The Roman Empire. Or Republic. Or… Which Was It?

What is the meaning of SPQR
– Senatus Populusque Romanus
– The Senate and People of Rome
Why was Julius Caesar assassinated according to Shakepeare
Caesar was going to destroy the Roman Republic
What were the three types of governments in Rome
Monarchy, Aristocracy, and Democracy
Supreme power or sovereignty held by a single person
A form of government in which power is held by the nobility
A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.
Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work, The Histories, which covered the period of 264-146 BC in detail.
What were the two broad classes Rome was divided in
-The Patricians
– The Pelebians
Who were the Patricians
Small group of aristocratic families
Who were the Pelebians
The common population of Rome
The Senate
– Drawn from the Patricians
– Was a sort of mixture of Legislature and the giant advisory council
– Their main job was to set policy for the Consuls
How may co-Consuls did the Senate choose each year
Why were there 2 co-Consuls
So they could check each other’s ambitions, and so that one could take care of Rome domestically, while the other fights off wars and conquering new territories
How many years was a Consul forbidden to serve again
10 years
What was to happen when the Republic was in imminent danger
A dictator was to be chosen
Gaius Julius Caesar
– Born around 100 BCE to one of Rome’s leading families
– Served in both the Army and the Senate
– Ran for Consul
Who helped Julius Caesar financially through his Consul run
Marcus Licinius Crassus
Marcus Licinius Crassus
– One of Rome’s richest men
– Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire
When did Caesar become Consul
59 BCE
Caesar allied with these two men
Crassus and General Pompey
What was the alliance of Caesar, Crassus, and General Pompey called
The First Triumvirate
When was Julius Caesar named both Dictator and Consul
After the building of the Roman empire in 48 BCE
Caesar was elected consul again in
46 BCE and 45 BCE
What were the reforms that Caesar pursued
– Land pensions for his soldiers
– Restructured the debts of a huge percentage of Rome’s debtors
– Changed the calendar to make it look more like the one we use today
The second triumvirate consisted of which 3 individuals
– Caesar’s adopted son Octavian
– Octavian’s second-in-command Mark Antony
– Lepidus
Why was the Second Triumvirate a massive failure
– It degenerated into a second civil war
– Octavian and Antony fought (the winner being Octavian)
What did Octavian change his name to
Augustus Caesar
Punic Wars
Series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC. At the time, they were probably the largest wars that had ever taken place
First Punic War
Rome wanted Sicily, which was controlled by Carthaginians. Rome won
Second Punic War
Carthage was furious because of their loss in the previous war which became the main reason for the second war
– General who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War
– Crossed the Alps and defeated the Romans but was recalled to defend Carthage and was defeated (247-182 BCE)
When did Hannibal, first, attack a Roman town
219 BCE
By what date was Rome definitely an emmpire
201 BCE
Third Punic War
Rome attacked Carthage and completely destroyed it
What conquest strategy did Rome use
Military Conquest