Informative Essay on The Twentieth Century and Beyond

In music, the early twentieth century was a time of
Revolt and change
Which of the following statements is not true?
Twentieth-century music follows the same general principles of musical structure as earlier periods
The most famous riot in music in music history occurred in Paris in 1913 at the first performance of
Igor Stravinsky’s the rite of spring
All of the following composer worked in the early years of the twentieth century except
Hector Berlioz
Composers in the twentieth century drew inspiration from

All answer are correct

A. Folk and popular music from all cultures
B. The music of Asia and Africa
c. European art music from the middle ages through the nineteenth century

Twentieth-Century composers incorporated elements of folk and popular music within their personal styles because
They were attracted to the unconventional rhythms, sounds, and melodic patterns
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A great twentieth-century composer who was also a leading scholar of the folk music of his native land was
Bela Bartok
Which of the following composers was not stimulated by the folklore of his native land?
Anton Webern
Which of the following statements is not true?
Composers in the early twentieth century drew inspirations only from serous art music and their own intellect, ignoring popular and folk music
In twentieth-century music
Percussion instruments have become very prominent and numerous
The glissando, a technique widely used in the twentieth century, is
A rapid slide up or down a scale
Among the unusual playing techniques that are widely used during the twentieth century is the __________, a rapid slide up or down a scale.
Glissando
In modern music

All answers are correct

A. Instruments are played at the very top or bottom of their ranges.
B. Uncommon playing techniques have become normal
C. Noiselike and percussive sounds are often used.

A piano is often used in twentieth-century orchestral music to
Add a percussive edge
which of the following is not an alternative to the traditional organization of pitch used by twentieth-century composers?
Tonic-dominant harmonies
The combination of two traditional chords sounding together is known as
A polychord
A fourth chord is
A chord in which the tones are fourth apart, instead of a third.
A chord made of tones only a half step or a whole step apart is known as
A tone cluster
Striking a group of adjacent keys on a piano with the fist or forearm will result in
A tone cluster
To create fresh sounds, twentieth-century composer used

All the answers are correct

A. Scales borrowed from nonwestern cultures
B. Scales they themselves invented
C. ancient church modes
D. all answers are correct

The technique of using two or more tonal centers at the same time is called
Polytonaity
The absence of the key or tonality in a musical composition is known as
Atonality
Using all twelve tones without regard to their traditional relationship to major or minor scales, avoiding traditional chord progressions, is known as
Atonality
The first significant atonal pieces were composed around 1908 by
Arnold Schoenbery
The use of two or more contrasting and independent rhythms at the same time is known as
Polyrhythm
Ostinato refers to a
Motive or phrase that is repeated persistently at the same pitch throughout a section
A motive or phrase that is repeated persistently at the same pitch throughout a section is called
Ostinato
Recording of much lesser-known music multiplied in 1948 through
The appearance of long-playing disks
Radio broadcasts of live and recorded music began to reach large audiences during the
1920’s
The first opera created for television was Gian-Carlo Menotti’s
Amahl and the night visitors
Composers from which area rose to importance during the twentieth century?
Latin America
Which of the following countries did not produce an important composer in the Twentieth Century?
Ecuador
One of the most important teachers of musical composition in the twentieth century was
Nadia Boulanger
The most influential organization sponsoring new music after world war 1 was
The international society for contemporary music
During the first quarter of the Twentieth Century many composers left Russia because of
the violence of the Russian Revolution.
Impressionist painting and symbolist poetry as artistic movements
France
The most important impressionist composer was
Claude Debussy
the term impressionist derived from a critic’s derogatory to impression: Sunrise, a painting by
Claude Monet
When viewed closely, impressionist painting are made up of
Tiny colored patches
Impressionist painters were primarily concerned with the effect of light, color, and
atmosphere
The impressionist painter were particularly obsessed with portraying
Water
Which of the following Is not considered a symbolist poet?
Victor Hugo
Which of the following statement is not true?
The impressionist painter were painter were particularly obsessed with portraying scenes of ancient French glories
Many of Debussy’s songs are set to poems by the symbolist poet
Stephane Mallarme
A dramatic turning point in Debussy’s career came in 1902 when
His opera pelleas et melisandre was premiered
which of the following characteristics is not usually associated with impressionism?
clearly delineated forms
Debussy’s music tends to
Sound free and almost improvisational
Impressionism in music is characterized by
a stress on tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity
In order to ” drown the sense of tonality,” Debussy

All answers are correct

A. turned to the medieval church modes
B. Borrowed pentatonic scales from Javanese music
C. developed the whole-tone scale
D. all answer are correct

A scale made up of six different notes each a whole step away from the next is called a ______scale.
Whole-tone
Debussy’s opera pelleas et melisandre is an almost word-for-word setting of the symbolist play by
Maurice maeterlinck
In which of the following areas did Debussy not create masterpieces?
Symphonies
The poem that inspired the prelude to “The afternoon of a faun” was written by
Stephane Mallarme
The faun evoked in Debussy’s famous composition is a
creature who is half man, half goat
the neoclassical movement in music roughly encompassed the years
1920-1950
which of the following statements concerning neoclassicism is not true?
Neoclassical composers reacted against twentieth-century harmonies and rhythms, and preferred to revive old forms and styles exactly as they were.
which of the following is not characteristic of neoclassicism?
Misty atmosphere
Neoclassical composers favored
Clear polyphonic textures
Neoclassical compositions are characterized by
Forms and stylistic features od earlier periods
Neoclassical composers modeled many of their works after the compositions of
Johann Sebastian Bach
Neoclassicism was a reaction against
romanticism and impressionism
The painter who designed the sets for Stravinsky’s pulcinella, and who went through a phrase that showed the influence of ancient Greek art, was
Pablo Picasso
Igor Stravinsky, at the age of twenty-one, began to study composition privately with
Arnold Schoenberg
Stravinsky’s life took a sudden turn in 1909, when he met the director of the Russian Ballet,
Sergei Diaghiley
Sergei Diaghilev was a famous
Ballet impresario
The immense success of Stravinsky’s 1910 ballet _____________ established him as a leading young composer
The firebird
The famous riot in 1913 was caused by the first performance of Stravinsky’s ballet
The rite of spring
Stravinsky’s enormous influence on twentieth-century music is due to his innovations in

All answers are correct

A. Rhythm
B. Harmony
C. Tone color
D. all answers

which of the following ballets is not from Stravinsky’s Russian period ?
Pulcinella
Stravinsky’s second phase is generally known as
Neoclassical
During the period about 1920 to 1951, Stravinsky drew inspiration largely from
eighteenth-century music
in the 1950s Stravinsky dramatically changed his style, drawing inspiration from
Anton Webern
In the 1950s Stravinsky dramatically changed his style to favor
The twelve-tone system
The deliberate evocation of primitive power through insistent rhythms and percussive sounds is known as
Primitivism
le sacre du printemps(The rite of spring) is an example
Primitivism
Igor Stravinsky’s rite of spring is scored for
An enormous orchestra
The expressionist movement in music and art flourished in the years
1905-1925
The twentieth-century artistic movement that stressed intense, subjective emotion was called
Expressionism
Expressionism as an artistic movement was largely centered in
Germany and Austria
Expressionism grew out of the same intellectual climate as Freud’s studies of
Hysteria and the unconscious
Twentieth-century musical expressionism grew out of the emotional turbulence in the works of late romantics such as

All answers are correct

A. Richard Wagner
B. Richard Strauss
C. Gustav Mahler
D. All answer are correct

One of the immediate predecessors of expressionism was the composer
Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss’s operas Salome and Elektra were known for their
Chromatic and dissonant music
The operas of Richard Strauss use chromaticism and dissonance to depict
Perversion and murder
Expressionist painters, writers, and composers used____________ to assault and shock their audience.
Deliberate distortions
Distortion is a technique used primarily in the ______period.
Expressionist
Which of the following statements is not true ?
Expressionist artists favored pleasant subjects, delicate pastel colors, and shimmering surfaces
Expressionism is an art concerned with
Social protest
All of the following painters may be considered part of the expressionist movement except
Claude Monet
The expressionists rejected
Conventional prettiness
expressionist composers
Avoided tonality and traditional chord progressions
Schoenberg’s teacher was
Himself
Schoenberg’s first musical hero was
Johannes brahms
Schoenberg acquired his profound knowledge of music by

All answer are correct

A. going to concerts
B. Playing in amateur chamber groups
C. Studying scores
D. All answers are correct

Alban Berg and Anton Webern were Arnold Schoenberg’s
Students
When Schoenberg arrived in the united states after he Nazi seized power in Germany, he obtained a teaching position at
UCLA
Schoenberg’s third period, in which he developed the twelve-tone system began around
1921
An early expressive kind of declamation midway between song and speech, introduced during the expressionist period, is
Sprechstimme
Schoenberg develop an unusual style of vocal performance, halfway between speaking and singing, called
Sprechstimme
The ordering of the twelve chromatic tones in a twelve-tone composition is called a

All answers are correct

A.Series
B. Tone row
C. Set
D. All answers are correct

Which of the following terms is not used to describe the special ordering of the twelve chromatic tones in twelve-tone composition?
Polychord
The text of A survivor from Warsaw

All answers are correct

A. Was written by Schoenberg
B. Is partly based on direct report of a survivor of the Warsaw ghetto
C. Is set to a kind of speech-singing
D. All answers are correct

A survivor from Warsaw used three languages: English, German, and
Hebrew
When he was nineteen, Alban Berg began to study music privately with
Arnold Schoenberg
Which of the following statements is not true?
Typical of expressionist composer, berg scored his opera Wozzeck for a small chamber orchestra.
Which of the following is not a composition by Alban Berg ?
Gurrelieder
Georg Buchner’s play Woyzeck was written in the
1830s
The vocal lines in Wozzeck include

All answers are correct

A. Distorted folk songs
B. Speaking
C. Sprechstimme
D. all answers are correct

Anton Webern
Earned a doctorate in music history from the university of Vienna
Webern’s melodic lines are
“Atomized” into two-or-three-note fragments
Anton Webern’s twelve- tone works contain many examples of
Strict polyphonic imitation
Webern’s five pieces for orchestra are scored for
A chamber orchestra of eighteen soloists.
Bela Bartok principal performing medium was
The piano
From 1907 to 1934 Bela Bartok taught_________ at his alma mater, and gave recitals throughout Europe.
Piano
Bela Bartok was a leading authority on
Peasant music
Bela Bartok evolved a completely individual style that fused folk elements with

All answers are correct

A. Changes of meter and a powerful beat.
B. Twentieth-century sounds.
C. Classical forms
D. all answers are correct

The melodies Bela Bartok used in most of his work are
Original themes that have a folk flavor.
While not rejecting any influences, Bela Bartok emphasized that the strongest influence on his music was
Hungarian
Bela Bartok’s___________ are widely thought to be the finest since those of Ludwig van Beethoven
String quartets
While remaining within the framework of tonal center, Bela Bartok often used______ in his music.

All of these

A. Harsh dissonances
B. Polychords
C. tone clusters

Bela Bartok’s Concerto for orchestra

all answer are correct

A. is his most popular work
B. received its title because it was written for an orchestra of virtuosi
C. Is romantic in spirit because of its emotional intensity, memorable themes, and vivid contrasts

Charles Ives father was a(n)
Bandmaster
After graduating from Yale, Charles Ives
went into the insurance business
During most of his lifetime , Charles Ives’s musical compositions
Accumulated in the barn of his Connecticut farm
Charles Ives’s music contains elements of

All answers are correct

A. Revival hymns and ragtime
B. patriotic songs and barn dances
C. village bands and church choirs

which of the following compositions is not by Charles Ives?
An American in Paris
Charles Ives’s large and varied output includes works in many genres, but not
operas
Putman’s camp, Redding , Connecticut, is a movement from Charles Ives’s
Three Places in new England
Putnam’s Camp, Redding, Connecticut, is a child’s impression of
A Fourth Of July picnic
Putnam’s Camp Redding, Connecticut, illustrates Charles Ives’s technique of quoting snatches of familiar tunes by presenting fragments of
Yankee Doodle
George Gershwin grew up in
New York, New York
Gershwin left high school at the age of fifteen to
Become a pianist demonstrating new songs in a publisher’s salesroom
Gershwin’s first piano teacher was
Himself
which of the following musicals is not by George Gershwin?
Funny girl
which of the following works is not by George Gershwin?
The desert song
The Gershwin song that became a tremendous hit in 1920 was
Swanee
George Gershwin usually collaborated with the lyricist
Ira Gershwin
Porgy and Bess is a (n)
opera
Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue opens with
A solo clarinet
“Harlem Renaissance” was the name
Sometimes given to a flowering of African American culture during the years 1917-1935
William Grant still
Played the violin in the university string Quartet while a college student
After serving in the navy and a brief return to studies at Oberlin College, William Grant still moved to New York where he
Made a band arrangements and played in the orchestras of all- black musical shows
As a result of his studies in composition with composers from two opposing musical camps, the conservative George Whitefield Chadwick and the modernist Edgard varese, Still
Turned away from Avant- garde styles and wrote compositions with a uniquely African American flavor
William Grant Still’s works in African American style, such as his Afro-American symphony of 1931, were
Performed to critical acclaim in New York
As a composer, William Grant Still
Wrote film scores, concert works, operas, and band arrangements
William grant Stills Afro-American Symphony
Uses a blues theme in the first movement which reappears as a unifying thread in various transformations in the three movements.
William Grant Still’s opera dealing with the Haitian slave rebellion is
Troubled Island
The flowering of African American culture called the “Harlem Renaissance” spanned the years
1917-35
Each movement of William Grant Still’s Afro-American symphony is prefaced by lines from a poem by
Paul Laurence Dunbar
Aaron Copland was born in
Brooklyn, New York
In 1921 Copland went France, Where he was the first American to study composition with
Nadia Boulanger
In 1925, After Copland returned from France, American music meant
Jazz
Iin 1925, and for a few years afterward , Copland’s music showed the influence of
Jazz
Aaron Copland’s name has become synonymous with American music because of his use of
Revival hymns, cowboy songs, and other folk tunes
Which of the following works was not composed by Aaron Copland ?
An American in Paris
Which of the following works was not composed by Aaron Copland?
Concord Sonata
An example of Copland’s use of serialist technique is
Connotations for Orchestra
In addition to his compositions, Copland made valuable Contributions to music in American by

All answer are correct

A. Directing composer’s groups
B. Writing books and magazine articles
C. Organizing concerts of American Music

Appalachian Spring Originated as a
Ballet Score
Appalachian spring originated as a ballet score for the great modern dancer and choreographer
Martha Graham
Copland depicted “Scenes of daily activity for the bride and her Farmer-husband” in Appalachian spring through
Five variations on the shaker melody simple gifts
Alberto Ginastera, one of the most prominent Latin- American composers of the 20th century, was born in
Argentina
One of Ginastera’s early works, Estancia suite, is
Nationalistic and users Argentinean folk material , including popular dances
Ginastera’s Estancia suite was originally conceived as in
Ballet
Alberto Ginastera’s estancia suite uses a large orchestra and is in __________ movements.
Four
The last movement of Ginastera’s Estancia Suite, titled ” Final Dance: Malambo”, makes use of an ______form.
AA’B
In 1945 Ginastera moved to the united states where he had the opportunity to study with the well known American Composer
Aaron Copland
Since World War 2, musical styles have
Taken many new directions and changes
Composer John Adams believes that today’s Composers can draw from
A wide Variety of styles and periods
All of the following are major developments in music since 1950 except the
Continued composition of symphonies in the classical style
Composers began to shift from tonality to the twelve-tone system because
They discovered it was a compositional technique rather than a special musical style
The twelve-tone composer whose style was most imitated in the 1950s and 1960s was
Anton Webern
Serialism is a compositional in which
A series of five pitched could be constantly repeated
Twelve-tone Compositional techniques used to organize rhythm , Dynamics, tone color, and other dimensions of music to produce totally controlled and organized music are called
Serialism
A major composer associated with the serialist movement is
Milton Babbitt
All of the following are proponents of serialism except
Pierre Boulez
In chance, or aleatory music the composer
choose pitches, tone color, and rhythms by random methods
An example of aleatoric music is
John Cage’s Imaginary Landscape No. 4 for twelve radios
Minimalism as an artistic movement was a
reaction against the complexity of serialism and the randomness of chance music
Which of the following characteristics is not true of minimalist music ?
A fast rate of change
Minimalist music is characterized by
A steady pulse , clear tonality , and insistent repetition of short melodic patterns
Which of the following is not primarily known as a minimalist composer ?
George Crumb
Minimalist music grew out of the same intellectual climate as minimalist art, which features
simple forms, clarity , and understatement
Many composers since the mid-1960s have made extensive use of quotations from earlier music as an attempt to
Improve communication between the composer and the listener
since 1950 many composers have returned to
Tonal music
composers who have returned to the use of tonality have been called
“New Romantics”
Some works composed since 1945 are both
Tonal and atonal
Intervals smaller than the half steps are called
Microtones
Around 1940, John Cage invented the prepared piano, a(n)
Grand piano whose sound is altered by objects such as bolts, screws, rubber bands, pieces of felt, paper, and plastic inserted between the strings of some of the keys
Ionisation , the first important work for percussion ensemble , was composed by
Edgard Varese
Edgard Varese’s Poeme electronique

All of the answers are correct

A. Was designed for the 1958 Brussels World Fair
B. Was one of the earliest masterpieces of electronic music created in a tape studio
C. Was composed in collaboration with the famous architect Le Corbusier

Ellen Taaffe Zwilich is a
Pulitzer Prize- winning American composer
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich won the 1983 Pulitzer Prize for music for her composition
Symphony NO. 1
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich’s concerto Grosso 1985 is an example of
Quotation music
Which of the following compositions was not composed by john Adams ?
Einstein on the beach
John Adams’s short ride in a fast machine is scored for a
Large symphonic orchestra and two synthesizers
Leonard Bernstein was a well-known

All answer are correct

A. Composer of orchestral and vocal works
B. Author-lecturer
C. conductor

The composer, conductor, and pianist who began his spectacular career as substitute conductor of the new York philharmonic on only a few hour’s notice was
Leonard Bernstein
In addition to his famous musical Leonard Bernstein also wrote successful

All answers are correct

A. Ballets
B. Choral works
C.Symphonies

Leonard Bernstein was influence, particularly in his ballets , by
Stravinsky and Copland
Which of the following musical is not by Leonard Bernstein?
Cats
The musical loosely based on Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is
West side story