The Unfinished Nation, Chapter 11, Review

A runaway slave making a successful escape from the American South was
highly unlikely.
A typical white southerner
A typical white southerner
Approximately what percentage of white southerners lived in slaveholding households in the mid-1800s?
25%
Before revisions were made to state laws in the 1830s, slaves could be set free by
the master’s will after the master died.
By 1860, the textile manufacturing sector of the American South
had increased threefold in value over the precious twenty years.
By fostering __________, or a sense of kindly protection and security for slaves, whites reduced resistance to slavery.
paternalism
By the 1830s, the center of __________ cultivation was moving westward into the Piedmont area, while the farmers of Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina shifted to other crops.
tobacco
By the mid-nineteenth century, how common was slavery in the Western world?
Apart from the American South, it existed only in Brazil, Cuba, and Puerto Rico.
By the time of the Civil War, cotton constituted nearly _____ of the total export trade of the United States.
two-thirds
Childrearing was a particular burden for southern white women because
the rate of infant mortality was significantly higher than elsewhere.
Cotton represented about _____ of the total export trade of the United States by the time of the Civil War.
two-thirds
During the first half of the nineteenth century, the “cotton kingdom”
was the dominant source of the income of the lower South.
Even the poorest whites tended to support the plantation system because they were
raised to feel racially superior to blacks.
From the 1830s on, state laws governing slavery made it much more difficult for owners to set their slaves free, in part because
Nat Turner’s revolt had prompted fears of further revolts among white southerners.
How did slaves cope with being separated from their families?
They could be “adopted” by a slave family in the new community.
How did the slave codes define a person’s race?
Individuals with a presumed trace of African ancestry were black.
How did the slave labor system affect white southern women?
-It helped spare them from hard labor.
-It threatened their relationships with their husbands, who often had sexual relationships with female slaves.
In 1839 a group of slaves in Cuba took over a ship, the __________, and attempted to sail it back to their homelands in Africa.
Amistad
In 1850, outside of the United States, slavery in the Western Hemisphere existed in
Brazil.
In general, slaves had more privacy and a social realm of their own
on large plantations.
In southern cities, slaves performed many of the menial jobs that in the North were performed by __________ immigrants.
European
In the American slave family,
extended kinship networks were strong and important.
In what ways did white southern society differ from the myths of a planter “aristocracy”?
-Many planters were competitive businessmen.
-Only a small minority of southern whites owned slaves.
-Many of the great southern landowners were still first-generation settlers.
More than half of the free African Americans in slaveholding states were living in _____ in 1860.
Virginia and Maryland
Most affluent white southern women engaged in all of the following EXCEPT
public activities.
Most enslaved blacks lived
on medium- to large-size plantations.
Most slaves received which of the following?
-a simple but adequate diet.
-cheap clothing and shoes.
Most white women in the South lived _____, which afforded them little opportunity to look beyond their familial roles.
on farms
Most whites living in the Appalachians or the Ozarks
practiced subsistence agriculture, growing most of their crops for their own use.
Nonslaveholding whites who lived in backcountry areas like the Appalachians and Ozarks were known as
hill people.
Of the following, the most common form of resistance to slavery was
subtle defiance.
On large plantations, slaveowners would employ _____, or slaves who acted as foremen.
head drivers
One of the most powerful stereotypes of slaves was the “__________,” a shuffling, dimwitted slave who was deferential to whites.
Sambo
One reason that nonslaveholding whites living amid the plantation system accepted slavery was that they
were often closely related to the wealthier planters who did own slaves.
Prior to 1860, southern women differed from northern women in that southern women
were expected to be more subordinate to men.
Prior to 1860, the center of economic power in the South
shifted from the upper South to the lower South.
Regarding religion, American Slaves
often incorporated African features into their Christianity.
Rice and sugar production in the antebellum South
were concentrated in a relatively small geographic area.
Sexual relationships between white southern men and female slaves was
a common practice.
Short-staple cotton
helped to keep the South a predominantly agricultural region.
Slave religion was primarily a form of
Christianity.
Slave women generally were responsible for which of the following tasks?
-cooking meals.
-child rearing.
-providing medical attention.
Southern whites who did not own slaves
were largely dependent on the plantation economy.
Southern women who lived on farms of modest size regularly engaged in which of the following activities?
-spinning and weaving.
-agricultural tasks.
-overseeing slaves.
The central ideology of slavery, and the vital instrument of white control, was
paternalism.
The common language developed by American slaves is known as
pidgin.
The historian who wrote “The South grew, but did not develop” prior to the Civil War meant
the South had failed to move from an agrarian to an industrial economy.
The lives of slaves in the city differed from the lives of their plantation counterparts in which of the following ways?
-Urban slaves had more contact with free blacks and lower-class whites.
-Urban slaves had more freedom to move about during the day.
The majority of students attending the South’s several hundred colleges and universities were
sons of wealthy planters.
The most widespread method slaves used to defy their masters was
everyday forms of resistance, such as refusing to work hard.
The only successful large-scale slave uprising was led by __________ __________, a slave preacher who led an armed band of slaves to murder 60 white men, women, and children in Virginia.
Nat Turner
The relationship of masters and slaves on medium and large plantations was
not as intimate as on small farms.
The shared language developed by slaves combined African languages and the __________ language.
English
The slave codes of the American South
defined anyone with a trace of African ancestry as black.
Tobacco cultivation in the antebellum South
was gradually moving westward.
Through the musical tradition of the __________, Africans in America expressed both their religious faith and their hopes for freedom in song.
spiritual
Typical white southerners often engaged in which of the following?
-subsistence farming.
-small amounts of crop production for the market.
Typical white southerners were yeoman farmers who owned few or no slaves and were known as “_____.”
plain folk
Ways in which slaves expressed elements of their African heritage included
singing songs and playing musical instruments such as the banjo.
What is one reason slave women often held additional authority in the plantation system?
They acted as single parents when their husbands were sold to other plantations.
What social effects did slavery have on southerners?
-It isolated blacks from whites.
-It created a unique bond of mutual reliance between masters and slaves.
-Southern blacks developed a culture different from that of southern whites.
What technological development made the large-scale cultivation of short-staple cotton possible?
cotton gin
Which of the following advantages did house slaves often have over field slaves?
-access to leftovers from the master’s table.
-less physical-backbreaking labor.
Which of the following are accurate statements about the foreign slave trade?
-Despite a federal law prohibiting the importation of slaves, smuggling continued as late as the 1850s.
-At a southern convention in 1858, delegates voted to repeal all laws against slave imports.
Which of the following are accurate statements regarding the domestic slave trade?
-Some slaves moved from one part of the South to another with their owners.
-Most slaves were moved by professional slave traders.
Which of the following are true about free blacks in the South before the Civil War?
-Some owned slaves.
-Free black communities flourished in New Orleans and Charleston.
-Most lived in poverty.
Which of the following are true regarding the Amistad?
-The slaves of the Amistad had no experience with sailing and tried to compel the crew to steer them to their destination.
-John Quincy Adams argued before the Supreme Court that the slaves of the Amistad should be freed.
Which of the following best describe how slaves’ practice of religion differed from that of whites?
-Slaves’ prayer meeting often included vocal exclamations and fervent chanting.
-Slave religion often blended elements of African religious traditions and Christianity.
Which of the following best describes an aspect of the domestic slave trade?
Slave families were often separated, including the separation of children from parents.
Which of the following best describes elementary and secondary schools in the South before the Civil War?
They were inferior to those in the Northeast and the Northwest frontier.
Which of the following best describes how members of the white southern upper class viewed themselves?
as true aristocrats, much like those in the Old World
Which of the following best describes most members of the southern planter class?
They were newly wealthy and among the first in their families to succeed at farming.
Which of the following best describes slaves’ practice of religion?
It was monitored by whites because autonomous black churches were illegal.
Which of the following best describes the economic relationship between the North and South during the antebellum period?
The South was like a colony, shipping raw goods to the North to be turned into salable goods.
Which of the following best describes the frequency of slave revolts in the South?
Slave uprisings were rare, but the possibility kept white southerners on alert.
Which of the following best describes the prevalence of slaveholding in the South?
Only a very small minority of southern whites owned slaves.
Which of the following best describes the relationship between agriculture and business in the South?
Most successful businesses were related to the needs of plantation owners.
Which of the following best describes why wealthy southerners invested little capital in manufacturing?
Wealthy southerners had much of their capital tied up in their land.
Which of the following best explains why rice did not become a staple of the southern economy?
Rice fields require extensive irrigation.
Which of the following contributed to how the South remained so different from the North?
-While the agricultural economy of the Northeast had declined, that of the South was booming.
-White southerners argued that grace and refinement were more important than rapid growth and development.
Which of the following contributed to the slow development of industry in the South?
-inadequate transportation.
-booming agricultural expansion.
Which of the following effects did the cult of honor have on the lives of southern white women?
-White southern men felt obligated to protect white women.
-Men expected women to be subordinate in exchange for defending women’s honor.
Which of the following identifies traditional values that motivated southerners to avoid such “coarse” occupations as trade and commerce?
chivalry
Which of the following roles was NOT among those assigned to house slaves?
planter
Which of the following statements about the poorest class of white southerners is FALSE?
They often felt affinity with slaves as members of another oppressed class.
Which of the following statements about the southern aristocratic ideal is FALSE?
Wealthy southern whites prided themselves on their egalitarianism.
Which of the following statements regarding slave life is true?
Slave mothers had large families, but death rates among black children were high.
Which of the following was the most likely way that slaves could earn money to buy their freedom?
marketing a skill to make additional money
Which of the following was part of the slave codes?
Whites could not teach slaves to read or write.
Which of the following were among the activities slaves were forbidden from doing under the slave codes of southern states?
-hold property.
-strike a white person, even in self-defense.
-carry firearms.
Which of the following were the case with the poorest white southerners, referred to by some as “poor white trash”?
-They often suffered from dietary deficiencies and diseases such as pellagra, hookworm, and malaria.
-Wealthier whites sometimes called them “clay eaters.”
Which of the following were the most common hazards for slaves who tried to escape their masters by running away?
-long distance to safety.
-“slave patrols” looking for escaped blacks.
-ignorance about geography.
Which of these forms of transportation were either nonexistent or inadequately developed in the South prior to the Civil War?
-canals.
-railroads.
-finished roads.
Why did tobacco cultivation move westward in the 1830s?
Tobacco farming had exhausted the land, so farmers had to switch to other crops.