence which influence the psychological well-being of a child. This study intends to investigate these effects, particularly to high school students in Malolos, Bulacan. This study is made to give answers and clarifications on the following questions: In general, the question is, “How does media violence, especially on television, affect the psychological development of a child? 1. How does viewing violence on television actually foster aggressive behavior? 2. Is the association of exposure to television violence with the aggressive behavior causal? (Is violent television directly causing aggressive behavior? ) 3. 1 Significant Association of Media Violence to Aggression 3. 2 Media Violence and the Increasing Rate of Youthful Crime 3. 3 Psychological Risks and Setbacks of Exposure to Media Violence 3. What should be the precautions and measures that should be applied in order to create a child-friendly media? SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Considering all the aspects of this research, the main goal is to educate people and also the respondents about the harmful effects of media violence to the psychological well-being of a child. Furthermore, it is the responsibility of the researchers to provide essential information about the psychological influences of exposure to media violence and aggression. Mass Communication Students. As future media practitioners, it is essential for them to promote a child-friendly media to its viewers because media is one of the factors of human development, moreover, in the psychological aspect of an individual.

Students. This research would help students realize the disadvantages of patronizing shows which use media violence as a source of entertainment, and on how should they avoid watching it. Teachers and School Administrators. As mentors, this research would help them create a teaching strategy that will mold and guide students as they develop to mature professionals. Parents. It is the responsibility of the parents to guide their children in watching television programs. That is why they would gain information and explanations from this research that will help them guide their children properly. Readers.

This intellectual output aims to provide readers with sufficient knowledge and understanding about the effects of media violence to the psychological well-being of a child. This would help them be informed not only about the harmful effects but also their responsibilities as viewers. SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS There are several factors that should be considered in determining how media violence affects children and adolescents, but the researchers paid more attention in analyzing how media violence, especially on television, affects the psychological well-being of children and teenagers, particularly high school students.

The scope of this research applies to Bulacan State University Laboratory High School students at Malolos City, Bulacan, for the school year 2011-2012. DEFINITION OF TERMS Mass Communication- refers to a scholarly study of mass media, its various forms and effects to people. Mass Media- refers collectively to all media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication (Wikipedia) Development- refers to the progress achieved by an individual which, in this research, pertains to the psychological development Psychology- the study of the mind, occurring partly via the study of behavior (Wikipedia).

Violence- refers to the aggressive behaviors portrayed by the characters seen on television Students- refers to the high school students of Bulacan State University Laboratory High School (Unless given specification, e. g. Mass Communication Students) CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This study was based in the previous investigations and experiments made by analysts and psychologists in determining the probable causes and effects of media violence exposure. According to Andrea Martinez (1994), most studies support “a positive, though weak, relation between exposure to television violence and aggressive behaviour. Although that relationship cannot be “confirmed systematically,” she agrees with Dutch researcher Tom Van der Voot who argues that it would be illogical to conclude that “a phenomenon does not exist simply because it is found at times not to occur, or only to occur under certain circumstances. ” More investigations took place to prove the relation of aggressive behavior to children and adolescents. They even conclude that there are several factors that affect the relationship of television violence to adolescents such as violent music lyrics.

In 2003, Craig Anderson and Iowa State University colleague Nicholas Carnagey and Janie Eubanks of the Texas Department of Human Services reported that violent music lyrics increased aggressive thoughts and hostile feelings among 500 college students. They concluded, “There are now good theoretical and empirical reasons to expect effects of music lyrics on aggressive behavior to be similar to the well-studied effects of exposure to TV and movie violence and the more recent research efforts on violent video games. “

It is implied that violent music lyrics act as their “opium”, for when teenagers listen to such music, it tends to make them feel more aggressive, creating different feelings and thoughts. In 1960, University of Michigan Professor Leonard Eron studied 856 grade three students living in a semi-rural community in Columbia County, New York, and found that the children who watched violent television at home behaved more aggressively in school. Eron wanted to track the effect of this exposure over the years, so he revisited Columbia County in 1971, when the children who participated in the 1960 study were 19 years of age.

He found that boys who watched violent TV when they were eight were more likely to get in trouble with the law as teenagers. When Eron and Huesmann returned to Columbia County in 1982, the subjects were 30 years old. They reported that those participants who had watched more violent TV as eight-year-olds were more likely, as adults, to be convicted of serious crimes, to use violence to discipline their children, and to treat their spouses aggressively. Studies show that violent behaviors, just like any other behavior can be seen through years and can still be observed even for a long period of time.

Professor Monroe Lefkowitz published similar findings in 1971. Lefkowitz interviewed a group of eight-year-olds and found that the boys who watched more violent TV were more likely to act aggressively in the real world. When he interviewed the same boys ten years later, he found that the more violence a boy watched at eight, the more aggressively he would act at age eighteen. Columbia University professor Jeffrey Johnson has found that the effect is not limited to violent shows. Johnson tracked 707 families in upstate New York for 17 years, starting in 1975.

In 2002, Johnson reported that children who watched one to three hours of television each day when they were 14 to 16 years old were 60 per cent more likely to be involved in assaults and fights as adults than those who watched less TV. Kansas State University professor John Murray concludes, “The most plausible interpretation of this pattern of correlations is that early preference for violent television programming and other media is one factor in the production of aggressive and antisocial behavior when the young boy becomes a young man. ” People often use the phrase that “children are impressionable. It means that children do not see the world through the same filter of experience that adults do. Children see things more literally. They do not yet possess the sophisticated sensibilities to distinguish fiction from reality. It matters a great deal, therefore, how much TV children watch and what they view. The effects of media violence on children have been studied for over thirty years, with researchers repeatedly finding correlations between aggressive/violent behavior and the viewing of media violence. These education and psychology researchers began asserting years ago that a cause-and-effect relationship existed, i. . , viewing media violence was one of the causative factors in aggressive behavior in children. REVIEW OF RELATED THEORIES Exposure to such quantities of violent depictions damages youth and contributes to violence in real life. In particular, television violence promotes aggression, teaches the youth that violence is an acceptable solution to problems, and fosters a fearful attitude by leading viewers to think that the world is more violent than it really is. Here are the theories that will explain the influences of television violence to the youth: Cultivation Theory

Cultivation Theory focuses more on how people attitudes are impacted by the media, rather than just behaviors. One of the findings of this research is that when people are exposed to heavy media violence, they seem to have an attitudinal misconception called “mean world syndrome”. This means that they overestimate how much violence actually occurs in their communities and the rest of the world. While on the other hand, people who are exposed to less media violence have a more realistic sense of the amount of violence in the real world.

Social Learning Theory Media affects theories in modern times originated with Albert Bandura’s social learning theory, which suggests that children may learn aggression from viewing others. Modeling of behavior was observed in Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiments. He showed children a video of a model beating up a Bobo doll and then put the children in a room with a Bobo doll to see if he/she would imitate the behavior previously seen on the video. The findings of this experiment suggest that children tended to model the behavior they witnessed in the video.

This has been often taken to imply that children may imitate aggressive behaviors witnessed in media. Catharsis Theory Catharsis is a Greek word meaning “cleansing” or “purging”. It has been described as a “purification” or a “purging” of such emotions. Many directors and producers of violent media claim that their products are cathartic. For example, Alfred Hitchcock, director of the movie Psycho, said, “One of television’s greatest contributions is that it brought murder back into the home where it belongs. Seeing a murder on television can be good therapy.

It can help work off one’s antagonism. ” More recently, in 1992, Paul Verhoeven, director of the movie Total Recall, said, “I think it’s a kind of purifying experience to see violence. ” Social Cognitive Theory Social cognitive theories build upon social learning theory, but suggest that aggression may be activated by learning and priming aggressive scripts. Desensitization is also included in latter social cognitive theories. For example in one recent study, a sample of college students was assigned at random to play either a violent or non-violent video game for 20 minutes.

They were then asked to watch a 10 minute video of real life violence. The students who had played the violent video games were observed to be significantly less affected by the simulated aggressive act than those who didn’t play the violent video games. Moral Panic Theory Clarified by David Gauntlett this theory postulates that concerns about new media are historical and cyclical. Society forms a predetermined negative belief about a new media. Research studies and statements by scholars and politicians are designed to confirm the pre-existing belief, rather than objectively study the issue with care.

Ultimately the panic dies out after several years or even decades, but ultimately resurfaces when yet another new form of media is introduced. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE LOCAL LITERATURE Cultures of corruption and of violence in society are close cousins, if not twins. They are intertwined. Where there is corruption, there is violence, and vice versa. Violence is a symptom of a corrupt mind or society, and corruption is violence against fellow human beings and society (Chua, 2010). Children through their adolescent stage are great imitators.

Television violence surfaced the minds of our teenagers though it brings negative effects- for adolescents search for their role model during their formative years. In the Philippines, where almost every household had televisions, violence is rampant. Philippine Television Scenario: * 93% of Filipino children have access to television. * Television shows consist of 10,000 rape, assaults and murder scenes each year. * Teenage boys who watch television more than an hour are more likely to commit violent acts than those who watch less than an hour.

With the influence of television that results to violence, the United Nations classified Philippines as a high aggression area—an environment promoting aggressive behavior. It is said that exposure to adult programs eliminates childhood. (Tan, 1994) concluded that before, learning is difficult and dependent, but now, the youth easily learn about adult behavior through TV programs. If they are required by law to wait until they are old enough to drive, likewise, they need to wait for the right age to watch TV.

Television may not be as detrimental for teenagers or for adults, as it is for the young ones. With this statistics, Sen. Manuel Villar Jr. has filed a bill banning the broadcast of programs that contain scenes considered extremely violent for children during daytime. Senate Bill 2441 mandates the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (MTRCB) and the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) to establish rules for blocking violent programs during daytime. Television has been taken for granted, as it becomes the fastest portal of violence. Teenagers feel vulnerable and less protected.

Teenagers are exposed to increasingly higher doses of aggressive images. Violence among youth is also on the rise, making it plausible to correlate the two, even though we believe that the primary causes for aggressive behavior in children are to be found in their family environment, and the social and economic conditions in which they are raised. Television violence merges with reality. FOREIGN LITERATURE Learning violence has no exception. It can be imitated in the same manner as how the alphabet was committed to memory (Walker, 2010). In a study conducted by Dr.

Jo Groebel of Utrecht University from 1996-1997, it was confirmed the dominant role of television in the everyday lives of children around the globe: 93% of the students who attend school and live in electrified urban or rural areas have regular access to television and watch it for an average of three hours a day. This represents at least 50% more than the time spent on any other out of school activity, including homework, being with friends, or reading. The result justifies the assumption that television is the most powerful source of information and entertainment besides face-to-face interaction.

It is concluded that the introduction of television in the 1950s caused a subsequent doubling of the homicide rate, i. e. , long-term childhood exposure to television is a causal factor behind approximately one half of the homicides committed in the United States, or approximately 10 000 homicides annually. Although the data are not as well developed for other forms of violence, they indicate that exposure to television is also a causal factor behind a major proportion-perhaps one half-of rapes, assaults, and other forms of interpersonal violence in the United States (Centerwall, 1992)

Fig 1. — This series of photographs shows a 14-month old boy learning behavior from a television set. In photograph A, the adult pulls apart a novel toy. The infant leans forward and carefully studies the adult’s actions. In photograph B, the infant is given the toy. In photograph C, the infant pulls the toy apart, imitating what he had seen the adult do. Of infants exposed to the instructional video, 65% could later work the toy, as compared with 20% of unexposed infants.

Just like Bandura’s experiment on how children learn and adapts violence, the figure shows how easily a toddler mimics a personality on a television. To present how television violence manifests in the youth’s daily lives, Arnold Schwarzenegger’s ‘Terminator’ is a global icon, known by 88% of the children surveyed, be they from India, Brazil or Japan. Asked to name their favorite role models, boys most frequently named an action hero. 51% of the children from war or high-crime environments wish to be like him, as compared to 37% in the low-aggression neighborhoods.

This only means that teenagers tend to mimic the shows they have seen on television. In 1990, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a policy statement that Pediatricians should advise parents to limit their children’s television viewing to 1 to 2 hours per day. Nowadays, the youth perceives television as a factual source of information about a world outside their homes but the truth is this is where violence is a daily commonplace. But violence, according to Centerwall in 1992, is generally powerful, exciting, charismatic, and efficacious. REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES

LOCAL STUDIES One of the findings was half of the Filipino programs contain violent incident (excluding news casts). Moreover, it indicated that violence would likely occur in these kinds of television programs: 1. Action/Adventure 2. Drama/Sitcoms 3. Variety Shows 4. MTV (Music Television) Exposure to this kind of television programs lead to several problematic outcomes. Aggression Adolescents in middle school and high school are much more likely than younger children to doubt the reality of television content and much less likely to identify with television characters.

The small percentages of those who continue to believe in the reality of television and to identify with its violent heroes are the only ones likely to be more aggressive, especially if they continue to fantasize about aggressive-heroic themes. Desensitization Desensitization is indicated by lower empathy or sympathy. Media violence has also been shown to desensitize youth to violence. Trauma and Victimization Media violence also leads to fear and a feeling of victimization.

In one study, 75% of high school students reported media violence at moderate to high levels, and 10% sought to counseling due to nightmares, anxiety, and fear associated with media violence. FOREIGN STUDIES Bobo Doll Experiment The Bobo doll experiment was the name of two experiments conducted by Albert Bandura in 1961 and 1963 studying patterns of behavior associated with aggression. He hoped that the experiments would prove that aggression can be explained, at least in part, by social learning theory. The theory of social learning would state that behavior such as aggression is learned through observing and imitating others.

He showed children a video of a model beating up a Bobo doll and then put the children in a room with a Bobo doll to see if he/she would imitate the behavior previously seen on the video. The findings of this experiment suggest that children tended to model the behavior they witnessed in the video. This has been often taken to imply that children may imitate aggressive behaviors witnessed in media. In his book, The 11 Myths of Media, James Potter shares what he believes to be the short term effects and long term effects of media. Short-Term Effects . Imitation and Copying Behavior Children and adults mimic and incorporate a behavior they have seen a character in media perform. 2. Desensitization Media can reduce our emotional reactions. It breaks down viewer’s natural resistance to killing. 3. Temporary Fear Violent media can produce intense fright reactions. Fright is an immediate emotional response and is composed of anxiety, distress, and increased physiological arousal that are frequently engendered in viewers as a result of exposure to specific types of media productions.

Long-Term Effects 1. Aggression 2. Moving the Mean of Society toward More of a Fight Flight Mentality When violence permeates the media year after year in all kinds of programming and when the message of the violence is antisocial (violence is usually justified, successful, and harmless to victims), the mean of society is likely to move gradually to antisocial direction. The society will gradually move towards a fight-flight mentality. The fight component is exhibited by an erosion of inhibitions to behaving in a violent manner.

The flight component is exhibited by a gradual increase in generalized fear along with an erosion of sympathy for victims of violence. 3. Thinking of Being Victims of a Crime 4. Accepting Violence Easily CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Fig. 2 — Through an input, process, and output cycle, the researchers defined the relationship of media violence linked to aggression. When children are exposed to media violence at an early age, their mind creates an interpretation that is why they imitate any aggressive behavior shown to them. Through this, aggression is manifested. HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY

From the information gathered by the researchers in determining the probable effects of exposure to media violence to the psychological development of an individual, hypotheses are formulated. These are based on the findings of this research and will be proved later on. 1. Through media violence manifested on television, aggressive behaviors are acquired as a child interprets what he sees on the character. Children tend to imitate what they see on television that is why it becomes a habit when they are exposed in this form of violence. By this, the child learns to act in the same behavior as what he sees. 2.

Proper development of the psychological being of a child is at risk, especially of teenagers because they are on their adolescence stage—a stage of development and preparation for adulthood. What they see and learn in their childhood such as violence, might lead to execution of violent acts acquired in their adulthood, leading to more serious behavioral problems. Without the proper guidance, they might constantly develop into a violent person. 3. One characteristic of a child is being impressionable, that is why they directly imitate the acts they see on television. From this, aggressive behavior could be achieved. . Young children often mimic what they see. Older children develop, through years of watching, sub-conscious mental plans of how they will react in conflict situations. For years they have seen conflicts resolved by violence, and they sub-consciously develop the same reaction plan. When confronted with a conflict, the tendency is to react the way they have seen countless others react—in a combative, aggressive or violent manner. 5. By reducing their time in watching, accompanied by proper guidance and explanation, they could reduce the tendency of a child to acquire violent behavior. 6.

Television is the most efficient and the fastest portal of learning and acquiring knowledge. Children watching television without proper guidance gives their own explanation to what they have watched. In such manner, they tend to grow and bear in mind their wrong interpretation of violence. CHAPTER III METHODS OF RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Descriptive Method The researchers applied the descriptive or statistical method that will describe the data and characteristics of the population intended in this research. Through this, the researchers also used the survey method as a technique in defining the data gathered and presented.

Survey Method The survey is a non-experimental, descriptive research method. This method assesses the student’s point of view through series of questions intellectually formulated to satisfy the needed information in this research. This is conducted in a group of students from Bulacan State University Laboratory High School. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS The researchers used questionnaires distributed to the students, consisting of closed-ended questions. A closed-ended question is a question format that provides respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choice to answer the question.

The group also formulated interview guide consisting of series of questions that will help in directing the conversation towards the topics and issues presented in this research. Through these instruments, the researchers will gather the data needed in order to provide the results needed in this research. BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, C. A. , and Bushman, B. J. (2002). The effects of media violence on society. Science, 295, 2377-2378. Appendix 4-B violence in the media and its effect on youth violence. (1999). Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General. Retrieved February 25, 2012, from http://www. urgeongeneral. gov/library/youthviolence/chapter4/appendix4b. html Centerwall, B. S. (1992, June 10). Television and Violence: The Scale of the Problem and Where to Go From Here. Retrieved from http://cursor. org/stories/television_and_violence. htm Chua, P. S. (2010, August 30). Heart to heart talk: violence on television. Cebu Daily News, Retrieved from http://globalnation. inquirer. net/cebudailynews/opinion/view/20100830-289558/Violence-on-television Frazier, B. (n. d). The impact of tv violence on children and adolescents. The Successful Parent. Retrieved from http://www. thesuccessfulparent. om/children-and-media/the-impact-of-tv-violence-on-children-and-adolescents Grobel, J. (1997). Media and violence study. Retrieved from http://www. ppu. org. uk/education/mediaviolencesurvey-c. html Johnson, J. G. , et al. (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science, 295, 2468-2471. Media awareness network. (2010, July 8). Violence in Media Entertainment. Retrieved from http://www. media-awareness. ca/english/issues/violence/violence_entertainment. cfm Media violence – introduction. (2010). Media Awareness Network. Retrieved from http://www. media-awareness. a/english/issues/violence/ Media violence and behavior. (n. d). LimiTV. Retrieved from http://www. limitv. org/aggression. htm Research on the effects of media violence. (2010). Media Awareness Network. Retrieved from http://www. media-awareness. ca/english/issues/violence/effects_media_violence. cfm Rick Nauert PhD. (2008). Media violence linked to aggression. Psych Central. Retrieved from http://psychcentral. com/news/2008/11/20/media_violence_linked_to_aggression/3379. html Violence kills tv. (1998, December 1). Science Go Go. Retrieved March 19, 2012, from http://www. scienceagogo. com/news/19981101145024data_trunc_sys. html Shah, S. A. A. (2008). Children and media violence. Retrieved from http://www. scribd. com/doc/30841039/Media-Research-Children-and-Media-Violence Short and long term media effects. (2012). The New Media Foundation. Retrieved March 15, 2012, from http://www. thenewmedia-foundation. org/media/valus. php Sy, M. (2011, April 19). Villar calls for ban on tv programs too violent for kids. The Philippine Star, Retrieved from http://www. philstar. com/Article. aspx? articleId=677908&publicationSubCategoryId= Tan, B. C. (1994). Tv is not for children. Retrieved from http://www. rstep. org. ph/reading2. tm Violence, media (position paper). (2004). AAFP. Retrieved from http://www. aafp. org/online/en/home/policy/policies/v/violencemedia. html APPENDICES QUESTIONNAIRES BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY College of Arts and Letters S. Y. 2011-2012 Provided in this questionnaire are personal questions. Please answer all the questions honestly. Shade the circle provided before the choices. -The Insiders Provided in this questionnaire are personal questions. Please answer all the questions honestly. Shade the circle provided before the choices. -The Insiders BASIC INFORMATION: Name: ______________________________________

Year and Section:_____________________________ Age: ____ Gender: __________ Address:_____________________________________ ____________________________________________ Contact No. : __________________________________ 1. During your childhood years, how many hours a day did you spend in watching television? * 1-2 hours * 3-4 hours * 5-7 hours * Others (Please specify. ):_______ 2. Which of the following programs did you often watch before? * Sineskwela * Math-tinik * Hiraya Manawari * Teletubbies * Voltes V * Daimos * Power Rangers * Tom and Jerry 3. Do your parents prevent you from watching programs that show violence? Yes * No 4. As an adolescent, how many hours a day do you spend in watching? * 1-2 hours * 3-4 hours * 5-7 hours * Others (Please specify. ):_______ FOLLOW- UP QUESTION: Do your parents still prevent you from watching programs that promote violence? * Yes * No 5. What kind of programs do you prefer? * Drama * Comedy * Action * Others (Please specify. ) : __________________ 6. Do you often watch alone? * Yes * No 7. Which of the following programs did you often watch before? * Matanglawin * Kap’s Amazing Stories * Pinoy Explorer * IJuander * City Hunter * Iris * Valiente * Regal Shocker 8.

Do you think it is beneficial for you to patronize programs with violent scenes? * Yes * No 9. Do you think that exposure to media violence could cause a child to be aggressive? * Yes * No 10. What is your reaction after seeing violence on television? * Pleased- happy, contented * Terrified- scared, frightened * Not Contented- wanting more * Annoyed- disturbed, irritated LETTERS BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY College of Arts and Letters S. Y. 2011-2012 185 Sapphire Street, Brgy. Perez, Bulakan, Bulacan, Phils. March 22, 2012 Mr. Angel C. Caparas High School Principal Bulacan State University- Laboratory High School

City of Malolos, Bulacan Dear Mr. Caparas: We, a group of Mass Communication students from the College of Arts and Letters, are in the process of accomplishing our research paper in a study entitled, “Effects of Exposure to Media Violence to the Psychological Development of the High School Students of Bulacan State University- Laboratory High School. ” We would like to request for your permission in order for us to conduct our survey in the campus. The students would be the respondents of our study. This would be of great help in our research. Rest assured that we will take charge in this survey.

We are hoping for your cooperation. Yours Sincerely, Erl Chak S. J. Navalta Group Researcher BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY College of Arts and Letters S. Y. 2011-2012 Santa Maria, Bulacan March 22, 2012 Dr. Agnes Crisostomo Psychology Professor College of Social Science and Philosophy Bulacan State University Dear Madam: We, the students of Bulacan State University-College of Arts and Letters will be conducting a study entitled, “Effects of Effects of Exposure to Media Violence to the Psychological Development of the High School Students of Bulacan State University- Laboratory High School. This is in partial fulfillment of the requirements in the course English 123-Communication Arts 2 thesis proposal. In this regard, we respectfully request for your participation to be the subject of our study. We would assure that any information gathered would be handled properly and with strict confidentiality. Thank you very much! Yours truly, ________________________ Justine Mary Robert A. Mendoza Researcher BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY College of Arts and Letters School Year 2011 004 Tabon Malis, Guiguinto, Bulacan March 22, 2012 Lolita S. P. Santos Social Worker

City Social Welfare and Development Malolos Bulacan Dear Mrs. Santos Greetings! We, the Mass Communication students of Bulacan State University, are humbly requesting to your office to allow us to conduct an interview that will give us pertinent information regarding on behavioral aspects of youth and juvenile delinquency here in Bulacan, particularly in the city of Malolos. The said information will suffice to our thesis proposal entitled “ Effects of Exposure to Media Violence to the Psychological Development of the High School Students of Bulacan State University- Laboratory High School. ”

Rest assured that all information will remain confidential and shall be used only for the said thesis proposal. We are looking forward to your kindest cooperation and consideration. Yours truly, __________________ Jeaneth D. P. Panti Researcher BULACAN STATE UNIVERSITY College of Arts and Letters School Year 2011 754 Kabilang Bacood, Sta. Rita, Guiguinto, Bulacan March 22, 2012 High School Students Laboratory High School Bulacan State University Dear Respondents: Greetings! We are the Insiders, a group of first year Mass Communication students from the College of Arts and Letters are currently writing our research proposal.

We are kindly asking for you to answer the following questions that will be vital to the completion of this proposal. Rest assured that all information will remain confidential and shall be used only for the said thesis proposal. We are looking forward to your kindest cooperation and consideration. Yours truly, __________________ Jerica Mae S. P. Calara Researcher EXPERTS’ PROFILES PERSONAL PROFILE Name: Lolita S. P. Santos Address: Malolos Bulacan E-mail address: lolitasantos. [email protected] com Age: 23 Gender: female Nationality: Filipino Place of birth: Bulacan Civil status: married

Religion: Catholic EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Tertiary: University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City Secondary: Holy Spirit Academy Malolos Bulacan PROFESSION Currently serving as a social worker at the City Social Welfare and Development here at Malolos Bulacan, which provides social programs especially to indigenous families in Malolos, provides livelihood projects, child labor programs and other social services that caters the welfare of the people PERSONAL PROFILE Name: Agnes Del Rosario Crisostomo Address: Malolos, Bulacan E-mail address: [email protected] om Age: 40 Gender: Female Nationality: Filipino Place of birth: Paombong, Bulacan Civil status: Married Religion: Catholic EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Tertiary 2009PhD in Psychology University of the Philippines 2005MA in Psychology University of the Philippines 1987BA Psychology University of the Philippines (Diliman) Secondary Paombong High School PROFESSION 4th year Associate Professor in Bulacan State University Employee at Women of Malolos Foundation Incorporation INTERVIEW GUIDE Questions: 1. How much education did you have to go through to become a (field)? 2.

Is there a significant relationship between exposure to television violence and aggressive behavior? 3. Is this relationship causal? 4. How does it impact teenagers? 5. Are there any psychological problems that can be caused by television? 6. Why do you think television violence is bad for teenagers? Or why do you think it is okay to let them watch? 7. Do you think the effects of television violence are very serious to the teenagers today? Why? 8. What do you think their behavior would be? 9. In your opinion, what ages are safe to watch television violence? 10. Is there anything wrong with letting a young child watch TV? 1. What do you think about always keeping teenagers away from television so that they can not watch violent television programs or shows? 12. Can teenagers adjust good and bad side of violent television programs or shows themselves? Why? CURRICULUM VITAE JERICA MAE SAN PEDRO CALARA 754 Kabilang Bacood, Sta. Rita, Guiguinto, Bulacan Mobile Number: 09157990046 Telephone Number: Email Address: jericamae. [email protected] com PERSONAL DATA Nickname :Jerica, JM Status:Single Birth Date:May 24, 1995 Citizenship:Filipino Skills:Communication Skills, Computer Literate EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

TertiaryBulacan State University City of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines BA Mass Communication Major in Broacasting S. Y. 2011 – 2012 Secondary Holy Spirit Academy of Malolos Sta. Isabel, City of Malolos, Bulacan S. Y. 2007 – 2011 SEMINARS ATTENDED 1st SemesterCommGuild Seminar AFP Theater Camp Aguinaldo Quezon City August 7, 2011 2nd Semester4th Media Summit BSU Hostel Bulacan State University February 16, 2012 JUSTINE MARY ROBERT AQUINO MENDOZA 277 N. Mendoza St. , San Gabriel, Sta. Maria, Bulacan Mobile Number: 09179917850 Telephone Number: (044) 641-03-77 Email Address: [email protected] om PERSONAL DATA Nickname :Justine Status:Single Birth Date:February 26, 1994 Citizenship:Filipino Skills:Communication Skills, Computer Literate EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND TertiaryBulacan State University City of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines BA Mass Communication Major in Broacasting S. Y. 2011 – 2012 Secondary Saint Paul College of Bocaue Bocaue, Bulacan S. Y. 2007 – 2011 SEMINARS ATTENDED 1st SemesterCommGuild Seminar AFP Theater Camp Aguinaldo Quezon City August 7, 2011 2nd Semester4th Media Summit BSU Hostel Bulacan State University February 16, 2012 ERL CHAK SAN JOSE NAVALTA 85 Sapphire St. Perez, Bulakan, Bulacan Mobile Number: 09274308912 Telephone Number: (044) 668-74-93 Email Address: [email protected] com PERSONAL DATA Nickname :Erl, Chak Status:Single Birth Date:October 14, 1995 Citizenship:Filipino Skills:Communication Skills, Computer Literate EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND TertiaryBulacan State University City of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines BA Mass Communication Major in Broacasting S. Y. 2011 – 2012 Secondary Immaculate Conception School for Boys Second Year- Fourth Year Poblacion, City of Malolos, Bulacan S. Y. 2008 – 2011 Assumpta Academy First Year

San Jose, Bulakan, Bulacan S. Y. 2007 – 2008 SEMINARS ATTENDED 1st SemesterCommGuild Seminar AFP Theater Camp Aguinaldo Quezon City August 7, 2011 Pandayang Lino Brocka Valencia Hall Bulacan State University 2nd Semester4th Media Summit BSU Hostel Bulacan State University February 16, 2012 JEANETH DELA PAZ PANTI 004, Tabon Malis, Guiguinto, Bulacan Mobile Number: 09351860944 Telephone Number: N. A. Email Address: [email protected] com PERSONAL DATA Nickname :Jeaneth Status:Single Birth Date:September 12, 1994 Citizenship:Filipino Skills:Communication Skills, Computer Literate

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND TertiaryBulacan State University City of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines BA Mass Communication Major in Broacasting S. Y. 2011 – 2012 Secondary Guiguinto National Vocational High School Guiguinto, Bulacan S. Y. 2007 – 2011 SEMINARS ATTENDED 1st SemesterCommGuild Seminar AFP Theater Camp Aguinaldo Quezon City August 7, 2011 Pandayang Plaridel BSU Hostel Bulacan State University Pandayang Lino Brocka Valencia Hall Bulacan State University 2nd Semester4th Media Summit BSU Hostel Bulacan State University February 16, 2012 MA. NEREN ENRIQUEZ VILLALON 611, Calle Hagonoy St. San Pablo, City of Malolos, Bulacan Mobile Number: 09066250818 Telephone Number: (044) 760-75-68 Email Address: [email protected] com PERSONAL DATA Nickname :Neren Status:Single Birth Date:September 4, 1994 Citizenship:Filipino Skills:Communication Skills, Computer Literate EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND TertiaryBulacan State University City of Malolos, Bulacan, Philippines BA Mass Communication Major in Broacasting S. Y. 2011 – 2012 Secondary Holy Spirit Academy of Malolos Sta. Isabel, City of Malolos, Bulacan S. Y. 2007 – 2011 SEMINARS ATTENDED 1st SemesterCommGuild Seminar AFP Theater Camp Aguinaldo

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