The Social Context View of Sociology Chapter 1

Sociology
The study of social organization
Social organization or social context
Refers to the patterns of human relationships and interactions that characterize social life
Theory
an organized way of explaining something
3 major theories of sociological theories
Functionalism conflict and symbolic interactionism
Functionalism
Views society and other social contacts in terms of the function it serves
Manifest function
the anticipated/intended function
Latent Function
the unanticipated/unplanned function
Conflict theory
Focuses on the aspect of context that are conducive to struggle and conflict (in that struggle some people are able to excursive power and achieve great rewards)
Symbolic interaction
Believes that human beings are social actors that create and determine the world around them through language
Position
Refers to social location in a social organized (ex. families have positions such as wife, husband, and child)
Status
the ranking of a position in a social organization from low to high along some criteria such as power
Role
the way a person in a particular position within a social organization is expected to act
Norms
expectations of behavior associated with the various positions, statuses, and roles in society
Social structure
the way position, status, roles, and norms are organized in a social organization at any given time
Process
how social organizations change
Population
The study of characteristics of individuals in a geographic area which impact the development of social organization
Collectivity or Aggregation
envolved in engaging in collective action
Social stratification
the division of people in a society based on their social class
Groups
two or more people who know each other and develop a pattern of interaction based on common experience
Family
cosseting of men and women connected to each other on the basis of kinship to produce, nurture and socialize children
Communities
Social organizations characterized by a contiguous geographic area wherein people have organized to meet their needs and concerns as they carry out their daily lives
Associations
Social organization formed in pursuit of some specific common goal
Institutions
Patterns of activities which are seen as crucial and important to the society (ex. religion, politics, health, and education)
Networks
Tie together social organizations concerned with similar activities in their pursuit of goals
Micro Networks
social organizations that link together large numbers of individuals, rather than organizations
Macro Networks
tie the social organizations of the world together and help to coordinate social life
Society
Characterized by autonomy, geographic boundaries, a shared culture, grater self sufficiency and independence in decision making
Confederated system
a social organization that ties societies together because of their involvement in a core set of activities
Concepts
ideas sociologists have developed to describe or explain social phenomena
Principle of least interest
person who has the lest interest in a relationship controls the relationship
Mating Grading
mend tend to marry down in terms of education and social class whereas women tend to marry up