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The Impact of Cross Cultural Management

THE IMPACT OF CROSS CULTURAL MANAGEMENT AMONG THE PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA THE IMPACT OF CROSS CULTURAL MANAGEMENT AMONG THE PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA Malaysia Abstract | Purpose – The purpose of this research is to identify the impact of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia.Design/methodology/approach – Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to obtain data for this study, where survey questionnaires were carried out with about 50 respondents at a higher education provider in Malaysia, and focus groups with five respondents at the same institution.

Findings – In this study, it was found that gender; age, education and religion have significant relationships to the impact of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia.Practical implications – Increased television advertisements viewing would lead to unrealistic values being developed by the youth, and thus indirectly increase consumption and purchase products and services they do not even need.

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Therefore, this study shows whether youths nowadays acknowledge TV ads or they tend to avoid TV ads.

Originality/value – This study is important as it allows readers to know how youth consumes media, how it can possibly influence their daily lives, and is important in the process of understanding the key role of media in recent lifestyles. Keywords – Advertising, Cultivation Theory, Media Dependency TheoryPaper type – Research paperAbout the author: xxxx is currently in her second year pursuing Bachelor in International Business (Hons) with INTI International University, Malaysia. The author cab be reached by email (@gmail. om)Reflects the main story of the paper § Explains the findings and main conclusions § No citations, tables, graphs, equations| 1. 1 IntroductionWhere do you want to publish? Who publishes in this journal or conference series? What topics are published there? Who is in the program committee or editorial board? What concepts is the audience familiar with? Your audience is irritated when you do not relate to seminal work in the respective area. | Marks/Comments| | Add more local references and related it to the studyIndicates ontent and main discoveries§ Attracts the reader’s attention § Should be simple (7-10 words) § Aims at specific audience § Should avoid complex grammar § Should be catchy| References| Plagiarism Check | | 1. 2 Purpose| Marks/Comments| Purposes of research and development is the realization of a quality system that starts from the emergence of a new idea to find out a new process or method of efficiently and effectively what would later be issued by the company has an efficiency and high competitiveness.

A good topic, when well studied, improves descriptions in a field, better explains how theories operate in the discipline, and shows how this knowledge can be applied to benefit clients and society as a whole. The research problem to be addressed and the statement of purpose of the study focus research activities and limit the scope of the study. The statement of purpose is the most important sentence in a research proposal because this statement reflects on a compelling problem with the research topic (Conrad, 2005, p. 335).

The purpose of research is to improve the quality of life (Sellitz, 1998). In this context, we can define purpose as the reason for conducting the research in the first place, what the researcher wants to accomplish. This study seeks mainly to identify the impact of cultural attitudes on the impact of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia. It contributes to the very limited literature in the field of cultural attitudes on the impact of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia. § You work on a set of research topics § You want to keep up with recent developments § You want to learn what others work on § You want to plan your future contributions| ReferencesClifton Conrad, (2005). The Sage handbook for research in education: engaging ideas and enriching inquiry. Sage Publications, Inc. Sellitz. (1998). Research Paper Question-Purpose of the Paper. Retrieved at 12th March 2012. Retrieved from http://www. experiment-resources. com/research-paper-question. html#ixzz1pdOyN1JD| Plagiarism Check Sentence1: “Purposes of research and development is the realization of a quality system that starts from the emergence of a ew idea to find out a new process or method of efficiently and effectively what would later be issued by the company has an efficiency and high competitiveness”No Plagiarism detected Sentence2: “The research problem to be addressed and the statement of purpose of the study focus research activities and limit the scope of the study”No Plagiarism detected Sentence3: “A good topic, when well studied, improves descriptions in a field, better explains how theories operate in the discipline, and shows how this knowledge can be applied to benefit clients and society as a whole”No Plagiarism detectedSentence4: “, The purpose of research is to improve the quality of life (Sellitz, 1998)”No Plagiarism detected Sentence5: “In this context, we can define purpose as the reason for conducting the research in the first place, what the researcher wants to accomplish”No Plagiarism detectedSentence6: “The statement of purpose is the most important sentence in a research proposal because this statement reflects on a compelling problem with the research topic (Conrad, 2005, p”No Plagiarism detected| 1. 3 Objectives| Marks/Comments| The objective is something that a person wants to achieve or accomplish.

Compare to goals, objectives are much more specific, and it is assumed that objectives can be reached through a given initiative. Generally while a project has a major goal, it is likely to have several objectives (Evans, Myers and Ilfeld, 2000, p. 75). The objectives, also generally required in research proposals, specify precisely what the proposed research project intends to find out, discover, and/or accomplish. Objectives identify goals or ends of the research, not the means (Ethridge, 2004, p. 87). The following are the objectives of this study: (1) To evaluate the important of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia. (2) To assess the attitudes towards cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia. 3) To study the undesired effect of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia. (4)To evaluate the impact of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia. | Related the objectives to the studyWhich outlet matters to me? Which journals do relate to my work? § Which conferences do relate to my work? § Which communities and special interest groups are related to my work? | References:Evans, J. L. , Myers, R. G. , Ilfeld, E. M. (2000). Early Childhood Counts: A Programming Guide on Early Childhood Care for Development. World Bank Publications. Ethridge, D. E. (2004). Research Methodology in Applied Economics, 2nd Edition. Wiley-Blackwell. Plagiarism CheckSentence1: “The objective is something that a person wants to achieve or accomplish”No Plagiarism detected Sentence2: “Compare to goals, objectives are much more specific, and it is assumed that objectives can be reached through a given initiative”No Plagiarism detected Sentence3: “Generally while a project has a major goal, it is likely to have several objectives (Evans, Myers and Ilfeld, 2000, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence4: “The objectives, also generally required in research proposals, specify precisely what the proposed research project intends to find out, discover, and/or accomplish”No Plagiarism detected Sentence5: “Objectives identify goals or ends of the research, not the means (Ethridge, 2004, p”No Plagiarism detected| 1. 4 Research Hypothesis| Marks/Comments| A hypothesis is a statement that is assumed to be true for the purpose of testing its validity (McBurney and White, 2009, p. 27). According to Kerlinger and Lee (2000), a hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction presented in a testable form which consists of at least one specific relationship between two variables or concepts, which are measureable (Rajender, 2010, p. 45). The following hypotheses were set out to test this study:H 1: Gender has significant relationship to the impact of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia.

H 2: Age has no significant relationship to the impact of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia H 3: Education has significant relationship to the impact of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia H 4: Religion has no significant relationship to the impact of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia. | Related it the studyGeneral Do‘s and Don‘tsParagraphs: A paragraph containing more than 10 sentences is too long, 2 sentences too short Spaghetti: Do not continuously refer to earlier pages Structure: Do not surprise reader with original structure Length of Sentences: Try to keep sentences short. Replace dependent clause (which, that) with sentence. | References:McBurney, D. H. , White, T. L. (2009). Research Methods (Examples & Explanations Series) 8th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing. Rajender R. , Ph. D.

Aparasu (2010). Research Methods for Pharmaceutical Practice and Policy, 1st Edition. Pharmaceutical Pr. | Plagiarism CheckSentence1: “A hypothesis is a statement that is assumed to be true for the purpose of testing its validity (McBurney and White, 2009, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence2: “27)”No Plagiarism detected Sentence3: “According to Kerlinger and Lee (2000), a hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction presented in a testable form which consists of at least one specific relationship between two variables or concepts, which are measureable (Rajender, 2010, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence4: “45)”No Plagiarism detected

Sentence5: “”No Plagiarism detectedSentence6: “The following hypotheses were set out to test this study:,H 1: Gender has significant relationship to the impact of advertising attitudes on , TV ads avoiding behavior among the youths”No Plagiarism detected Sentence7: “Determining the age of all 30 , respondents in order to identify their maturity level regarding this study and , whether age effects the TV ads avoiding behavior among the youths”No Plagiarism detected Sentence8: “,H 2: Age has no significant relationship to the impact of advertising attitudes on , TV ads avoiding behavior among the youths”No Plagiarism detected Sentence9: “Questionnaires have been , distributed equally among male and female youths in college in order to , differentiate their point of view on TV ads avoiding behavior”No Plagiarism detected Sentence10: “,”No Plagiarism detectedSentence11: “H 3: Education has significant relationship to the impact of advertising attitudes , on TV ads avoiding behavior among the youths”No Plagiarism detected Sentence12: “Respondents are observed by , their level of education, to further investigate their level of knowledge and , perception on this study”No Plagiarism detected Sentence13: “, H 4: Religion as no significant relationship to the impact of advertising , attitudes on TV ads avoiding behavior among the youths”No Plagiarism detected Sentence14: “Respondents were , also categorized according to their religion to further observe whether the , individuals from different religion have different point of view on TV ads , avoiding behavior”No Plagiarism detected Sentence15: “,”No Plagiarism detected| Talk vs. Paper What’s in a paper? | What’s in a talk? | Evidence Detail Proof Definitions Formalizations Statistics | Illustration Visualization Translation Animation Exaggeration Provocation| 1. 5 Scope| Marks/Comments| Scope provides a framework based on what our research is about and what is required in order to conduct a successful study. It cannot be expected to cover all the elements. A model scope can help to establish an overall consistency of methodology among studies and could even establish some core criteria which can be used to provide a degree of comparability.

The scope of the study also refers to the parameters in with the study will be operating in. It gives the clear view of what we will be studying and helps to remember and keep within the accepted range of our study. It reminds a research, that the method of investigation should be centered around trying to solve the problem within the provide scope (Smith, 1999) . The scope of this research is mainly for all college youths but because the youth represents the biggest population. The youth is composed of the 3 main races, which are in between 18-25 years and studying in universities and colleges. This research has been done on Feb 2012-March 2012.

Therefore, questionnaire had been distributed to 30 students in a tertiary institute in Nilai to further investigate the impact of advertising attitudes on TV ads avoiding behavior among the youths. | Related it the studyGeneral Do‘s and Don‘tsParagraphs: A paragraph containing more than 10 sentences is too long, 2 sentences too short Spaghetti: Do not continuously refer to earlier pages Structure: Do not surprise reader with original structure Length of Sentences: Try to keep sentences short. Replace dependent clause (which, that) with sentence. | References:Smith, S. A. (1999). Guidebook for transportation corridor studies: a process for effective decision making. United States of America: National Research Council (U. S. ). Transportation Research Board. |

Plagiarism CheckSentence1: “Scope provides a framework based on what our research is about and what is required in order to conduct a successful study”No Plagiarism detected Sentence2: “A model scope can help to establish an overall consistency of methodology among studies and could even establish some core criteria which can be used to provide a degree of comparability”No Plagiarism detected Sentence3: “It cannot be expected to cover all the elements”No Plagiarism detected Sentence4: “The scope of the study also refers to the parameters in with the study will be operating in”No Plagiarism detected Sentence5: “It reminds a research, that the method of investigation should be centered around trying to solve the problem within the provide scope (Smith, 1999)”No Plagiarism detected Sentence6: “It gives the clear view of what we will be studying and helps to remember and keep within the accepted range of our study”No Plagiarism detected Sentence7: “”No Plagiarism detectedSentence8: “The scope of this research is mainly for all college youths but because the youth represents the biggest population”No Plagiarism detected Sentence9: “The youth is composed of the 3 main races, which are in between 18-25 years and studying in universities and colleges”No Plagiarism detected Sentence10: “This research has been done on Feb 2012-March 2012″No Plagiarism detected Sentence11: “Therefore, questionnaire had been distributed to 30 students in a tertiary institute in Nilai to further investigate the impact of advertising attitudes on TV ads avoiding behavior among the youths”No Plagiarism detected| 1. 6 Rationale (significant of research)| Marks/Comments| | Stated why this study is importantSpellingConsistencyconsistent spelling throughout the text – English spelling is different from American – use only one sort all over the text Conventional abbreviations (i. e. Figure -> Fig. ) check these with the journal style Non-alphabetic characters use and instead of &; at instead of @| References:| Plagiarism Check| 1. 7 Key Terms| Marks/Comments| 1. 7. 1 | | 1. | Terminology§ Introduce a term before use § Consistent use of terms| Reference:| Plagiarism Check| 1. 7. 1 | Marks/Comments| General Do‘s and Don‘tsAbstract: Write the abstract last Introduction: Use the intro to describe the field Conclusion: A conclusion is not a summary. Sum up what you have found, not what you have done. References: Citing papers that are not in English is futileAbstract: Write the abstract last Introduction: Use the intro to describe the field Conclusion: A conclusion is not a summary. Sum up what you have found, not what you have done. References: Citing papers that are not in English is futileGeneral Do‘s and Don‘tsAbsolute statements: Always relate to units Highlighting: no exclamation mark, use italic Abbreviations: Do not introduce new abbreviations| Reference| | | | 1. 7. 2 Media Dependency Theory| Marks/Comments|

According to Rider and Sigelman (2011), Albert Bandura, a leader in the development of this theory, says that human beings, whose active information processing plays a significant role in learning, are cognitive beings (p. 45). The most important key concept in the social cognitive theory is observational learning. Observational learning simply means learning through the observation of others, who are called models (Miller, 2005, p. 252). The term “model” or “modeling” is “the direct, mechanical reproduction of behavior” (Baran and Davis, 2000, p. 184). It is argued that there are both internal as well as external determinants to why a person behaves in a certain way, but it is not determined solely by either one or by combining the two (Burger, 2011, p. 346). A concept called reciprocal determinism was introduced by Bandura.

Reciprocal determinism means that both external determinants (rewards and punishments) and internal determinants (thoughts, beliefs) are a part of a system where influences interact and affect the behavior and other parts of the system (Burger, 2011, p. 346). The diagram below shows the reciprocal determinism. Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism ModelAdapted from Burger J. M. (2011). Introduction to Personality. (8th ed. ). UK: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. In the reciprocal determinism diagram, the three variables are indicated to influence one another, and how it can influence depends on the strength of each of the variables (Burger, 2011, p. 346). Another important aspect of the social cognitive theory is the self-efficacy.

Self efficacy is described as the importance of an individual observer’s ability to perform a specific behavior and the confidence level that he or she has in carrying it out, which is seen as a very important prerequisite to a change in behavior (Miller, 2005, p. 253). In other words, sell efficacy is simply the perceptions of the self that an individual holds about his or her capabilities (Jarvela, 2011, p. 205). Self efficacy can be found from four sources, which are (1) Interpreted results from previous experiences, (2) observing others doing tasks, (3) negative and positive social persuasions received from others, and (4) physiological and emotional states (Jarvela, 2011, pp. 206-207). All the four sources help the individual to learn about his or her own capabilities at a task, and determine the confidence.

It could bring by particular effects on the individuals that are exposed to the different sources. For instance, it could influence choices that people make and actions that they choose to take in different situations ( Jarvela, 2011, p. 207). | | | References: Miller K. (2005). Communication Theories: Perspectives, Processes and Contexts (2nd ed. ). New York: McGraw Hill. Sigelman C. K. & Rider E. A. (2011). Life Span: Human Development (eds. ). Boston, CA: Cengage Learning. Burger J. M. (2011). Introduction to Personality. (8th ed. ). UK: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Jarvela S. (2011). Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Ltd. Plagiarism CheckSentence1: “According to Rider and Sigelman (2011), Albert Bandura, a leader in the development of this theory, says that human beings, whose active information processing plays a significant role in learning, are cognitive beings (p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence2: “The most important key concept in the social cognitive theory is observational learning”No Plagiarism detected Sentence3: “45)”No Plagiarism detected Sentence4: “252)”No Plagiarism detected Sentence5: “The term “model” or “modeling” is “the direct, mechanical reproduction of behavior” (Baran and Davis, 2000, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence6: “Observational learning simply means learning through the observation of others, who are called models (Miller, 2005, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence7: “184)”No Plagiarism detected

Sentence8: “,It is argued that there are both internal as well as external determinants to why a person behaves in a certain way, but it is not determined solely by either one or by combining the two (Burger, 2011, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence9: “346)”No Plagiarism detected Sentence10: “Reciprocal determinism means that both external determinants (rewards and punishments) and internal determinants (thoughts, beliefs) are a part of a system where influences interact and affect the behavior and other parts of the system (Burger, 2011, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence11: “A concept called reciprocal determinism was introduced by Bandura”No Plagiarism detected Sentence12: “346)”No Plagiarism detected Sentence13: “The diagram below shows the reciprocal determinism”No Plagiarism detected Sentence14: “,”No Plagiarism detectedSentence15: “According to Rider and Sigelman (2011), Albert

Bandura, a leader in the development of this theory, says that human beings, whose active information processing plays a significant role in learning, are cognitive beings (p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence:16 “252)”No Plagiarism detected Sentence17: “Observational learning simply means learning through the observation of others, who are called models (Miller, 2005, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence18: “The term “model” or “modeling” is “the direct, mechanical reproduction of behavior” (Baran and Davis, 2000, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence19: “184)”No Plagiarism detected Sentence20: “,It is argued that there are both internal as well as external determinants to why a person behaves in a certain way, but it is not determined solely by either one or by combining the two (Burger, 2011, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence21: “346)”No Plagiarism detected

Sentence22: “A concept called reciprocal determinism was introduced by Bandura”No Plagiarism detected Sentence23: “Reciprocal determinism means that both external determinants (rewards and punishments) and internal determinants (thoughts, beliefs) are a part of a system where influences interact and affect the behavior and other parts of the system (Burger, 2011, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence24: “346)”No Plagiarism detected Sentence25: “The most important key concept in the social cognitive theory is observational learning”No Plagiarism detected Sentence26: “,Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism Model,Adapted from Burger J”No Plagiarism detected Sentence27: “M”No Plagiarism detected Sentence28: “The diagram below shows the reciprocal determinism”No Plagiarism detected| 1. 8 Conclusion| Marks/Comments| In this section of the research we have discussed the objectives, the hypotheses, scope, rationale and the key terms of this study.

The objectives have been explained in depth to link the importance of this study. There are four hypotheses in this study. This study are related with suitable theories in order to further explain how does this study effects the youths and what can we illustrate from the theories. The scope of the study in also one of the important element because it gives us the in depth information about this study by the 5WH answers. Rationale actually explains the importance of this study being carried out which is also known as social implications. Each key terms of this study have been illustrated in depth to acquire higher level of understanding on the impact of advertising attitudes on TV ads avoiding behavior among the youths. | Plagiarism CheckSentence1: “In this section of the research we have discussed the objectives, the hypotheses, scope, rationale and the key terms of this study”No Plagiarism detected Sentence2: “The objectives have been explained in depth to link the importance of this study”No Plagiarism detected Sentence3: “There are four hypotheses in this study”No Plagiarism detected Sentence4: “This study are related with suitable theories in order to further explain how does this study effects the youths and what can we illustrate from the theories”No Plagiarism detected Sentence5: “The scope of the study in also one of the important element because it gives us the in depth information about this study by the 5WH answers”No Plagiarism detected Sentence6: “Rationale actually explains the importance of this study being carried out which is also known as social implications”No Plagiarism detected Sentence7: “Each key terms of this study have been illustrated in depth to acquire higher level of understanding on the impact of advertising attitudes on TV ads avoiding behavior among the youths”No Plagiarism detected| | Due date: week 7 2. 1 Literature reviewHow to Write Literature Review for Research PapersUseful Tips on How to Write Literature ReviewsLiterature review should make the research direction more definite and specific, should serve a stimulus to the advance of the researcher’s own thoughts and ideas, should become the basis for new knowledge acquisition. Literature review must present only highly relevant information; at the same time much of the acquired data will remain unused (or at least may be resorted to later in the course of a further in-depth research) and behind the research brackets.

There are three steps of a source study:preparatory (to examine the overall context of a source creation);main (to analyze the main ideas and logics of a source: to single them out and compare with the context);main (to analyze the main ideas and logics of a source: to single them out and compare with the context)| Marks/Comments| The literature is “all sources of published data on a particular topic” and a literature search is “a systemic process with a view to identifying the existing body of knowledge on a particular topic” (Collis & Hussey, 2009, p. 91). A literature review is a significant section in any research paper because it allows the reader to have a view on the background and history of the research. It also describes how a research paper challenges any other related research done in a particular field (Ridley D. , 2008, pp. 16-17). It could also be said that it forms the foundation of the study undertaken. A good and quality literature review is also necessary for a research paper.

According to Rocco, Hatcher and Creswell (2011), a quality literature or research review should lead to new productive work, and represent the construction of knowledge on the part of the researcher, instead of merely replicating and reflecting on previous researches on the topic under review (p. 146). | State the literature use in this study| References:Collis, J. , & Hussey, R. (2009). Business Research: A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Ridley D. (2008). The Literature Review: A Step-by-step Guide for Students. London: SAGE Publications. Rocco T. S. , Hatcher T. , & Creswell J. W. (2011). The Handbook of Scholarly Writing and Publishing. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. |

Plagiarism CheckSentence1: “The literature is “all sources of published data on a particular topic” and a literature search is “a systemic process with a view to identifying the existing body of knowledge on a particular topic” (Collis & Hussey, 2009, p”No Plagiarism detectedSentence2: “A literature review is a significant section in any research paper because it allows the reader to have a view on the background and history of the research”No Plagiarism detectedSentence3: “It also describes how a research paper challenges any other related research done in a particular field (Ridley D”No Plagiarism detected Sentence4: “”No Plagiarism detected Sentence5: “It could also be said that it forms the foundation of the study undertaken”No Plagiarism detectedSentence6: “A good and quality literature review is also necessary for a research paper”No Plagiarism detected Sentence7: “146)”No Plagiarism detected

Sentence8: “According to Rocco, Hatcher and Creswell (2011), a quality literature or research review should lead to new productive work, and represent the construction of knowledge on the part of the researcher, instead of merely replicating and reflecting on previous researches on the topic under review (p”No Plagiarism detected| 2. 2 Table of Literature Review | Authors | Period/context| Key findings| Md. Ashaduzzaman & S. M. Asif-Ur-Rahman| 2011,Impact of Television Advertisements on buying pattern of Women in Dhaka City| This study shows that advertisements on television play a significant role in making the product or item familiar in the family list and taking a proper decision while shopping for women. | Sarah SpeersJennifer HarrisAmir GorenMarlene B. SchwartzKelly D.

Brownell| 2009,Public Perceptions of Food Marketing to Youth Results of the Rudd Center Public Opinion Poll, May 2008| This Rudd report presents the results of the public opinion poll done in the previous year on a purpose of uncovering the ways public view food and beverage marketing to children, and analyzed between parents and nonparents, by parents’ race and income, age of their oldest child, and child’s weight and eating style. Their studies in 2008 revealed that African American and Hispanic parents were more aware about the amount of food marketing their children saw on television, than other parents. Low-income parents indicated a higher support for a soft-drink tax, and the cost of a healthy and organic ood was a greater challenge to their children’s healthy eating. | Jamshed Khan Khattak & Muhammad Aslam Khan| 2009, General Attitude of College Students Towards Consequences and Impact of Television Advertising in Pakistan. | This study shows that in Pakistan, television advertising has an important, but somehow negative ethical and social consequence, with a positive consequence on the economy. There is a positive general attitude of students towards the television advertising in Pakistan, indicated according to this research. Furthermore, more regulations were demanded from the respondents to control the advertising on television in the country. Lara Zwarun, Daniel Linz, Miriam Metzger,& Dale Kunkel| 2006, Effects of Showing Risk in Beer Commercials to Young Drinkers| This study on beer commercials reveal that those who were exposed to the advertisements were more likely to believe the social benefits derived from drinking. An increased tolerance for drunk driving was shown in this study because of reports from participants who have seen people engaged in behaviors that are risky and drank beer. The findings from this research also suggest that the beer commercials are able to contribute to beliefs about alcohol and thus accepting dangerous drinking behaviors. | Jean L. Wiecha, Karen E. Peterson, David S. Ludwig,Juhee Kim, Arthur Sobol, Steven L.

Gortmaker| 2006, When Children Eat What They Watch: Impact of Television Viewing on Dietary Intake in Youth| This study shows that among the youth, there is an increased calorie intake through increasing consumption of frequently advertised unhealthy food on television. | Wendy Spettigue & Katherine A. Henderson | 2004, Eating Disorders and the Role of the Media. | This particular review indicates that the mass media, which includes the television, does have a significant contribution to the eating disorders development. | | | Add 5 more literature| References:Md. Ashaduzzaman & S. M. Asif-Ur-Rahman. (2011). Impact of Television Advertisements on buying pattern of Women in Dhaka City. European Journal of Business and Management, 3(3), pp 16-27. Speers S. , Harris J. , Goren A. , Schwartz M. B. & Brownell K. D. (2009). Rudd Report: Public Perceptions of Food Marketing to Youth, Results of the Rudd Center Public Opinion Poll, May 2008. Retrieved on 16th November 2011 from: http://www. yaleruddcenter. org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddReportPu blicPerceptionsFoodMarketingYouth2009. pdfJamshed Khan Khattak & Muhammad Aslam Khan. (2009). General Attitude of College Students Towards Consequences and Impact of Television Advertising in Pakistan. European Journal of Scientific Research, 34(4), pp 591-603. Zwarun L. , Linz D. , Metzger M. , & Kunkel D. (2006). Effects of Showing Risk in Beer Commercials to Young Drinkers.

Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 50(1), pp 52-77. Jean L. Wiecha, Karen E. Peterson, David S. Ludwig, Juhee Kim, Arthur Sobol, Steven L. Gortmaker. (2006). When Children Eat What They Watch : Impact of Television Viewing on Dietary Intake in Youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 160. pp 436-442. Spettigue W. & Henderson K. A. (2004). Eating Disorders and The Role of The Media. The Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review, 13(1), pp 16-19. | 2. 3 Explain how this literature relate the study| Marks/Comments| In 2011, Md. Ashaduzzaman and S. M. Asif-Ur-Rahman carried out a research on the impact of Television advertisements on buying pattern of women in Dhaka City in Bangladesh.

Their study found that advertisements on television play a significant and important role in making the product or item familiar in the family list and taking a proper decision while shopping. This research paper relates to the current study where a gender relationship with the influence of TV advertising intends to show. In another study done by Jamshed Khan Khattak and Muhammad Aslam Khan in Pakistan, they found that television advertising has an important, but somehow negative ethical and social consequence, with a positive consequence on the economy. There is a positive general attitude of students towards the television advertising in Pakistan, indicated according to this research. Furthermore, more regulations were demanded from the respondents to control the advertising on television in the country.

This study speaks about the general attitude of students towards television advertising, where it relates to the current study that intends to show the advantages and disadvantages that television advertising has over students. In the Rudd report written by Sarah Speers, Jennifer Harris, Amir Goren, Marlene B. Schwartz and Kelly D. Brownell, the study found that African American and Hispanic parents were more aware about the amount of food marketing their children saw on television, than other parents. Low-income parents indicated a higher support for a soft-drink tax, and the cost of a healthy and organic food was a greater challenge to their children’s healthy eating. This report relates to the current study on the relationship between race and socioeconomic status with the influence of television advertising on college youth in Malaysia.

Lara Zwarun, Daniel Linz, Miriam Metzger and Dale Kunkel reveal in their studies on beer commercials that those who were exposed to the advertisements were more likely to believe the social benefits derived from drinking. An increased tolerance for drunk driving was shown in this study because of reports from participants who have seen people engaged in behaviors that are risky and drank beer. The findings from this research also suggest that the beer commercials are able to contribute to beliefs about alcohol and thus accepting dangerous drinking behaviors. This relates to the current study to find out why and how advertisements reward and punish audience, analyzed using the social cognitive theory. This research paper is further supported by a research done by Jean L. Wiecha, Karen E.

Peterson,David S. Ludwig Juhee Kim, Arthur Sobol, and Steven L. Gortmaker, where their study shows that among the youth, there is an increased calorie intake through increasing consumption of frequently advertised unhealthy food on television. Wendy Spettigue and Katherine A. Henderson indicated in their studies done in 2004 that the mass media, which includes the television, does have a significant contribution to the eating disorders development. This study also relates to the current research on comparisons between media intake among the men and women. | | Add on 5 more literature| References:Md. Ashaduzzaman & S. M. Asif-Ur-Rahman. (2011).

Impact of Television Advertisements on buying pattern of Women in Dhaka City. European Journal of Business and Management, 3(3), pp 16-27. Speers S. , Harris J. , Goren A. , Schwartz M. B. , & Brownell K. D. (2009). Rudd Report: Public Perceptions of Food Marketing to Youth, Results of the Rudd Center Public Opinion Poll, May 2008. Retrieved on 16th November 2011 from: http://www. yaleruddcenter. org/resources/upload/docs/what/reports/RuddReportPublicPerceptionsFoodMarketingYouth2009. pdfJamshed Khan Khattak & Muhammad Aslam Khan. (2009). General Attitude of College Students Towards Consequences and Impact of Television Advertising in Pakistan. European Journal of Scientific Research, 34(4), pp 591-603.

Zwarun L. , Linz D. , Metzger M. , & Kunkel D. (2006). Effects of Showing Risk in Beer Commercials to Young Drinkers. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 50(1), pp 52-77. Jean L. Wiecha, Karen E. Peterson, David S. Ludwig, Juhee Kim, Arthur Sobol, Steven L. Gortmaker. (2006). When Children Eat What They Watch : Impact of Television Viewing on Dietary Intake in Youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 160. pp 436-442. Spettigue W. & Henderson K. A. (2004). Eating Disorders and The Role of The Media. The Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review, 13(1), pp 16-19. | Plagiarism Check Sentence1: “Ashaduzzaman and S”No Plagiarism detected

Sentence2: “Asif-Ur-Rahman carried out a research on the impact of Television advertisements on buying pattern of women in Dhaka City in Bangladesh”No Plagiarism detected Sentence4: “This research paper relates to the current study where a gender relationship with the influence of TV advertising intends to show”No Plagiarism detected Sentence5: “There is a positive general attitude of students towards the television advertising in Pakistan, indicated according to this research”No Plagiarism detected Sentence6: “Their study found that advertisements on television play a significant and important role in making the product or item familiar in the family list and taking a proper decision while shopping”No Plagiarism detected Sentence7: “, In another study done by Jamshed Khan Khattak and Muhammad Aslam Khan in Pakistan, they found that television advertising has an important, but somehow negative ethical and social consequence, with a positive consequence on the economy”No Plagiarism detected Sentence8: “This study speaks about the general attitude of students towards television advertising, where it relates to the current study that intends to show the advantages and disadvantages that television advertising has over students”No Plagiarism detected Sentence9: “,”No Plagiarism detected Sentence10: “Furthermore, more regulations were demanded from the respondents to control the advertising on television in the country”No Plagiarism detectedSentence11: “In the Rudd report written by Sarah Speers, Jennifer Harris, Amir Goren, Marlene B”No Plagiarism detected

Sentence12: “Brownell, the study found that African American and Hispanic parents were more aware about the amount of food marketing their children saw on television, than other parents”No Plagiarism detected Sentence13: “This report relates to the current study on the relationship between race and socioeconomic status with the influence of television advertising on college youth in Malaysia”No Plagiarism detected Sentence14: “Low-income parents indicated a higher support for a soft-drink tax, and the cost of a healthy and organic food was a greater challenge to their children’s healthy eating”No Plagiarism detected Sentence15: “, Lara Zwarun, Daniel Linz, Miriam Metzger and Dale Kunkel reveal in their studies on beer commercials that those who were exposed to the advertisements were more likely to believe the social benefits derived from drinking”No Plagiarism detected Sentence16: “An increased tolerance for drunk driving was shown in this study because of reports from participants who have seen people engaged in behaviors that are risky and drank beer”No Plagiarism detected Sentence17: “The findings from this research also suggest that the beer commercials are able to contribute to beliefs about alcohol and thus accepting dangerous drinking behaviors”No Plagiarism detected Sentence18: “This relates to the current study to find out why and how advertisements reward and punish audience, analyzed using the social cognitive theory”No Plagiarism detected Sentence19: “,This research paper is further supported by a research done by Jean L”No Plagiarism detected Sentence20: “Wiecha, Karen E”No Plagiarism detected

Sentence21: “Peterson,David S”No Plagiarism detected Sentence22: “Gortmaker, where their study shows that among the youth, there is an increased calorie intake through increasing consumption of frequently advertised unhealthy food on television”No Plagiarism detected Sentence23: “,Wendy Spettigue and Katherine A”No Plagiarism detected Sentence24: “Ludwig Juhee Kim, Arthur Sobol, and Steven L”No Plagiarism detected| 2. 4 Theoretical framework| Marks/Comments| According to Wimmer & Dominick (2006), a theory is described as a set of linked proposition that shows an organized and systematic outlook of phenomena by putting into detail relationships between concepts (p. 13).

The theoretical framework is then described as a set of principles and ideas with a broad scope obtained from relevant fields the particular research is based on and is a useful tool in research (Reichel, 1987). Gender Age Education Religion The impact of advertising College Youth Gender Age Education Religion The impact of advertising College Youth (attitudes on TV ads avoiding behavior) The diagram above would explain the relationship between the Independent variables (IV) and the Dependent variable (DV) through the basic theories used in this study. Independent variables are varied or manipulated by the researcher, whereas dependent variables are observed, and the results depend on the effects that the independent variables have on them (Wimmer and Dominick, 2006, p. 45). Add literature and references| References:Wimmer R. D. & Dominick J. R. (2006). Mass Media Research: An Introduction. United States of America: Cengage Learning. Reichel, M. , & Ramey, M. A. (Eds. ). (1987). Conceptual frameworks for bibliographic education: Theory to Practice. Littleton Colorado: Libraries Unlimited Inc. | Plagiarism CheckSentence1: “The theoretical framework is then described as a set of principles and ideas with a broad scope obtained from relevant fields the particular research is based on and is a useful tool in research (Reichel, 1987)”No Plagiarism detected Sentence2: “According to Wimmer & Dominick (2006), a theory is escribed as a set of linked proposition that shows an organized and systematic outlook of phenomena by putting into detail relationships between concepts (p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence3: “13)”No Plagiarism detectedSentence4: “The diagram above would explain the relationship between the Independent variables (IV) and the Dependent variable (DV) through the basic theories used in this study”No Plagiarism detected Sentence5: “Independent variables are varied or manipulated by the researcher, whereas dependent variables are observed, and the results depend on the effects that the independent variables have on them (Wimmer and Dominick, 2006, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence6: “45)”No Plagiarism detected| 2. 5 Cultivation Theory| Marks/Comments|

The cultivation theory, which was proposed by George Gerbner, says that exposure to television in long term has the ability to shape the society’s views. Advertisements, based on this theory, also shape the views of the society and individual perceptions on many things (Reil, 2006, p. 18). The audience or viewer perceives the reality of the content in television, with repeated exposures, where it leads to a strengthened acceptance of the particular content. The realism perceived in advertising contents, tend to influence the values held by the viewers. Media images, or characters in the television commercials said to be sources of information where it is based on elevated comparison standards, creates dissatisfaction in viewers’ lives (Mansvelt, 2011, p. 302).

For instance, in cultivating people’s views on body image and beauty, the “thin ideal” concept shown by media images with a complex mix of perfect bodies, dieting advice, and advertisements for high fat foods and “super-sized” portions brings by a confusing messages, and it is little wonder that most Americans feel dissatisfied with their appearance (Miller, 2005, p. 285). Therefore, this kind of TV ads would be the main reason why youths nowadays tend to avoid watching television advertisements. They find it to be rather so boring and at times this kind of sensitive concept of advertisement would discourage them from watching. | Add literature and references| References:Miller K. (2005). Communication Theories: Perspectives, Processes and Contexts. New York: McGraw-Hill. Reil K. (2006). “Real Beauty in Advertising : Fab or Fad? , A Content Analysis of Female Images in Magazine Advertising. MI: ProQuest. Mansvelt J. (2011). Green Consumerism: An A-to-Z Guide.

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc. | Plagiarism CheckSentence1: “The cultivation theory, which was proposed by George Gerbner, says that exposure to television in long term has the ability to shape the society’s views”No Plagiarism detected Sentence2: “The audience or viewer perceives the reality of the content in television, with repeated exposures, where it leads to a strengthened acceptance of the particular content”No Plagiarism detected Sentence3: “Advertisements, based on this theory, also shape the views of the society and individual perceptions on many things (Reil, 2006, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence4: “”No Plagiarism detected

Sentence5: “The realism perceived in advertising contents, tend to influence the values held by the viewers”No Plagiarism detectedSentence6: “Media images, or characters in the television commercials said to be sources of information where it is based on elevated comparison standards, creates dissatisfaction in viewers’ lives (Mansvelt, 2011, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence7: “For instance, in cultivating people’s views on body image and beauty, the “thin ideal” concept shown by media images with a complex mix of perfect bodies, dieting advice, and advertisements for high fat foods and “super-sized” portions brings by a confusing messages, and it is little wonder that most Americans feel dissatisfied with their appearance (Miller, 2005, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence8: “They find it to be rather so boring and at times this kind of sensitive concept of advertisement would discourage them from watching”No Plagiarism detected Sentence9: “Therefore, this kind of TV ads would be the main reason why youths nowadays tend to avoid watching television advertisements”No Plagiarism detected| 2. 6 Social Cognitive Theory| Marks/Comments| Social cognitive theory holds that viewers learn about the world, other viewers and themselves by observing models in real-life and models in media. This is especially likely when the media models are rewarded for their actions instead of being punished, and when the viewers of the content see that there are similarities between them and the models (Reichert and Lambiase, 2006, p. 292).

To be valued and accepted in the community or workforce, for instance, may cause individuals, especially girls to be influenced by television advertisements that they must fit the idealized beauty standards and youthfulness (Reichert and Lambiase, 2006, p. 297). When models in the advertisements are being punished for a certain behavior, it gives a negative reinforcement to the viewer. It tells them that if they do the same thing, they would get reactions from the others the same way when it happened to the model in the advertisement. For instance, in teen drinking, there are recent advertisements that has shown young women who would vomit on their boyfriends or be vulgar towards them (Bahr and Pendergast, 2007, p. 110). This advertisement attempts to shape viewers behaviors by alerting and making them aware of the likely negative outcomes of teen drinking.

Male and female characters are usually portrayed as differing in their roles, usually with the men being portrayed as being stronger and in control, compared to the women who are portrayed as more nurturing and more at the mercy of others. Male and female viewers not only gain the typical gender role behaviors, but also receive information for the likely outcomes. When they see models or people similar to themselves in a successful position, it increases their beliefs in their own capabilities (self-efficacy) to be successful like the models, whereas the failure of similar others portrayed creates doubt on one’s own ability (Cardwell and Flanagan, 2003, p. 150). This would lead to unhealthy learning habits.

Certain youths would find it to be really off their way of identity and would eventually avoid watching these kinds of television advertisements. Moreover, this kind of repeated TV ads would change their entire perception of enjoying TV ads. | | | Add literature and references| References:Reichert T. & Lambiase J. (2006). Sex in Consumer Culture: The Erotic Content of Media and Marketing. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum. Bahr N. & Pendergast D. (2007). The Millennial Adolecsent. Camberwell, Victoria: Acer Press. Cardwell M. & Flanagan C. (2003). Psychology A2: The Complete Companion. UK: Nelson Thornes. | | Plagiarism CheckSentence1: “Social cognitive theory holds that viewers learn about he world, other viewers and themselves by observing models in real-life and models in media”No Plagiarism detected Sentence2: “This is especially likely when the media models are rewarded for their actions instead of being punished, and when the viewers of the content see that there are similarities between them and the models (Reichert and Lambiase, 2006, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence4: “To be valued and accepted in the community or workforce, for instance, may cause individuals, especially girls to be influenced by television advertisements that they must fit the idealized beauty standards and youthfulness (Reichert and Lambiase, 2006, p”No Plagiarism detectedSentence5: “,When models in the advertisements are being punished for a certain behavior, it gives a negative reinforcement to the viewer”No Plagiarism detected Sentence7: “It tells them that if they do the same thing, they would get reactions from the others the same way when it”No Plagiarism detectedSentence8: “happened to the model in the advertisement”No Plagiarism detected Sentence9: “For instance, in teen drinking, there are recent advertisements that has shown young women who would vomit on their boyfriends or be vulgar towards them (Bahr and Pendergast, 2007, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence10: “This advertisement attempts to shape viewers behaviors by alerting and making them aware of the likely negative outcomes of teen drinking”No Plagiarism detected Sentence11: “Male and female viewers not only gain the typical gender role behaviors, but also receive information for the likely outcomes”No Plagiarism detected Sentence12: “,Male and female characters are usually portrayed as differing in their roles, usually with the men being portrayed as being stronger and in control, compared to the women who are portrayed as more nurturing and more at the mercy of others”No Plagiarism detected Sentence13: “,”No Plagiarism detected

Sentence14: “When they see models or people similar to themselves in a successful position, it increases their beliefs in their own capabilities (self-efficacy) to be successful like the models, whereas the failure of similar others portrayed creates doubt on one’s own ability (Cardwell and Flanagan, 2003, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence15: “This would lead to unhealthy learning habits”No Plagiarism detected Sentence16: “Certain youths would find it to be really off their way of identity and would eventually avoid watching these kinds of television advertisements”No Plagiarism detected Sentence17: “Moreover, this kind of repeated TV ads would change their entire perception of enjoying TV ads”No Plagiarism detected| | 2. 3 Conclusion| Marks/Comments|

In this section of this research paper, the six journals have been discussed in literature review. The journals, in short have discussed about the impacts of advertising attitudes in TV ads avoiding behavior among youths. The theoretical framework explains the relationship and link between the independent and dependent variables through the support of the two theories, namely Cultivation theory and Social Cognitive Theory. Cultivation theory discusses mainly about the television as a mass medium, and social cognitive theory discusses about human cognition and how they perceive the real world and themselves in reflection. Social Cognitive Theory explains that behavioral change depends on the environment and personal factors. | Plagiarism CheckSentence1: “The journals, in short have discussed about the impacts of advertising attitudes in TV ads avoiding behavior among youths”No Plagiarism detected Sentence2: “The theoretical framework explains the relationship and link between the independent and dependent variables through the support of the two theories, namely Cultivation theory and Social Cognitive Theory”No Plagiarism detected Sentence3: “Cultivation theory discusses mainly about the television as a mass medium, and social cognitive theory discusses about human cognition and how they perceive the real world and themselves in reflection”No Plagiarism detected Sentence4: “In this section of this research paper, the six journals have been discussed in literature review”No Plagiarism detected Sentence5: “Social Cognitive Theory explains that behavioral change depends on the environment and personal factors”No Plagiarism detected| | 3. MethodologyWhether or not your research project yielded breakthrough results or insights, you can still write a technically strong paper. The key to writing a high-quality paper is to be thorough, yet concise, and to include all of the most important sections, including the methodology. The methodology is the section of the paper in which you describe the goals of the experiment and the methods by which you hope to achieve those goals. Make sure you include everything that belongs in this section while omitting everything that does not. Read more: How to Write a Research Methodology | eHow. com http://www. ehow. com/how_4597601_write-research-methodology. tml#ixzz2KfteVaRi| Marks/Comments| The methods used in many researches can either be qualitative or quantitative in nature (Wimmer & Dominick, 2006, p. 48). It could also be a combination of both types of methods, like how it is done in this study. In other words, mixed methods are used to obtain useful information for this research. Quantitative research involves various methods such as mail, Internet and telephone surveys (Wimmer & Dominick, 2006, p. 50). In this research, however, survey questionnaires were distributed to the respondents. Questions are standardized and ask the same questions to every respondent. The use of numbers in this kind of quantitative research helps to increase precision and accuracy in reporting the results (Wimmer & Dominick, 2006, p. 50).

On the other hand, qualitative research involves methods such as focus groups, in-depth interviews and case studies. In this research, qualitative research is used in the form of focus group with five questions for five different respondents. This method is used because it enables the researcher to observe or view behavior in a natural setting, instead of using quantity or numbers to analyze results (Wimmer & Dominick, 2006, p. 49). According to Runes (1983), methodology is a systematic analysis and organization of the rational and experimental principles and processes which must guide a scientific inquiry. It also known as scientific method (Ethridge, 2004, p. 25). The philosophies that used in this study are interpretivism and positivism.

Positivism is a deductive process which is focusing on the study of cause and effect with a static design (categories isolated before study) (Collis and Hussey, 2003, p. 52). The strength of using positivism is that it will produce precise and objective data. Besides, the reliability of the results is high and the results from the sample can be generalized to the population by using this paradigm. While the weakness is that, using this type of paradigm, the validity of the results is low (Collis and Hussey, 2003, p. 55). In this study, interpretivism philosophy is also being applied. Interpretivism is an inductive process which is focusing on the study of mutual simultaneous shaping of factors with an emerging design (categories identified during study) (Collis and Hussey, 2003, p. 53).

Rich data will be produced by using this paradigm. Besides, the validity of the results is high and the results of one setting can be generalized to a similar setting by using this paradigm. However, using this type of paradigm, the reliability of the results is low (Collis and Hussey, 2003, p. 55). | | References: Wimmer R. D. & Dominick J. R. (2006). Mass Media Research: An Introduction. United States of America: Cengage Learning. Collis, J. , Hussey, R. (2003). Business Research: A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students 2rd Edition. Palgrave Macmillan. Ethridge, D. E (2004). Research Methodology in Applied Economics, 2nd Edition. Wiley-Blackwell. | Plagiarism CheckSentence1: “48)”No Plagiarism detected Sentence2: “The methods used in many researches can either be qualitative or quantitative in nature (Wimmer & Dominick, 2006, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence3: “It could also be a combination of both types of methods, like how it is done in this study”No Plagiarism detected Sentence4: “In other words, mixed methods are used to obtain useful information for this research”No Plagiarism detected Sentence5: “,Quantitative research involves various methods such as mail, Internet and telephone surveys (Wimmer & Dominick, 2006, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence6: “50)”No Plagiarism detected

Sentence7: “In this research, however, survey questionnaires were distributed to the respondents”No Plagiarism detected Sentence8: “Questions are standardized and ask the same questions to every respondent”No Plagiarism detected Sentence9: “The use of numbers in this kind of quantitative research helps to increase precision and accuracy in reporting the results (Wimmer & Dominick, 2006, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence10: “In this research, qualitative research is used in the form of focus group with five questions for five different respondents”No Plagiarism detected Sentence11: “,On the other hand, qualitative research involves methods such as focus groups, in-depth interviews and case studies”No Plagiarism detected Sentence12: “50)”No Plagiarism detected Sentence13: “This method is used because it enables the researcher to observe or view behavior in a natural setting, instead of using quantity or numbers to analyze results (Wimmer & Dominick, 2006, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence14: “49)”No Plagiarism detected

Sentence15: “,”No Plagiarism detectedSentence16: “According to Runes (1983), methodology is a systematic analysis and organization of the rational and experimental principles and processes which must guide a scientific inquiry”No Plagiarism detected Sentence17: “It also known as scientific method (Ethridge, 2004, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence18: “,The philosophies that used in this study are interpretivism and positivism”No Plagiarism detected Sentence19: “Positivism is a deductive process which is focusing on the study of cause and effect with a static design (categories isolated before study) (Collis and Hussey, 2003, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence20: “The strength of using positivism is that it will produce precise and objective data”No Plagiarism detected Sentence21: “While the weakness is that, using this type of paradigm, the validity of the results is low (Collis and Hussey, 2003, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence22: “Besides, the reliability of the results is high and the results from the sample can be generalized to the population by using this paradigm”No Plagiarism detected Sentence23: “,”No Plagiarism detectedSentence24: “In this study, interpretivism philosophy is also being applied”No Plagiarism detected Sentence25: “Interpretivism is an inductive process which is focusing on the study of mutual simultaneous shaping of factors with an emerging design (categories identified during study) (Collis and Hussey, 2003, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence26: “53)”No Plagiarism detected

Sentence27: “Besides, the validity of the results is high and the results of one setting can be generalized to a similar setting by using this paradigm”No Plagiarism detected Sentence28: “Rich data will be produced by using this paradigm”No Plagiarism detected Sentence29: “However, using this type of paradigm, the reliability of the results is low (Collis and Hussey, 2003, p”No Plagiarism detected Sentence30: “55)”No Plagiarism detected| | 3. 2 Research Design| Marks/Comments| Research design is a specific strategized and structured plan to obtain answers in the form of data and information to research question (Kerlinger, 1986, p. 279). With a research design, an operational plan can be conceptualized to be able to perform the many tasks required to complete the research.

Besides that, a research design functions to ensure those tasks and steps are sufficient and adequate to obtain valid and accurate answers to the research questions (Ranjit Kumar, 2005, p. 83). In this research paper, 30 young adults who are students aged from 18 to 25 participated as sample respondents. Face-to-face survey questionnaires were used to distribute to the students in a university in Nilai. The questionnaires were distributed to males and females with different gender, age, education, nationality, residence and religion. Also, five qualitative questions were given to five different students to obtain answers with a more in-depth understanding of the research subject, in the form of focus group. | Add literature and references| References:Kerling

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