Theories of Development (Chapter 2)

How can a theory be practical?
Theories can be insightful. Theories differ, some are less comprehensive or adequate than others, some are no longer useful, some reflect one culture but not another. Without them we would only have a heap.
What is the relationship between norms and facts?
Norms can reflect facts in that norms can be calculated (such as the norm for babies to begin walking or for brides wearing a certain color)
How do theories differ from facts?
Theories raise questions and suggest hypotheses, and they lead to research to gather empirical data. Those data are facts that suggest conclusions, which may verify or refute a theory. Theories are not true or false. FActs are usually true.
What is the basic idea of psychoanalytic theory?
Inner drives, deep motives, and unconscious needs rooted in childhood are the foundation of the psychoanalytic theory. These basic underlying forces are thought to influence every aspect of thinking and behavior, from the smallest details of daily life to the crucial choices of a lifetime.
What is Freud’s theory of childhood sexuality?
According to Freud, development in the first six years of life occurs in three stages, each characterized by sexual interest and pleasure arising from a particular part of the body.
What body parts are connected to the oral, anal, and phallic stages?
Oral (Mouth), Anal (Anus), Phallic (Penis)
In what two ways does Erikson’s theory differ from Freud’s?
Erikson’s stages emphasize family and culture, not sexual urges. Erikson recognizes adult development, with three stages after adolescence.
What is the basic idea of behaviorism?
It is also called the learning theory. It describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned. (The habits people learn throughout life)
How does behaviorism oppose psychoanalytic theory?
Behaviorists believe that development occurs not in stages but in small increments. A person to talk, read, or anything else one tiny step at a time.
How do classical and operant conditioning differ?
Classical: Pavlov; a person or animal learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus, gradually responding to the neutral stimulus in the same way as to the meaningful one.
Operant: Skinner; animals and people act and then something follows that action (a reinforcement or a punishment)
What reinforcers are emphasized by social learning theory?
people’s environment
What is the basic idea of cognitive theory?
Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect attitudes, beliefs, values, assumptions, and actions.
How do Piaget’s stages compare to Freud’s stages?
They both believe that your childhood experiences played a huge role in adulthood.
What are assimilation and accommodation and how are they similar?
Assimilation: new experiences are reinterpreted to fit into, or assimilate old ideas.
Accommodation: Old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate new experiences.
They are both apart of the adaptation process.
Why is information processing not a stage theory?
It is just a newer version of the cognitive theory; it is a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output.
What are the underlying differences between the newer theories and the grand theories?
The grand theories emphasize past experiences and thoughts instead of future possibilities. Newer theories are multicultural and multidisciplinary and are more in accord with the life-span perspective.
How is “apprenticeship in thinking” an example of sociocultural theory?
Because each person depends on the other person to learn.
What do mentors do when mentees are in their zone of proximal development?
The mentor engages the mentee in that zone and together in the process of “joint construction,” a new knowledge is attained. The mentor must avoid boredom or failure.
is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help
Zone of proximal development
How does Maslow’s hierarchy of needs differ from Erikson’s stages?
Maslow believes that one cannot think abo9ut the next stage of development if his/her needs from the previous stage have not been met. Erikson believes that one cannot progress successively to the next stage until he/she has fully developed in the stage before. Certain developments occur at different stages in each theory.
How does evolutionary psychology explain human instincts?
According to this theory, many human impulses, needs, and behaviors evolved to help humans survive and thrive many millennia ago. Every species has two long-standing, biologically-based drives: survival and reproduction.
Why are aspects of evolutionary theory of human emotions controversial?
Because some things that are diagnosed as illnesses are normal extremes of adaptive traits.
What does the idea of selective adaptation imply about the nature-nurture controversy?
That nature and nurture interact. The interaction of genes and environment affects survival and reproduction, the two basic drives recognized by evolutionary theory.
What are the key criticism and key contribution of psychoanalytic theory?
Psychoanalytic theories make us aware of the impact of early-childhood experiences, remembered or not, on subsequent development.
What are they key criticism and key contribution of behaviorism?
Behaviorism shows the effect that immediate responses, associations, and examples have on learning, moment by moment and over time.
What are the key criticism and key contribution of cognitive theory?
Cognitive theories bring an understanding of intellectual processes, including that thoughts and beliefs affect every aspect of our development.
What are the key criticism and key contribution of sociocultural theory?
Sociocultural theories remind us that development is embedded in a rich and multifaceted cultural context, evident in every social interaction.
What are the key criticism and key contribution of universal theories?
Universal theories stress that human differences are less significant than characteristics that are shared by all humans, in every place and era.
What are the advantages of an eclectic perspective?
Using all five theories opens our eyes and minds to aspects of development that we might otherwise ignore.
Group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth.
Framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.
Developmental theory
Theories produce ___ Hypotheses.
Theories generate __.
Theories offer practical __.
The Three Grand Theories
An average, or standard measurement, calculated from the measurements of many individuals within a specific group or population.
Proposes that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.
Psychoanalytic Theory
Proposed five psychosexual stages during which sensual satisfaction is linked to developmental needs and conflicts.
Suggests early conflict resolution determines personality patterns.
Personality has three parts: id, ego, and superego.
Sigmund Freud
is the primitive and instinctive component of personality. It consists of all the inherited (i.e. biological) components of personality
is the impulsive (and unconscious) part of our psyche which responds directly and immediately to the instincts.
it operates on the pleasure principle (Freud, 1920) which is the idea that every wishful impulse should be satisfied immediately, regardless of the consequences.
The id
operates according to the reality principle, working out realistic ways of satisfying the id’s demands, often compromising or postponing satisfaction to avoid negative consequences of society
considers social realities and norms, etiquette and rules in deciding how to behave.
The ego
incorporates the values and morals of society which are learned from one’s parents and others.
function is to control the id’s impulses, especially those which society forbids, such as sex and aggression. It also has the function of persuading the ego to turn to moralistic goals rather than simply realistic ones and to strive for perfection.
The Superego
Stresses that genes and biological impulses are powerfully influenced by the social environment
Epigenetic theory
Described eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging developmental crises.
Proposed five psychosocial stages built on Freud’s theory, but added three adult stages.
Erik Erikson
Argued that scientists should examine only what they could observe and measure.
No specific stages proposed
ONe of the earliest proponents of behaviorism and learning theory.
John Watson
Was best known for experiments with rats, pigeons, and his own daughter.
Agreed with Watson that psychology should focus on the scientific study of behavior.
B.F. Skinner
Received the Nobel Prize in 1904 for his digestive research. Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
Focuses on observable behavior.
Also called learning theory because it emphasizes the learning process.
Maintained that cognitive development occurs in four major age-related stages.
Intellectual advancement occurs lifelong because humans seek cognitive equilibrium.
Jean Piaget
State of mental balance, no confusion.
New ideas interpreted through past experiences.
Cognitive Equilibrium
Representative newer version of cognitive theory
Compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output.
Information Processing Theory
Proposes thoughts and human development results from the dynamic interaction between developing persons and their surrounding society.
Focuses on culture as integral to a person’s development.
Sociocultural theory
Developed concepts of apprenticeship in thinking and guided participation
Lev Vygotsky
new knowledge obtained active process on account of both partners
Process of joint construction
Stresses the potential of human beings for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs.
Arranged human needs in hierarchy
Contended that everyone must satisfy each lower level before moving higher.
Abraham Maslow
Integrates explanations for many issues in human development
Suggests humans have two long-standing biologically based drives: survival and reproduction
Proposes the concept of selective adaptation
Evolutionary Theory
Helps guard against bias and facilitates open-mindedness to alternative explanations for complexity of human life.
Eclectic perspective
What did Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow stress in humanism?
The potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background.