The Roman World

Rome was
Founded by the Etruscans
The government of Rome
Was originally a monarchy but later became a republic
Early Roman legend and tales
We’re incorporated into Livy’s historical accounts to teach moral values and virtues
A central aspect of early Roman conquest was that all conquered peoples
Had an interest in the success of Rome, since they could improve their status by demonstrating their loyalty to their conquerors
Roman imperialism was characterized by
Strategic fortification, road construction, and allied military support
The chief executive officers of the Roman Republic who were responsible for leading the Roman army into battle and administering the government were the
Consuls
The defenders of the plebians were known as the
Tribunes
The Roman Senate
Had 300 members who were chosen for life
Which of the following is a true statement about the centuriate assembly?
It has the responsibilities electing the chief magistrates and passing legislation
Members of the aristocratic governing class in Rome were known as
Patricians
The plebians
Were less privileged and often poorer than the patricians
The “Struggle of the orders” in ancient Rome
Became less confrontational when laws were passed permitting plebians to hold office
The people who the greatest influence upon Republican Rome were the
Greeks
The First Punic War
Was waged between Carthage and Rome over control of the island of Sicily
The Second Punic War
Won Spain for Rome and produced Roman control over the western Mediterranean
The Third Punic War
Resulted in Carthage being destroyed and it’s territory becoming a Roman province
The major stages of Roman imperial expansion before 100 B.C.E. included
The involvement and seizures of the Hellenistic kingdoms on the eastern Mediterranean
The Roman General who began a new system of military recruitment that made soldiers loyal to their general and not the Senate, was
Marius
Roman slaves
Staged a number of massive rebellions, the largest led by Spartacus in 71 B.C.E.
The Roman General who returned from Spain as a military hero in 71 B.C.E. Was
Pompey
Roman military commanders
Were required to retire after two years of high command
Julius Caesar
Was assassinated by leading senators convinced his death would restore the republic
Crassus as killed in battle, Caesar defeated Pompey and was later assassinated, Octavian defeated Antony, who committed suicide, and Octavian attained sole power and was named Augustus. As a result of the proceeding, the traditional Roman Republic
Ended
Octavian
Established the praetorian guard to guard him and his successors
A development during the period of Julio-Claudian rule was that emperors
Acted more openly as real rulers than as “first citizens of the state”
Under the reign of five good emperors
The range of responsibilities that were affected by the polices of the emperors increased
As time went on, the governing classes of the Empire
Were made up of more and more provincial inhabitants
As it prospered, the early Roman empire
Saw the development of a large gap between rich and poor
Roman literature
Reached its high point in the age of Augustus
Rome’s greatest lyric poet was
Catullus
The greatest epic poet of the late Republic was
Virgil
In addition to the construction of massive buildings, the Romans also built
Skyscrapers
Roman jurist were able to provide a systematic framework for Roman law because
they came to assume that natural law, or universal law, was based upon reason
During the centuries of Roman history from public to empire the paterfamilias authority
Decreased
The gladiatorial games
Were deemed vital by the government at it diverted the mass of the population from potentially dangerous political or riotous activities
Traditional Roman religion
Was based on the proper implementation of rituals by state priests
Religious groups in the Roman empire included a
Number of mystery religions which offered immortality as a result of the sacrificial death of a savior-God
Which of the following were among the Jewish population of Judea
Pharisees
The basic message of Jesus of Nazareth was that
People should love God and each other
The reason why Jesus was denounced and crucified was that the
Conservative religious leaders feared he threatened the traditional religion
the key figure spread of Christianity outside the Jewish community was
Paul of Tarsus
The “good news” concerning Jesus was contained in the written
Gospels
Roman antagonism toward Christianity was deepened by
Christian rejection of Roman religious practices
The success of Christianity is widely believed by historians to have been due to its
Promise of salvation, its similarity, and its universality
The first Christian emperor of the Roman empire was
Constantine
Under Christianity was made the official religion of the Roman Empire
Theodosius
The zealots were
Militant extremists who advocated the violent overthrow of Rome’s rule
Signs of Roman decline were manifested by
A series of civil wars and barbarian invasions
In comparison to Han China, in the Roman empire
Merchants were more highly regarded
A fundamental difference between the Roman empire in China Han empire was that the
Essentials of the hand empire were replicated by later dynasties by the Roman empire disappeared except as an idea