The Importance Of Critical Thinking Skills Education Essay
Moore viewed critical thought accomplishment is highlighted as an indispensable foundation to bring forth womb-to-tomb scholars for Twentieth Century acquisition.This chapter will discourse on the importance of critical thought accomplishments, critical thought and employability, execution and challenges of learning critical thought in Malaysia every bit good as theory and schemes to learn critical thought.This chapter will besides lucubrate further on the interconnectedness between engineering, linguistic communication and higher order believing accomplishments, argumentative cognition acquisition and eventually, depict the Toulmin ‘s Model.
The importance of critical thought accomplishments
Harmonizing to Edmonds et Al.
( 2005 ) , critical thought has many definitions over the past old ages ; nevertheless, it can be concluded as an active mental procedure that includes mental accomplishments such as conceptualizing, analysing, using, synthesising and measuring information in order to emerge with an reply or decision.
Everyone needs to hold an ability to work out jobs throughout their lives. Therefore, many educational experts have stressed on the importance of transfusing higher order believing accomplishments in one ‘s instruction as it helps pupils to analyze the state of affairs, learn the undertakings better before emerge with solution both in academic and non-academic fortunes ( Chance, 1986 ; Tama, 1989 ; Ennis, 1992 ; Elder & A ; Paul, 2001, ) . This is because believing and larning are interrelated as one has to independently believe and seek solutions to a job or state of affairs in order to derive cognition. Research findings indicate that critical thought accomplishment can be taught and improved in everyone and this accomplishment should be integrated in the course of study at all degrees ( Grant, 1988 ; Paul et al. , 1989 ; White, Burke, 1992 ; McKendree et al. , 2002 ) .
Sternberg ( 2003 ) stated that one of the ends of instruction is to bring forth womb-to-tomb scholars who posses the qualities of intelligent, critical minds which is believed to be able to believe independently, analytically and critically to see a better calling accomplishment in order to derive personal satisfaction and hopefully, contribute to national accomplishment to develop his state. This is because larning is an on-going procedure that may happen in academic and non-academic fortunes. Without critical thought accomplishments, Sternberg ( 2003 ) further elaborated that schools and universities will merely bring forth extremely fleeceable pupils and alumnuss who may be knowing, but deficiency of the accomplishments to believe critically and analytically over a state of affairs. This is because they are merely passively having information exhibited by the political leaders as information can be easy transmitted by the media via assorted signifier in this epoch of rapid development of Information Technology ( IT ) . Without ability to believe critically, they besides would subsequently confront some jobs when they become employees as they need to pass on well-reasoned thoughts and would non be able to actively lend to educational treatments due to hapless communicating accomplishments and deficiency of analytical logical thinking to a state of affairs at manus ( Education Reform in Malaysia Report, 2012 ) .
Critical thought and employability
Paul ( 1995 ) claimed that critical thought is a critical foundation to the accommodations needed for mundane societal, personal and professional demands of the twenty-first Century. It is further supported by Elder ( 2000 ) who claims that it is of import to learn higher order believing accomplishments to pupils in schools and universities as today ‘s society has become more complex due to rapid alteration in engineering. The society demand to be able to analyze the huge information that can be gathered effortlessly via online and merely choice necessities from it ( Chartrand, 2009 ) . Henwood ( 2007 ) claimed this state of affairs besides applied in twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours existent life state of affairss. Hence, he farther stated that pupils who are ill-equipped with critical thought accomplishments will non be able to get by with the challenges and demands of current occupation market. This is because higher order believing accomplishment is believed as one of the most indispensable soft accomplishments for future employability of the new coevalss.
“ aˆ¦workplace literacy in the following millenary will be synonymous with job resolution. ”
( Mariam Jean Dreher, 2000 )
Mariam Jean Dreher ( 2000 ) predicts that the hereafter will name for a life style ; both in instruction and calling field ; of independent job convergent thinkers that requires multiliteracies which involves higher order believing accomplishments.
In Malaysia, the research findings claim that critical thought accomplishment is extremely valued in the workplace today ( DETYA, 2000 ; Chartrand, 2009 ) . Norshima ( 2011 ) studies that Malaysia produces 60, 000 alumnuss yearly in which at least 30 per centum of these alumnuss are unemployed every twelvemonth as they are lacked of these powerful accomplishments. This is farther supported by Gurvinder Kaur and Sharan Kaur ( 2009 ) who claimed that in Malaysia, six out of 10 university alumnuss take every bit much as six months to be employed due to miss of critical thought accomplishments and hapless communicating accomplishments. Fong ( 2004 ) and Vijan ( 2007 ) findings stated that the grounds that Malayan alumnuss are unemployed because they are non able to affect their possible hereafter employers during interview due to hapless presentation and communicating accomplishments particularly if it is done in English.
Besides, Malayan instruction system is said to be excessively exam-oriented and therefore, the alumnuss could non lend every bit much once they start working as they are merely theoretically competent but non equipped with sufficient practical exposure ( Henwood, 2007 ) . This is farther supported by Rosnani ( 2009 ) and Education Reform in Malaysia Report ( 2012 ) findings which stated that employers in Malaysia, specifically in concern sector, complain about the low quality of most alumnuss from Malaysia are lacking in footings of critical thought accomplishments which in return affect the quality of their work.
Execution of critical thought in Malaya
Due to the uprising employees ‘ concern over the lacking of this powerful soft accomplishment amongst newly alumnuss employers globally, course of study of educational system has been bit by bit revamped over the old ages. This state of affairs is particularly true in most prima or developing states like the United States, England and Singapore ( Nagappan, 2001 ; Willingham, 2007 ) . The demand to instill critical thought accomplishments into Malayan instruction system is therefore undeniable in order to carry through Vision 2020. This demand is supported by Rosnani ( 2009 ) who proclaims that Malaysians, in general, have non been able to use the content of cognition gained throughout their school old ages into existent life state of affairss even after undergone at least 11 old ages of schooling and hence, Malaysia educational system demand to be analysed and some alterations need to be made.
Ministry of Education ( MOE ) has realised the dismaying demands of the aforesaid state of affairs and therefore, Integrated Curriculum for Secondary School ( KBSM ) was introduced in the late eightiess ( Nagappan, 2011 ) . The content of this new course of study was revamped in which originative and critical thought accomplishments were integrated in most of the topics taught in schools with a emphasis on treatment, find and enquiry ; the higher round of Bloom taxonomy ( Curriculum Development Center, 1989 ) .
As it is realised that the instructors need to be competent to learn critical thought accomplishments to the pupils, a few attempts were besides been conducted as to fix the instructors and teachers-to-be with the new undertaking in front of them. As educational findings have reported that most instructors in Malayan schools are missing in footings of cognition and accomplishments to learn critical thought accomplishments to their pupils ( Education Reform in Malaysia Report, 2012 ) , a few amendments have been made to meet this job from the instructor ‘s portion. Nagappan ( 2001 ) studies that Teacher Education Division ( TED ) had revamped the course of study for Teacher Training Programme such as in Post Degree Teaching Programme ( KPLI ) in early 1994 to integrate a programme that teaches the schemes to learn believing accomplishments utilizing the extract attack which is based on Boston Model. As for the instructors in schools, Ministry of Education ( MOE ) had introduced the Programme for Instruction in Learning and Thinking Skills ( PILTS ) in 1992 ( Rosnani, 2009 ) . This programme was introduced to place the nucleus thought accomplishments to be taught and the schemes to inculcate these accomplishments into the content of the lesson being learnt.
Apart from that, Ministry of Higher Education ( MOHE ) has besides made an effort to cultivate undergraduates ‘ critical thought accomplishments through the content and undertakings assigned throughout each programme. Harmonizing to Hairuzila, Hazadiah & A ; Normah ( 2010 ) , the course of study for undergraduates has been infused with relevant soft accomplishments such as communicative accomplishments, critical thought and job resolution accomplishments, womb-to-tomb acquisition, squad work force and leading accomplishments into its course of study. They further elaborate that in order to aline with Vision 2020 of bring forthing holistic persons for the state, the appraisals or undertakings given to the undergraduates are geared towards fixing them for their calling life as most are based on real-life jobs, with less emphasis on pen and paper trials like antecedently.
Challenges in learning critical thought accomplishments in Malaya
Due to the exam-oriented civilization that has been practised for old ages in Malayan instruction system, instructors are shouldered with the duty to complete the course of study and give every bit much boring exercisings as they can to their pupils as to maintain up with the society ‘s outlook and over-emphasis on academic consequences. This in return has caused the instructors paying the least attending to pupils ‘ character edifice and soft accomplishments such as critical thought accomplishment ( Education Reform in Malaysia Report, 2012 ) . It can be seen here that Malayan instructors are non merely missing in footings of accomplishments to learn critical thought accomplishments ( Rosnani, 2009 ) , but besides are less than competent to fix and carry on a lesson that infuses critical thought accomplishments in a traditional schoolroom. This is due to the fact that learning critical thought accomplishments needs a batch of clip allotment during the pre-preparation category and undivided committedness both of portion of the instructor and pupils to guarantee an active advancement during the acquisition procedure ( Willingham, 2007 ) .
Apart from that, large size schoolrooms in most Malayan schools are besides one of the grounds that contribute to the failure of incorporating critical thought accomplishments in learning a topic in traditional schoolroom. A study done by Kamaruddin ( 2011 ) stated that schoolroom in Malayan schools are by and large consists of 35 to 50 pupils per schoolroom. This indirectly shows that most pupils will look as inactive scholars and synergistic activities that are believed to cultivate pupils ‘ critical thought can non be good conducted in such large size category. In contrast, many surveies have shown that a little size category of 20 pupils and below are said to be efficient and frequently associated with increased pupils ‘ public presentation and therefore, most likely leting smooth nurturing procedure of their soft accomplishments ( Carson, Badarack, 1989 ; Berliner, 1990 ; Kamaruddin & A ; Bhasah, 2004 ) .
The force per unit area to accomplish excellence in academic consequence in a less contributing environment in most of Malayan schools left the instructors with no pick but to fall back rehearsing teacher centred attack in go toing their duties. Hence, pupils are non given ample chance to see synergistic, active acquisition that could really assist to cultivate their critical thought accomplishments ( Kamaruddin, 2011 ) . Teacher centred attack, in return, will undeniably do one-way cognition transmittal to happen and hence, less opportunities being given to the pupils to convey their sentiments to actively build their ain cognition ( Willingham, 2007 ) . Without chance to actively build ain cognition, one is said to pay less attending to cultivate and foster his ain critical thought ( Toulmin, 1958 ) . Due to this state of affairs, most of Malayan pupils who are subsequently become employees are said to hold hapless communicating accomplishments and this visibly shows in their deficiency of ability to critically reassigning an sentiment or cognition when pass oning with others ( Education Reform in Malaysia Report, 2012 ) .
Educational Learning Theory and Schemes
Due to that, instructors ‘ manner of learning should pitch towards incorporating higher order believing accomplishments and rehearsing positive communicating accomplishments in order to bring forth holistic persons align with Vision 2020. Woolfolk ( 1993 ) suggests that theoretical foundation of acquisition and schemes used in a acquisition procedure will assist to model the type of pupils that a instructor wants to foster. Lai ( 2011 ) suggests the instruction of higher order believing accomplishments should be based on the followerss:
Bruner ( 1996 ) stated that the basic thought of constructivism is that scholars actively construct ain apprehension by accepting certain experiences and choosing necessities from assorted beginnings of cognition. Naismith et. Al ( 2006 ) besides claimed that constructivism attack is about constructing new cognition upon what have been gathered in old acquisition. Woolfolk ( 1993 ) stated that constructivist larning theory indirectly learning the pupils to “ larn to larn ” as it involves believing procedures in which pupils need to be able to travel beyond the information given, use their ain cognition, evaluate opinions before generate new thoughts out of it. Students are required to actively affect in the acquisition procedure to develop their thought accomplishments through their experiences in schools ( Prawat, 1991 ) . Lai ( 2001 ) stated that constructivism can be used as a foundation to foster one ‘s higher order believing accomplishments via self-questioning, analyzing written papers for comprehension and besides holding collaborative treatments with equals.
Social Constructivist Theory
Social Constructivist Theory, on the other manus, is a theory that states each single cognitive development is at its best when one constructs the significance of new cognition by actively take parting in building and sharing the cognition through communicating with others ( Burningham & A ; Cooper, 1999 ) . These theories believes that equal to peer treatment will assist one to actively build new cognition and learn by sharing and discoursing the stuffs gathered in a positive societal environment ( Schwandt, 2003 ) .
Problem Based Learning ( PBL )
Teaching critical thought accomplishments is normally being paired with Problem Based Learning attack as it triggers and provokes scholars ‘ thought as to make to a solution to a job with relation to daily state of affairss ( Woolfolk, 1993 ) . Problem Based Learning ( PBL ) attack teaches pupils to believe critically as it takes existent universe fortunes which normally involves experiential, inductive acquisition that requires oppugning and believing that is purposive and purposive ( Lai, 2011 ) . More frequently than non, it involves a undertaking that encourages the scholars to “ larn to larn ” which is an of import constituent in constructivist attack ( Kuhn, 1999 ) . This necessarily will promote active larning procedure including through speaking, brainstorming and in-depth probe of cognition via legion collaborative acquisition experiences.
A figure of critical thought research workers recommended that societal experiences in a learning procedure can significantly lend to one ‘s cognitive development procedure which obviously occurred in a collaborative acquisition attack ( Heyman, 2008 ; Thayer-Bacon, 2008 & A ; Nelson, 1994 ) . This is farther supported by Woolfolk ( 1993 ) who claimed that collaborative acquisition is fundamentally based from Piagetian and Vygotsky theory which reciprocally agree that societal interactions extremely contribute to one ‘s cognitive development procedure.
In a collaborative acquisition, it is believed that Piaget theory is applied in footings of its instructional facet in which scholar ‘s cognitive development can be triggered via interactions with another individual of a higher developmental phase which is usually the instructor or a more knowing equal ( Woolfolk, 1993 ) whilst Vygotsky belief is identified in footings of one ‘s zone of proximal development that distinguishes between what an person can achieved by himself and what can be accomplished via interactions with a more competent equal or grownup ( Nelson, 1994 ) . Thayer-Bacon ( 2008 ) further viewed that societal interactions with others in collaborative acquisition is an of import facet to instil critical thought accomplishments onto pupils as they need to constructively contribute and portion sentiments and at the same clip learn to esteem other parts during group treatments.
Collaborative Problem Based Learning ( CPBL )
Gokhale ( 1995 ) findings stated that pupils who are actively engaged in a collaborative undertaking demonstrate better Higher Order Thinking Skills ( HOTS ) as compared to the 1s who work separately. This determination is farther supported by Vygotsky ( 1978 ) who claimed that collaborative acquisition helps to further the development of critical thought accomplishments via treatment, justification of thoughts and analyzing other ‘s positions. A few research findings have shown that uniting collaborative attack on job work outing learning scheme has really increase pupils ‘ meta-cognitive on work outing the jobs and therefore, better their higher order believing accomplishments ( Johnson & A ; Chung, 1999 ; Mergendoller et al. , 2000 ) . They further elaborate that the interaction between equals about the job at manus, brainstorming for solutions and measuring each other ‘s positions during the procedure has encouraged more frequent coevals of thoughts and solution and therefore, allow pupils to believe critically and analytically.
Collaborative acquisition, as defined by Correndo and Alani ( 2007 ) , is an instructional scheme that consists of pupils from assorted proficiency degrees work together in a group while assisting each other towards accomplishing one common aim or larning result. On the other manus, Problem Based Learning is an instructional teaching method that uses job as a larning context to dispute the pupils to “ larn to larn ” in order to happen solutions to the job ( Duch, Groh & A ; Allen, 2001 ) . Hence, Collaborative Problem Based Learning ( CPBL ) is a combination of Collaborative Learning and Problem Based Learning which can be concluded as an instructional scheme that provides chances for the pupils to work within little groups and actively take part in assorted activities including treatments a state of affairs, analyzing others ‘ positions and eventually collaboratively measuring possible solution to the job at manus ( An, 2006 ) .
The advantages of CPBL
CPBL encourages pupils to work together in building new cognition to seek a solution of the job at manus. Hence, pupils are given huge chances to go critical minds by sharing thoughts and actively prosecuting oneself in treatments and be responsible of their ain acquisition every bit good as others ‘ ( Totten, Sills, Digby, & A ; Russ, 1991 ) . This place is farther supported by Johnson and Johnson ( 1986 ) who stated that the coaction on job work outing promotes higher degree of thought as the participants need to analyze others ‘ sentiment before clear uping ain sentiment. They farther claimed that this helps to advance longer cognition keeping as compared to the 1s who worked separately to seek cognition.
Besides, An ( 2006 ) besides stated that CPBL provides reliable larning experiences every bit good as fostering their communicating accomplishments while interchanging thoughts during the treatments. Hence, CPBL helps to further autonomous acquisition accomplishments that could be utile to assist pupils go womb-to-tomb scholars and critical minds ( Norman and Schmidt, 1992 ) . Albanese and Mitchell ( 1993 ) besides proposed that pupils who undergone CPBL attack performed better than the 1s who received traditional attack in larning as they have first manus experience that rewards them with in-depth understanding about the undertaking at manus. This is believed because the pupils actively building their ain cognition via interaction with their equals ( Smith & A ; MacGregor, 2001 ) . Vygotsky ( 1978 ) besides views that instructor is non the lone cognition sender that the pupils can larn from ; equal instruction is besides one of the ways to promote active acquisition.
The restrictions of CPBL
Despite of these benefits, CPBL attack besides has its just portion of defects when it is being applied in a traditional schoolroom. In any group activities, particularly in a traditional schoolroom as it is rather hard for the instructor to accurately measure every pupil ‘s parts to the group, there is ever freeloading jobs. The freeloading members normally take credits of the work of others and this may do struggle amongst pupils ( Bower & A ; Richards, 2006 ) .
Bower and Richards ( 2006 ) further stated that this may diminish some assurance of some pupils as psychologically, every pupil demand to be acknowledged where recognition is due in order for them to foster build their ain cognition in an active mode. They besides claimed that it is about impossible for the instructor to reasonably administer the grade based on every pupil ‘s part to the group. Hence, this may either do some pupils to either frustrated for being credited below the belt and subsequently de-motivated to lend in the hereafter or worse, become freeloaders and merely basking the free tiffin ( Bonwell, 2006 ) .
Other than that, since CPBL activities need the pupils to collaboratively work towards accomplishing a end or solution to a real-life job, the readying of these activities are usually take great attempt and commitment both from the instructor and pupils. This is difficult to accomplish if it were to be done in a traditional schoolroom due to clip and infinite restraint ( Bonwell, 2002 ) . Apart from learning, Malayan instructors particularly, are burdened with other excess course of study or out of-school activities that take a batch of their personal clip ( Rosnani, 2009 ) . Without proper readying, CPBL that is hoped to promote pupils to actively build their ain cognition and at the same clip fostering their higher order and communicating accomplishments may non be turn into an accomplishable terminal ( Hmelo-Silver, 2004 ) . This is farther supported by Smith and MacGregor ( 2001 ) who claimed that collaborative acquisition is a fantastic attack to promote critical thought, nevertheless, it is besides may make quandary between pupil ‘s procedure of acquisition and the coverage of the lesson ‘s content.
Computer Supported Collaborative Learning ( CSCL )
Due to the rapid development of Information Technology ( IT ) in this modern age, these twenty-first Century pupils ‘ manner of acquisition has besides changed ( An, 2006 ) . Today, one of the ways to back up active acquisition can be materialised in a more fun manner through the usage of engineering tools. Computer Supported Collaborative Learning ( CSCL ) is an instructional scheme infused with constructivist attack to learning and larning utilizing engineering to back up coaction in order to make a more contributing and prosecuting larning atmosphere ( Johnson & A ; Johnson, 1996 ) . They farther stated that a technology-rich acquisition environment is able to increase pupils ‘ societal interaction, cooperation and coaction and therefore, promote their cognition building. Harasim, Hiltz, Teles, and Turoff ( 1995 ) besides claimed that CSCL promotes on-line collaborative acquisition that may positively promote pupils ‘ towards active acquisition. This is because pupils can acquire information about effortlessly via online and so discourse with their equals before emerge with a solution to a job.
CPBL in an online environment
In this epoch of rapid development of Information Technology ( IT ) , there have been attempts to unite CPBL into CSCL environment ( An, 2006 ) . Many research findings have indicated that CPBL in an online environment has been demoing positive effects towards pupils ‘ cognition building every bit good as societal interaction accomplishments.
One of the fringe benefits by using CPBL into an on-line environment, apart from treatment with the teacher and their equals via online with no limitation to clip and topographic point, is that it encourages autonomous larning amongst pupils as it provides pupils with huge choices of information needed about effortlessly ( Bonk & A ; King, 1998 ) . This is because it allows the pupils to larn via Web 2.0 tools as larning AIDSs such as electronic mails, on-line group treatment in the confab suites, collaborative authorship via Wiki, societal bookmarking and so forth to go on anytime and anyplace. This limitless and easy entree on information will open ways for the pupils to accommodate to autonomous acquisition and therefore, promote active cognition building to happen.
Besides, this online larning environment allows the function of the instructor as the exclusive supplier of cognition to transform into the function of facilitator, which aligns absolutely with student-centred attack in PBL ( Vrasidas & A ; McIsaac, 2000 ) . Here, pupils are encouraged to build their ain cognition with small counsel from the instructor and go an active subscriber towards their ain acquisition alternatively of passively having cognition from anyone else. This attack opens manner to cultivate one ‘s higher order believing accomplishments ( Harasim et al. , 1997 ) as it besides promotes positive interaction between the instructor and the pupils ( Relan & A ; Gillani, 1997 ) .
Most significantly, Althaus, ( 1996 ) viewed that CPBL in an online environment allows computing machine mediated communicating that gives an ample clip for the pupils to analyze, reflect the content of the treatment, happen excess information needed via online and evaluate others ‘ sentiments before supplying a thoughtful response. The treatment via online besides allows the pupils to make self contemplation at their ain convenient clip as they can publish out the treatment due to its permanency discourse, as opposed to confront to confront treatment ( Bonk & A ; King, 1998 ) .
Bower and Richards ( 2006 ) stated that one of the restrictions of utilizing PBL in a traditional schoolroom is that the collaborative treatment in a traditional schoolroom frequently consequences in off-task behavior amongst pupils. In contrast, many research findings have proven that pupils emit less off-task behavior in an on-line treatment and they tend to concentrate and intently work outing the job at manus ( Angeli et al. , 2003 ; Bonk et al. , 1998 ; Bonk & A ; King, 1998 ; Bonk et al. , 2004 ) .
In fact, many psychological surveies have indicated that collaborative treatment via online shows more engagement from the pupils than the face to confront treatments ( Bonk & A ; King, 1998 ; Chong, 1998 ; Cooney, 1998 ) . This state of affairs is particularly true for the pupils who have shy personality or deficiency of ego assurance to speak publically. Leasure et Al. ( 2000 ) proposed that this could be due to the comfy and “ safe ” societal acquisition environment that the on-line atmosphere provides for these pupils. Here, it can be said that CPBL in an on-line environment is a possible acquisition attack to advance positive alterations in cultivating critical thought every bit good as to promote one ‘s societal interaction with others.
2.8 Language larning issues in Malaya
In traveling towards carry throughing Vision 2020, instruction system in Malaysia is undergoing a few alterations as to bring forth holistic persons who are competent physically, emotionally, spiritually and intellectually ( Education Reform in Malaysia Report, 2012 ) . Along with the alterations introduced, Ministry of Education ( MOE ) has decided to incorporate the instruction of critical thought accomplishments within the course of studies of the topics taught in schools including English topic. The alterations is hoped to bring forth womb-to-tomb scholars who are able to believe critically and analytically over a given state of affairs. Sadly, nevertheless, the result of our instruction system has proven a contrasting consequence in which most of Malayan pupils and university undergraduates are said to be lacking in footings critical thought accomplishments and show hapless communicating abilities particularly when it is done in English ( Normazidah, Koo & A ; Hazita, 2012 ) .
A survey by Koo ( 2008 ) revealed that this is due to the fact that Malaysians schools in general, placed a high value of importance on national scrutiny. This has indirectly caused the English instructors to concentrate on the instruction of grammar, reading a transition and composing accomplishments instead than concentrating on the communicative facet of the linguistic communication itself, allow entirely to model pupils ‘ critical thought ability while larning the linguistic communication ( Normazidah, Koo & A ; Hazita, 2012 ) . This is farther supported by Amigapathy ( 2002 ) findings on his analysis of KBSM course of study which indicated that the content of current course of study requires the pupils to larn excessively many grammatical constituents which subsequently are to be tested in scrutinies. Here, it can be seen that the instruction of English is chiefly focused on the mechanical facet of the linguistic communication without doing any connexion with how it should be used in existent life communicative events. He farther documented that in order to carry through the demands of the society to bring forth pupils with good classs in scrutinies, English instructors in Malaysia frequently resorted to teacher-centred attack in learning the linguistic communication by supplying chalk-and-talk boring method of past twelvemonth documents, manus outs and infinite paper exercises. This finally will necessarily bring forth scholars who know about the linguistic communication but do non cognize how to utilize it in existent life state of affairss ( Amigapathy, 2002 ) , show limited critical ability in analyzing and reacting to an academic transition ( Ahmad Mazli Muhammad, 2007 ) as pupils are merely exposed to come up attack to reading ( Noorizah Mohd Noor, 2006 ) . Here, it can be concluded that there is a mismatch between the policy made with the existent practise of instruction and acquisition of English in Malaysia which make it rather hard to bring forth scholars as critical minds with acceptable degree of English proficiency.
This state of affairs is reported leads to a greater job when the pupils make the passage from secondary school to university as the pupils will confront jobs to travel off from school spoon-feeding learning civilization ( Normazidah, Koo & A ; Hazita, 2012 ) . Research surveies have indicated that most Malayan pupils are non prepared to run into the academic demand that requires them to hold both linguistic communication literacy every bit good as critical literacy ability in order to carry through the academic reading and academic authorship undertakings imposed on them at university ( Rosniah Mustaffa, 2006 ; Krishnakumari, Paul-Evanson, & A ; Selvanayagam, 2010 ) .
Therefore, it is safe to state that the clip has come for Malayan instructors to handle the pupils as the focal point of linguistic communication acquisition by doing a little alterations in learning the linguistic communication and at the same clip, whenever possible, supplying a contributing environment of larning. As CPBL is geared towards cultivating one ‘s critical thought ability ( An, 2006 ; Totten, Sills, Digby, & A ; Russ, 1991 ) and critical thought accomplishments is viewed as important portion in the acquisition of linguistic communication accomplishments ( Elder & A ; Paul, 2006 ; Shaharom Abdullah, 2004 ; Moore, 1995 ) , it merely seems appropriate to accommodate CPBL attack in the instruction and acquisition of English in Malaysian schoolrooms. Besides, linguistic communication acquisition can besides be mediated via engineering tools because as mentioned earlier, CPBL in an on-line environment brings enormous advantages and benefits to the pupils in footings of critical thought and linguistic communication acquisition as it involves legion chances for societal interactions amongst the pupils and pedagogue.
Technology, linguistic communication acquisition and critical thought
Technology has besides been proven utile in the instruction of linguistic communication and development of one ‘s critical thought at clip and infinite convenient to both the instructor and pupils ( Cheong & A ; Cheung, 2008 ) . For case, the treatments in the treatment boards or chew the fat suites between the pupils and the instructor and besides between pupils have been used as a medium to positively develop pupils ‘ communicating accomplishments every bit good as linguistic communication accomplishments ( Chitravelu, Sithamparam and Teh, 2005 ) .
Kroop, Nussbaumer and Fruhmann ( 2010 ) reported that the development of Web 2.0 tools are able to better one ‘s linguistic communication skills every bit good as support one ‘s critical thought accomplishments development by leting its users to make collaborative treatment that includes discussing, reasoning, reexamining, measuring, composing and re-producing an thought. By utilizing Web 2.0 tools such as electronic mails, treatments in confab suites or treatment boards that could be done either synchronously or asynchronously, pupils become more participative and therefore, bettering their linguistic communication and communicative accomplishments ( Berry, 2006 ) .
Another Web 2.0 tools that is often used in an on-line environment to learn linguistic communication is Wiki. Wiki is said has the potency to better pupils ‘ linguistic communication accomplishments every bit good as communicating and thought accomplishments ( Goodings, 2008 ) . Fuchs-Kittowski and Kohler ( 2005 ) mentioned that Wikis is able to ease the collaborative treatments that encourage coevals of cognition by supplying a medium to portion creative activity and edit paperss. Bruns and Humphreys ( 2005 ) besides added that Wiki is a learning tool that support societal constructivist larning as it allows argumentative-based larning experience ( Chong & A ; Yamamoto, 2006 ) , facilitates knowledge determining ( Reinhold, 2006 ) , allows coaction ( Kim et al. , 2006 ) and allows enquiry acquisition and collaborative building of cognition ( Yukawa, 2006 ) . This procedure is known as Argumentative Knowledge Construction.
Knowledge building within a traditional schoolroom is frequently relied to a great extent on the instructors which necessarily produce inactive scholars who may or may non be able to critically decode the cognition received to use it in existent life state of affairs ( Weible, 2011 ) . By utilizing Web 2.0 tools, on the other manus, it encourages and facilitates active engagement of each user as everyone has a just portion and chance to make, portion, edit, add on and go through the cognition and these actions reinforce single ‘s cognition building by actively larning from others ( Correndo & A ; Alani, 2007 ) . Besides, Web 2.0 tools value are increased as the more people are utilizing it as the content cognition and the information are provided chiefly by the users and construct up over the clip with other users ‘ part ( Weible, 2011 ) . This procedure encourages argumentative cognition building amongst its users as they learn from each other and develop higher other believing accomplishments as the users need to measure others ‘ sentiment apart from offering one in the treatment. This is in line with constructivism attack in which larning takes topographic point and retain longer when it is achieve via societal context ( Woolfolk, 1993 ) .
Argumentative Knowledge Construction
Harmonizing to Weinberger and Fischer ( 2006 ) , Argumentative Knowledge Construction is described as a manner for the pupils to build their ain cognition via educational debate and interaction with their learning spouses. They besides stated that each single cognition building is depends on is refined and evidenced throughout their active engagement in analyzing sentiments of others, measuring possible solutions or results available from emerge with ain point of views via treatment and debate with equals.
Argumentative Knowledge Construction in CPBL
Aalst ( 2009 ) stated that Argumentative Knowledge Construction is a procedure in which the pupils solve a job and concept meaningful comprehension of a peculiar state of affairs in relation to their anterior cognition by societal interaction within a peculiar group. He farther added it involves a huge sphere of cognitive procedures as it involves critical-explanation seeking oppugning techniques, construing and analyzing new information, sharing, knocking, reorganizing thoughts, sum uping and synthesising before emerge with a new construct of the affair.
In CPBL, for illustration, pupils learn by take parting in experiential acquisition and garner the indispensable cognition by work outing a job and reflecting on their collaborative experiences ( Hmelo-Silver, 2004 ) . CPBL activities encourage pupils to work in little collaborative groups in order to look into, understand, explicate and happen a solution to meaningful, real-life contexts ( Barrow, 2000 ) . He farther viewed that CPBL attack is widely used to cultivate one ‘s critical thought accomplishments as its acquisition procedure starts by showing the pupils with a job scenario in which the pupils try to work out the job collaboratively by place the lacks within the job, sharing sentiments and facts before coming out with hypotheses as to critically supply solutions to the job. Therefore, it can be said that CPBL is a suited attack to learn pupils to develop schemes in work outing jobs which may heighten their critical thought ability and besides assist them to heighten their argumentative cognition building ( Hmelo-Silver, 2004 ) .
Argumentative Knowledge Construction in CSCL
Student ‘s argumentative cognition building procedure can be enhanced rather expeditiously through pupils ‘ treatments and composing with the assistance of fast growing and spread of Web 2.0 engineering, particularly in linguistic communication instruction and acquisition ( Stegmann et al. , 2007 ) . Bocconi ( 2010 ) proposed that CSCL may help to the Argumentative Knowledge Construction via the usage of Web 2.0 tools integrates with societal package to ease pupils interaction and coaction within a peculiar group. This is an accomplishable state of affairs as Web 2.0 tools such as weblogs, wikis, societal bookmarking, treatment boards, societal networking sites and others allow its users to pool information that triggers communications that leads to knowledge sharing and therefore, cognition is constructed ( Strijbos, Martens and Jochems, 2004 ) .
Apart from that, the research conducted by Boulos et Al. ( 2006 ) stated that Wikis have the possible to ease autonomous acquisition of one to build ain cognition in order to derive deeper apprehension over a affair. Another research done by Bocconi ( 2010 ) shows that the usage of Web 2.0 tools, the Wikis to be specific, has shown positive consequence to catapult pupil ‘s argumentative cognition building procedure by analyzing the quality and frequence of the single argumentative Acts of the Apostless throughout the procedure. This is farther supported by Armin et Al. ( 2006 ) who claimed that by utilizing Wiki, pupils learn how to reason within a sphere and facilitates scholars in building their ain cognition and this taking them to a deeper apprehension. Bocconi ( 2010 ) stated that pupils ‘ higher order believing accomplishments are evidenced via their statements throughout the treatment procedure. He farther suggested that one of the methods to analyze and supervise pupils ‘ statement that emits their degree of higher order believing accomplishments can be done by utilizing Models of Argument such as Toulmin ‘s Model
Models of Argumentation
Model of Argumentation is defined as the basic layout as to sketch the best possible ways to organize an effectual procedure of common sense logical thinking or controversy in supplying a persuasive point of views ( Georgia State University, Department of English, 2008 ) . There are a few theoretical accounts of debate that are widely used in educational discourse in linguistic communication acquisition viz. the Classical Approach, the Rogerian Approach and the Toulmin Approach.
The Classical Approach is fundamentally used to convert the audience to hold and take side or do determination that favours one ‘s personal point of view ( Beale, 1986 ) . He farther elaborates that this attack consists of five elements of composing the statements viz. the Introduction in which to province the general claim of an statement to the audience ; the Narration as to supply a relevant drumhead background of peculiar state of affairs ; the Confirmation as to supply back uping grounds to a claim. Then, it is followed by the Refutation in which the talker or author provides a counter-argument to any opposing claims before terminals it with the Conclusion as to which the talker or author summarizes the chief points and reiterates the claim made in Introduction portion.
The Rogerian Approach, on the other manus, is based on the thought that the talker or the author needs to happen a “ common land ” with his audience as to make to a more conciliatory and less confrontational solution ( Moxley, 2012 ) . There are besides chiefly five elements in sketching debate thoughts harmonizing to Rogerian Model of Argumentation. It begins with an Introduction that province the issue ; followed by a non-judgemental opposition ‘s place ; a impersonal statement of ain point of view ; an analysis of common land of both places stated and eventually a proposal of concluding statement that satisfies the demands of both places made.
Whilst Toulmin ‘s Model of Argumentation in which it was developed by a British philosopher, Stephen Toulmin. He suggested that a realistic statement normally starts with a individual makes a claim over a affair, so supply a land that support the claim which is followed by a warrant to endorse up the land made ( Toulmin, 1958 ) . This is the Model of Argumentation chosen to be used in this survey and will be elaborated at length below.
Toulmin ‘s Model
Harmonizing to Toulmin ( 1958 ) , his strategy of statement analysis is based on six parts, which could be depicted utilizing Figure 2.1 as follows:
Figure 2.1: Toulmin ‘s Model of Argument
Claim: the statement or decision being argued ;
Datas: The grounds or fact to back up the claim made ;
Warrants: the logical statements that serve as a connexion between the informations and the claim made ;
Backing: the basic premise that is made to farther support a warrant ;
Qualifiers: states the restriction under which state of affairs the claim can be regarded as true ;
Rebuttals: the counter statements to picture circumstance when the claim made is non true.
( Toulmin, 1958 )
In add-on, Bocconi ( 2010 ) indicated that the basic construction of each of these phases can be identified and represented as follows:
“ because ( informations ) . . . since ( warrant ) . . . on history of ( endorsing ) . . . therefore ( decision ) ”
Bocconi ( 2010 )
Karbach ( 2010 ) stated that Toulmin suggested that one ‘s statement can be analysed by looking at his or her cognition building at four stairss viz. ; claim, informations, rebuttal and backup as to see whether the statement made solidly backed, sufficient and relevant to back up the old statements made. Hence, Karbach ( 2010 ) believed that Toulmin ‘s Model of Argumentation is a clear theoretical account to observe one ‘s inductive, deductive and logical logical thinking. Kneupper ( 1978 ) besides viewed that this layout strategy can be efficaciously used to analyze the constituents of an statements in linguistic communication acquisition.
The instruction of higher order believing accomplishments can non be taught in isolation ( Lai, 2011, Nagappan, 2001 ) . Hence, it has to be integrated into the course of study as to supply the pupils with the existent life medium and purposeful acquisition results apart from its importance to cultivate one ‘s critical thought and communicating accomplishments ( Education Reform in Malaysia Report, 2012 ) . In this fast growing of Information Technology ( IT ) epoch, the usage of engineering such as Web 2.0 tools can be used to efficaciously heighten the instruction of these accomplishments anytime anyplace ( Winston, 2006 ) . Besides, the usage of these engineering tools are proven to be effectual to promote pupils to larn collaboratively as human makes significances and can make at a deeper apprehension by pass oning with others ( Vygotsky, 1978 ; Johnson and Johnson, 1986 ; Gokhale,1995 ; An, 2006 ) . Through the communicating and interaction in a collaborative treatment via online, one can actively develop his or her ain cognition building in order to organize deeper apprehension in a safe and unafraid societal environment ( Chitravelu, Sithamparan & A ; Teh, 2005 ; Weinberger & A ; Fischer, 2006 ) .