The Formation of Western Europe 2

What were the three main causes of the need to reform the church?
Priest’s marriages were forbidden by Church law; simony rewarded greed, not merit; lay investiture made bishops the pawns of kings.
Which Crusade was the only successful one?
The First Crusade
How did the goals of the Crusades change over the years?
Religious goals gave way to personal and economic gain.
Which of the following do you think best represents the spirit of the Age of Faith-Church reform, the Crusades, or the Gothic cathedrals? Explain.
Church reform, because of bad Church practices; the Crusades, because they were faith in action; cathedrals, because they represented the City of God.
What evidence supports the idea that the Church functioned like a kingdom?
The pope acted like a king with an official court that had diplomats and collected taxes.
How did the Crusades change the history of Europe? Give reasons for your answer.
The pope acted like a king with an official court that had diplomats and collected taxes.
How did the Crusades change the history of Europe? Give reasons for your answer.
The Crusades lessened the power of the popes and increased it for kings; trade strengthened merchants and towns; tensions among Muslims, Jews, and Christians brought.
How did guilds influence business practices in medieval towns?
controlled trade goods, set standards for quality, set working conditions and wages, trained workers.
How were Muslim scholars linked to the revival of learning in Europe?
They had preserved and translated ancient Greek writings, which became the basis of new scholarship in Europe.
In what ways did burghers expand their freedom form landlords?
by organizing and demanding privileges such as freedom from some tolls and the right to govern the town.
What was the effect of the development of towns on the feudal systems?
They undermined it by offering former serfs economic and social opportunities, which helped them gain freedom from their lords.
Why would writers choose to produce works in the vernacular instead of the Latin?
To reach many more people
How did the Commercial Revolution lay the foundation for the economy of modern Europe?
Established connections among merchants; new banking practices to enable trade within Europe and with other parts of the world.
The Benedictine monastery was founded at Cluny
Reformers there had a desire to return to basic principles of Christianity.
The power of the pope was extended.
The Church had its own court, tax system, and diplomats.
Nearly 500 Gothic cathedrals were built and decorated between 1170 and 1720.
The Church was wealthy; because cathedrals represented the City of God, they were glorious buildings, richly decorated.
The Byzantine emperor appealed to the Count of Flanders for help.
The Muslims were threatening to conquer his capital of Constantinople.
Pope Urban II issued a call for a Crusade.
The goal of this military expedition was to recover Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks.
There was an outpouring of support for the First Crusade.
Many knights were fired by religious zeal. Others were looking for land, riches, and adventure. Kings and the Church saw the Crusades as an opportunity to get rid of quarrelsome Knights who fought each other and who threatened the peace of the kingdom as well as Church property.
Four feudal Crusader states were formed, each ruled by a European noble.
The states were carved out of land the Crusaders won– a narrow strip that stretched about 400 miles form Edessa in the north to Jerusalem in the south.
Jerusalem remained under Muslim control, though unarmed Christian pilgrims could visit the city’s holy places.
Saladin and Richard the Lion-hearted agreed to a truce in 1192.
In Spain, Isabella and Ferdinand used the inquisition to suppress heretics.
Isabella and Ferdinand wanted to unify Spain under Christianity and to consolidate their own power.
European kings strengthened their own power as a result of the Crusades.
The Crusades weakened the feudal nobility. Thousands of knights lost their lives and their fortunes int he Crusades.
St. Francis of Assisi
founder of the Franciscan order of friars
Saladin
Muslim leader who agreed to a truce over Jerusalem with English king Richard the Lion-hearted
Richard the Lion-hearted
English king who agreed to a truce over Jerusalem with Saladin
Reconquista
a long-term effort to drive the Muslims out of Spain
Inquisition
a tribunal held by the Church to suppress heresy
Farmers began using a new type of harness that fitted across a horse’s chest.
Conclussions:Horses gradually replaced oxen for plowing and for pulling wagons.
Using the three-field system, farmers began to grow crops on two-thirds of their land each year, rather than half.
Food production, including sources of vegetable protein, increased resulting in an increase in population.
Merchant and craft guilds organize and change ways to do business.
Guilds became powerful forces in medieval society.
The Commercial Revolution changes trade and banking practices.
More goods were available, new trade routes opned, and banking becomes an important business.
As trade blossomed and farming methods improved, the population of western Europe rose from around 30 million to about 42 million between 1000 and 1150.
Towns grew and flourished.
As people left life on the manor for life in towns, they challenged the traditional ways of feudal society in which everyone had a place.
People moved to towns to pursue the economic and social opportunities they offered.
Authors began writing in the vernacular.
These writers brought literature to many people, since most people could not read or understand Latin.
Growing trade and growing cities brought a new interest in learning.
Universities, or groups of scholars and students, arose in western Europe.
Christian scholars form Europe visited Muslim libraries in Spain, and Jewish scholars tranaslated Arabic copies of Greek writings into Latin.
Europeans acquired a huge new body of knowledge.
Dante Alighieri
Wrote the Divine Comedy in Italian.
Geoffrey Chaucer
Wrote the Canterbury Tales in English
Christine de Pisan
Wrote The City of Ladies in French
Thomas Aquinas
Wrote Summa Theologica, a philosophical work.

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