The Development Of Sustainable Buildings Environmental Sciences Essay
Climate alteration refers to a long term displacement in the Earths planetary or regional clime, measured by long term alterations in the conditions conditions, such as temperature, precipitation and air current form. With additions in planetary mean air and ocean temperatures, widespread thaw of snow and ice, and lifting planetary mean sea degrees, the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) appraisal study concludes that planetary heating is univocal and speed uping.
Although clime alteration is a natural phenomenon, the warming tendency since the mid-20th century is really likely due to human activities such as the combustion of fossil fuel and deforestation which addition concentrations of nursery gases ( GHGs ) .
or any similar topic only for you
As human-induced GHGs such as C dioxide ( CO2 ) , methane ( CH4 ) , azotic oxide ( N2O ) , per fluorocarbons ( PFCs ) , hydro fluorocarbons ( HFCs ) and sulphur hexafluoride ( SF6 ) act like a cover which traps heat in the ambiance, the rush of GHG concentrations after the Industrial Revolution has resulted in an enhanced nursery consequence, doing the Earth acquire hotter and hotter.
The IPCC projected that there would be more frequent and intense extreme conditions events due to planetary heating. We must non let temperatures to lift more than 2A°C above pre-industrial degrees if we wish to avoid ruinous impacts of clime alteration.
The effects of planetary heating are in some ways less definable than the causes. Let us follow a concatenation of events so as to be able to wholly visualize the graduated table and range of the job.
Rising sea degrees
Salt H2O invasion
Destabilization of local climes
From its origin, HK-BEAM has been the lone strategy of its sort to arise in Hong Kong and be widely applied across the district. HK-BEAM buttockss undertakings in footings of their whole-life site, stuffs, energy, H2O, indoor environment and advanced facets. Improvements are identified during appraisal, and edifices are labelled as Platinum, Gold, Silver, Bronze or Unclassified consequently.
Although much has been written about the societal, economic and environmental facets of sustainable development, what constitutes a sustainable, green, healthy or ecology-friendly edifice remains a affair of point of view. Hong Kong is a semitropical, high-density and high-rise community. In this context, HK-BEAM positions sustainable edifice as embrace ( in order of precedence ) safety, wellness, comfort, map and efficiency while protecting local, regional and planetary ecosystems during building and operational life-times. HK-BEAM Plus therefore integrates facets including:
Hygiene, wellness, comfort and agreeableness ;
Land usage, site impacts and conveyance ;
Use of stuffs, recycling and waste ;
Water quality, preservation and recycling ; and
Energy efficiency and preservation.
1.2 Purposes and Aims
The purpose of this survey is to place suited attack in the development of sustainable edifices in Hong Kong. The following are the aims:
To comprehensively reexamine the historical background and the recent development of Sustainable Buildings
To reexamine authorities attempts and their effectivity in the publicity of Sustainable Buildings ;
To place the major Barriers in the development of sustainable edifices ;
To research possible ways to get the better of these barriers ;
To analyze which type ( s ) of sustainability could be adopted in Hong Kong and how they could be implemented.
1.3 Research Methodology
1.3.1 Literature reappraisal
Literature reappraisal for the constructs of sustainable edifices. And their features in development every bit good as the development of the environmental protection policies of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Relevant information can be obtained from library, authorities governments, the Internet and professional organic structures concerned.
1.3.2 Case surveies
Case surveies to exemplify the practical execution of sustainable edifices development in Hong Kong.
Interviews with belongings developers and built environment professionals who own and have participated in sustainable edifices to understand the aims and characteristics of these belongingss.
1.3.4 Questionnaire study
Questionnaire study among project squad practicians to roll up sentiments from another class of sustainable edifice stakeholders.
1.4 Restrictions of the Study
Availability and truth of relevant information ;
Response rate of questionnaire study ;
Willingness of targeted interviewees ;
Personal restrictions e.g. clip and resources.
1.5 Summary of Dissertation
Phase 1 Literature Review
Reappraisal on the relevant books, diaries, and articles sing the construct of development of sustainable edifices in Hong Kong. The intent of the literature criterions reviews to place “ development of sustainable edifices ” in Hong Kong.
Phase 2 Questionnaire Surveys and Conduct of interview
1. Deliver questionnaires.
2. Analysis of the studies result.
3. Compare happening and drumhead, cross-checking for any correlativity.
Questionnaire study was carried out to look into the consciousness of the general populace and their position.
Phase 3 Case Study
Case surveies will be employed in order to acquire more inside informations from the building subdivision in order to place the demand and contents of the current sustainable edifices in Hong Kong.
Phase 4 Discussion and Conclusions
The major barriers confronting the development and execution of sustainable edifices in Hong Kong.
Explore possible ways to get the better of these barriers.
Examine which type ( s ) of sustainability could be adopted in Hong Kong and how they could be implemented.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1.1 The effects of planetary heating
The effects of planetary heating are in some ways less definable than the causes. It seems uneven that such immense manifestations of alteration such as lifting sea degrees, glacier retreat, and Arctic shrinking someway manage to filtrate down so that when members of western civilisation safely tucked away in places and flats look at the effects they are so distant as to go unseeable. What we may good bear watching are the effects of the effects of planetary heating. These secondary consequences are so non-linear as to be a random crop of environmental and economic quandary that, when to the full formed and in topographic point nowadays a unequivocal short-run danger. Let us one time once more follow a concatenation of events so as to be able to wholly visualize the graduated table and range of the job.
2.1.2 Sustainable Building
A sustainable edifice provides a quality life agreeableness for its users and neighbors in footings of societal, environmental and economic facets while minimising environmental impact at the local, regional and planetary degrees throughout its full life rhythm.
The edifices in which we live, work and play protect us from Nature ‘s extremes. Yet, they besides affect our wellness and environment in infinite ways. The design, building, direction and remotion of edifices take tremendous sums of energy, H2O and stuffs, and bring forth big measures of waste, air and H2O pollution. Buildings besides develop their ain indoor environments, which present an array of wellness challenges.
Where and how they are built and managed affects wildlife home ground and corridors and the hydrologic rhythm, while act uponing the overall quality of human life ( U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2005 ) .
As the environmental impact of edifices become more evident, issues about “ green edifices ” are deriving impulse. Green edifices are designed, constructed and operated to hike environmental, economic, wellness and productiveness public presentation over that of conventional edifices ( U.S. Green Building Council, 2002 ) . The benefits of edifice green include cost nest eggs from reduced energy, H2O and waste ; lower operation and care costs ; and enhanced occupant productiveness and wellness.
Sustainable building techniques provide an ethical and practical response to issues of environmental impact and resource ingestion. Sustainability premises encompass the full life rhythm of the edifice and its component constituents, from resource extraction through disposal at the terminal of the stuffs ‘ utile life. High-performance green edifice design relies on renewable resources for energy systems ; recycling and reuse of H2O and stuffs, integrating of native and altered species for landscaping ; inactive warming, chilling and airing ; and other attacks that minimize environmental impact and resource ingestion ( Kibert, 2005 ) .
A label of edifice quality
HK-BEAM provides a individual public presentation label for overall edifice quality in regard of safety, wellness and comfort ( of import to users, residents, purchasers and renters ) , and the environment and society ( of import to the community as a whole ) . Clients finally decide on the virtues of enfranchisement, but appraisals assure quality – non as a subjective promise but as a mensural world. HK-BEAM is noteworthy in that new edifices are non to the full certified until they are complete. This came approximately by popular demand from clients to guarantee that design and building patterns are really implemented and reflected in the concluding certification for the reinforced merchandise. Buildings that are planned, built, commissioned and maintained to HK-BEAM criterions are safe, healthy, comfy, efficient and productive with lower environmental impacts.
Whole-life rhythm for all edifice types
HK-BEAM buttockss public presentation across the whole life rhythm utilizing two criterions:
HK-BEAM for new edifice developments, which covers planning, design, building, commissioning and renovation ; and
HK-BEAM for bing premises, concentrating on direction, operation and care.
Appraisals encourage elaborate design analysis, utilizing computer-aided tools including computational fluid kineticss to foretell undertaking facets such as the awaited microclimate. Design is merely one phase of the development procedure, nevertheless. HK-BEAM besides helps to concentrate attending during building and operation so that the design purpose can be fulfilled, and it besides provides feedback so that plans fitting building and operational demands. All edifices under individual ownership can be assessed utilizing HK-BEAM, including commercial, residential, retail, catering, industrial, educational, institutional and hotel edifices. Any mix of cardinal chilling, mechanical airing or natural airing is catered for, whether to the shell or fitted out. In all instances, HK-BEAM focuses on what the interior decorator, builder and commissioning agent can accomplish.
2.2 The historical background and the recent development of Sustainable Buildings
In Hong Kong, green edifice is non a well-known term until the recent old ages when the environmental impacts has reached an alarming phase. To understand the development of different constructing types in Hong Kong can assist to understand more about green edifice construct. Furthermore, edifice development in Hong Kong, peculiarly for green commercial edifices, should be investigated so that a general image of green edifice in Hong Kong can be provided. This would do the probe of green edifice policy more complete and thorough. Beatley ( 2000 ) admits that the green design and intelligent edifices have drawn great attending and involvements of the society including authorities and besides private sectors in recent old ages merely. The ground for Hong Kong to follow the construct of green edifice is to avoid big amount of outgo on edifices ‘ energy ingestion, peculiarly in the commercial sector Air-conditioned offices started to spread out in the sixtiess when Hong Kong begins its economic development. Energy was relatively inexpensive and issues related to energy were non taken into consideration by interior interior decorators and designers. Energy-efficient edifices were so demanded in the 1970s after the oil trade stoppage incident in 1973. However, the over-responsive cutback in seeking to cut down energy usage led to ‘sick edifice ‘ every bit good as ‘sick constructing syndrome ‘ . Intelligent edifice which came right after was besides abandoned due to the deficiency of well-trained proficient staff. Finally, the thought of green edifice is bit by bit being adopted ( Chan, Burnett & A ; Jones, 2000 ) .
Early on as in 1992, the United Nations revealed a coder related to sustainable development, which is the Agenda 21. It is a comprehensive design of action to be taken in response of all worlds ‘ impact on the environment. In the building industry, Agenda 21 calls for ecologically sound land-use policies, energy-efficient design, an increased input of locally available resources and the valorisation of traditional and autochthonal edifice techniques. Cooperation among authorities and non-government entities are called upon in cut downing the cost of edifice stuffs for low-income citizens and to advance the usage of labor-intensive patterns in order to bring forth employment ( United Nations, 1992 ) . In Hong Kong, the ‘Green Building Movement ‘ was initiated by the Government to advance green and advanced edifice. This motion was launched to convey forth the construct of environmentally friendly design.
Hong Kong faces significant addition in population every twelvemonth and the life environment is the major concern for all. Merely if the environmental protection steps being widely implemented, the life environment can so be ensured.
Therefore, there is a turning concern of the environmental public presentation in Hong Kong ( Smith, 1999 ) .
2.3 Government attempts and their effectivity in the publicity of Sustainable Buildings
2.3.1 Legislative model
Assorted sections are involved in doing and implementing policy refering environmental protection. The Advisory Council on the Environment ( ACE ) advises the Government on steps for the bar and suspension of pollution. The Environmental Campaign Committee organizes events in Hong Kong to advance community environmental consciousness and administers portion of the Environment and Conservation Fund. The Environmental Protection Department formulates policies and grips specific environmental issues. Each of the Ordinances regulates activities of a peculiar field. Those related to the building industry include
The Noise Control Ordinance
The Air Pollution Control Ordinance
The Water Pollution Control Ordinance
The Waste Disposal Ordinance
The Dumping at Sea Ordinance
The Environmental Impact Assessment Regulation
Other authorities sections such as Planning Department, Civil Engineering
Department and Buildings Departments all work together at different building stages to heighten Hong Kong edifice environment.
Basically, Buildings Department is the chief organic structure to advance the quality of edifice developments. Through administrating and implementing the Buildings Ordinance ( BO ) , it takes a prima function and recommend a joint attempt with the edifice industry and other authorities sections or bureaus to advance a sustainable built environment in Hong Kong ; implements good patterns of green direction in our workplace ; and raises the consciousness of the populace of the importance of a sustainable environment in our community.
2.3.2 Green edifice policies
Different types of green edifice policy instruments are used by Hong Kong authorities to advance green edifice and restricting environmental amendss of edifice ( Chan, Burnett & A ; Jones, 2000 ) . All of them come together to organize the footing of green constructing policies in Hong Kong.
2.3.3 Joint Practice Notes
The Buildings Department, Lands Department and the Planning Department jointly issued Joint Practice Notes ( JPN ) No. 1 in February in 2001 and JPN No.2 in February in 2002. The Joint Practice Notes No. 1 sets out the inducements to promote the incorporation of specific green characteristics in edifice development, such as,
Wider common corridors and lift anterooms,
Communal sky gardens,
Communal dais gardens,
Awnings and reflectors, and
Flying walls, air current backstops and funnels.
These characteristics will be exempted from Gross Floor Area ( GFA ) and Site Coverage ( SC ) computations. In JPN No. 2, farther add-on of green characteristics is made. They include:
non-structural prefabricated external walls,
public-service corporation platforms
mail bringing suites with letter boxs,
noise barriers, and
communal sky gardens for non-residential edifices.
There are wholly eleven specific types of green characteristics which can use for freedoms from gross floor country and/or site coverage in new edifices.
The inducements on green edifice characteristics served as accelerators to trip off impulse and desire for environmentally friendly edifice developments ( Wu, 2004 ) . They are initial stairss in accomplishing green edifice in Hong Kong by promoting interior decorators and developers from following environmentally friendly characteristics in edifice developments.
It is an constituted authorities policy to promote and advance the building of green and advanced edifices ( Government Press Release LCQ 9, 2006 ) .
Capable to the relevant rental conditions, payment of premium may be required in regard of the freedom of GFA of the relevant type of green characteristics ( Government Press Release LCQ 16, 2006 ) . Green features which form portion of the single flats in the edifice and are for the sole ownership and enjoyment of the proprietors and occupants of these single flats would pull premium, i.e. including balconies, public-service corporation platforms and non-structural prefabricated external walls. Other green characteristics which are communal in nature and serve all proprietors and occupants of the development e.g. wider common corridors and lift anterooms, communal sky gardens and mail bringing room with mail boxes do non pull payment of premium.
In add-on to the JPNs, there are other issues to advance green edifices. A figure of Practice Notes for Authorized Persons and Registered Structural Engineers associating to environmentally friendly design and building and Code of Practice are issued to help in clear uping uncertainnesss that the professionals may meet in run intoing the environmental criterions in building industry. These codifications are adapted from clip to clip in order to suit the statute law. However, they do non hold legal powers but merely function as an reading of the statute law from the position of authorities and supply waies for people to follow.
2.3.5 Energy efficiency ordinance in commercial edifice
The Building ( Energy Efficiency ) Regulations was enacted in 21/9/2012 to modulate commercial and hotel edifices. Buildings are designed and constructed as to accomplish energy efficiency to the satisfaction of Building Authority. The Building Envelope codification, which imposes suited OTTV ( Overall Thermal Transfer Value ) , has been linked with the Building ( Energy Efficiency ) Regulation under the Building Ordinance. They come together to organize a compulsory demand for new commercial and hotel edifices.
Hong Kong ‘s proposed Mandatory Building Energy Codes ( 2008 ) will necessitate new commercial edifices and the communal countries of new residential and industrial edifices in both the private and public sectors, every bit good as major retro-fitting plants in bing edifices to follow with the Building Energy Codes promulgated by the Electrical and Mechanical Services Department. Energy audits would be required for certain edifices for every 10 old ages. To complement the proposed legislative strategy, edifices that have exceeded the lower limit edifice energy efficiency criterions by a prescribed per centum will be complemented with an energy grade through a voluntary administrative strategy.
2.3.6 Gross floor country ( GFA ) grants
Friday 1st April Markss a historical twenty-four hours in Hong Kong ‘s advancement towards more sustainable, low-carbon and environmentally responsible edifices.
From today, developers that seek gross floor country ( GFA ) grants for green characteristics in their new edifices are required to undergo BEAM Plus green constructing enfranchisement by the Hong Kong Green Building Council ( HKGBC ) , assisting to better public presentation in the countries of energy, H2O, stuffs, waste, indoor environment and impacts on the vicinity.
Other new demands include declaration of the edifice ‘s predicted energy ingestion, increased countries of planting and rejuvenation, and sweetening of the streetscape and urban air airing around their sites. The grants available, holding met these new demands, are now capped at a maximal 10 % .
The fact that these new steps are compulsory represents a elephantine measure frontward for Hong Kong on the universe green edifice phase. However the significance of this – and the benefits to the quality of our built environment – has mostly been lost in the broader public argument on Hong Kong ‘s development patterns.
Escalating concerns about planetary heating and recent events in Japan besides remind us of the effects on communities that can originate from supplying the energy that we are all dependent upon. We have to retrieve that the most cost effectual ( and environmentally responsible ) manner to cut down our C emanations is to forestall energy wastage.
Hong Kong ‘s edifices consume 90 % of our electricity and are the beginning of 67 % of our C emanations. Every edifice in Hong Kong ( and there are more than 40,000 ) can profit from energy salvaging steps both during their twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours usage and besides their redevelopment and renovation. This presents alone chances for us non merely in footings of cut downing our C footmark, but besides in adding to the economic system through new merchandises and services and making a more healthy environment and an even better topographic point to populate.
HKGBC applauds the Government for the steps being introduced today as an of import measure on our way to a more sustainable built environment. We besides encourage the community as a whole to encompass the same finding in heightening their edifices ‘ public presentation. ( Andrew Chan, 2011 )
2.3.7 Other commissariats
Besides the issue of different notes, codifications and guidelines, Government has besides launched other plans to stress the importance of sustainability of a edifice.
A figure of enterprises on edifice safety and timely care, such as advancing clearance of unauthorised edifice plants ; a public audience papers on “ Building Management and Maintenance ” was issued to make green enterprises. A Comprehensive Environmental Performance Assessment Scheme ( CEPAS ) for evaluation and benchmarking the environmental public presentation of edifice developments in Hong Kong will be produced. CEPAS aims to be bespoke for state of affairss in Hong Kong.
These are hoped to supply driving force to the industry every bit good as edifice proprietors to follow green edifice characteristics in their edifice developments.
2.4 Major Barriers in the development of sustainable edifices
“ 70 % of Hong Kong developers and landlords believe the authorities is non providing sufficient regulative constructions to advance sustainability in the real-estate sector. ” ( Ina Pozon 2010 )
In many states, renter penchant has been the chief driver behind the “ rejuvenation ” of edifices. In Asia, transnational companies, normally the ground tackle renters of new commercial edifices encourage their property-management sections to contract new rentals in green edifices. Lucy Carmody, executive manager of Responsible Research, an environment, societal and administration ( ESG ) research outfit that in early 2010 released an investor study on green edifices in Asia, points out that the real-estate industry in Hong Kong “ suffers from a deficit of supply of the type of edifices which are in demand by both local leading companies and MNCs [ transnational corporations ] . ”
Alongside the perceptual experience of higher upfront costs, Carmody identifies the deficit of sites for new edifices as one key ground why sustainable-building enterprises have been slow to take off in Hong Kong. “ The state of affairs in China is different due to a strong focal point on municipal-level sustainable metropolis planning, green financial stimulation and many MNCs looking for big, freshly built premises of the highest green specifications, ” she says.
Another analysis considers the split inducement between the developer/owner of a belongings and the renter, which has been labelled the “ blasted game ” . Put merely, there is deficient inducement for the developer to construct in more energy-efficient equipment, even if the costs are recouped over its life-time, as it is the renter – and non the developer – who benefits from lower electricity measures. Developers are normally under force per unit area to finish the undertaking in the shortest timeframe possible and at the lowest cost, and will merely see extra disbursement on engineering if this impacts the purchasing or renting determination.
Low electricity duties, which fail to internalize the true environmental, wellness and other associated costs of production and distribution of power, do non incentivise investing in energy efficiency either, though this job is non peculiar to Hong Kong.
Possibly the biggest obstruction to sustainability in Hong Kong ‘s edifice sector, nevertheless, is the deficiency of the sort of ordinance that can rectify market failures and signal to the relevant participants that greenhouse-gas and energy-efficiency issues are in fact stuff. A new energy-efficiency jurisprudence, known as the Building Energy Efficiency Bill, is presently pending but has already been criticised by environmental administration Friends of the Earth ( FoE ) as being “ nil more than a fig foliage ” . The illuming preservation criterions for offices, eating houses and edifice atria adopted in the measure slowdown behind other states. Take the criterions for office lighting as an illustration: the measure recommends a upper limit of 17 Wattss per square meter, good above the 7 Wattss per square meter applied in Australia and the 10.8 Wattss per square meter mandated in India.A
“ The energy preservation criterion for illuming in the Mandatory Building Energy Codes ( MBEC ) for Hong Kong is of a developing-country criterion that falls far behind mainland China and India, ” says Edwin Lau, manager of FoE Hong Kong. “ So we are dubious of our authorities ‘s committedness in conserving energy for the environment. ”
How does the Hong Kong authorities justify following criterions lower than those in mainland China or India? While there is no direct reply to this inquiry, portion of the account can possibly be gleaned from the stakeholder-engagement procedure for the MBEC launched in December 2007, as documented in a study from the Climate Change Business Forum ( CCBF ) , an enterprise that aims to acquire Hong Kong ‘s concerns to join forces on undertaking clime alteration. While the audience involved a big figure of groups runing from members of the populace to professional administrations, the information gathered and the methodological analysis employed in analyzing the responses were mostly untransparent.
Harmonizing to the CCBF study, “ Respondents have non been segregated or analysed by group or vested involvement despite an evident prejudice in the audience towards belongings developers, proprietors and directors. In add-on the premises behind authorities statements sing the nest eggs, costs and benefits of the proposed efficiency degrees have non been published. ”
2.5 Possible ways to get the better of these barriers
In the absence of authorities ordinances, the industry, led by belongings developers Swire Properties and Hong Kong Land, set together voluntary enterprises including the Hong Kong Building Environmental Assessment Method ( HK BEAM ) enfranchisement, which aims to mensurate, better and label the environmental public presentation of edifices. It was inspired by a similar green-building evaluation system in the United Kingdom, the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method ( BREEAM ) . As of October 2009, HK BEAM had provided acknowledgment for enhanced edifice public presentation to about 200 Hong Kong belongingss, tantamount to 9 million square meters and 50,000 residential units.
In 2009, four industry leaders- The Construction Industry Council, the Business Environment Council, the BEAM Society and the Professional Green Building Council – came together to set up the Hong Kong Green Building Council, which aims to prosecute stakeholders and Foster greater apprehension of green constructing issues. The Council, supported by the Hong Kong Development Bureau, will take the lead in revamping voluntary green constructing labelling strategies and anteroom for sustainable enterprises such as energy codifications.
Experts in the industry are clear, nevertheless, that voluntary enterprises are no replacement for ordinance. A 2009 study conducted by belongings services house Jones Lang LaSalle indicates that 70 % of Hong Kong developers and landlords believe the authorities is non providing sufficient regulative constructions to advance sustainability in the real-estate sector. However, this may alter as the authorities contemplates the acceptance of a territory-wide C mark of a 50 % to 60 % decrease in C strength by 2020, with edifice energy efficiency slated as a major priority.A
The Jones Lang LaSalle study concludes that, while there is acknowledgment that developers and landlords play a critical function in advancing sustainability, the industry views authorities counsel as an indispensable supporting model. “ The regulative model will necessitate a extremist inspection and repair to present important C decreases, ” notes Liam Salter, main executive of RESET Carbon Management, a house that helps companies lower their C footmark, and one of the lead writers of the CCBF study. “ The authorities has been peculiarly wary of modulating bing edifice stock and this will necessitate to alter. ”
( Ina Pozon 2010 )
An implicit in purpose of this research undertaking was to works the seeds for a formal best pattern usher for get the better ofing the barriers to sustainable building and design. Through a research of building industry best pattern organisations, there does non presently exist a best pattern usher for sustainability. The best two ways to get the better of the barriers of sustainable building and design are experience in old undertakings and pre-project planning. Unfortunately, experience in old undertakings can non be taught in a formal preparation session, merely appreciated that get the better ofing the barriers to sustainable building will merely acquire easier as a company completes several undertakings. But, as with many barriers that exist to all stages of a undertaking, passing an extended sum of clip in the pre-project stage normally brings a high degree of success. A best pattern should decidedly be developed on the execution of the extended pre-project planning of sustainable undertakings.
The three chief factors that contribute to Hong Kong constructing more sustainable undertakings were civilization and community influence, higher cost of energy, and more authorities ordinance. An interesting subject for farther survey to develop a best pattern usher for sustainability would be how can the remainder of the state make a similar civilization and community attitude to advance the success of constructing green? Or, what is the inspiration or beginning that causes Hong Kong to hold such a strong community push for sustainable design and building? Almost all of the responses from Asiatic were the highest ranking for community and civilization influence.
If sustainability is measured in a edifice ‘s lastingness and life span, another interesting subject for farther research and survey would be to execute a correlativity survey between constructing life span and sustainability. If a edifice lasts twice every bit long as another edifice, so technically, is the edifice twice every bit sustainable as another since it does non hold to be rebuilt? How can companies advance the usage of stuffs that last up to 100 old ages or more? Most Bridgess in the United States were built to merely last 50 old ages, but there are many constructions around the universe that have been standing for a 1000 old ages. Surely, a span that has to be built 20 times to last 1000 old ages is non really sustainable, no affair how many sustainable merchandises are used in its building. How may the precedences of sustainable building alteration in the hereafter?
Though an huge sum of stuff was organized, cross-referenced, and analyzed for this research undertaking, there still exists an unbelievable sum of informations that has non been addressed. Further more focussed and intensive research could be acquired through the usage of personal interviews with the Hong Kong contractors that took portion in this research. Besides, outside of this text, farther research could be studied refering more specific inside informations of get the better ofing the barriers to sustainable building and design.
2.6 Sustainability could be adopted in Hong Kong and how they could be implemented
High Performance Building Envelopes
Variable-frequency Chiller Systems
Heat Recovery Systems
Automatic Fresh Air Systems
Maximizing daytime and commanding solar addition – Electric illuming energy usage is reduced by tenancy and daylight detectors and low energy adjustments wherever possible. The cardinal three floor glazed street is protected by brise-soleil on the southern facade. Solar control glass is employed on the remainder of the south facing glazing.
Visible sustainability ‘ – It is non really common for edifice works to be put on show, but the college wanted to actively promote its pupils to take an involvement in the environment through the usage of ‘visual ‘ sustainability. Consequently the energy Centre is placed in a outstanding public location at the forepart of the edifice, with big glassy panels leting good positions of the Biomass boiler. An LCD show resides in the chief entryway to expose and supervise the public presentation of the PV panels and air current turbine, besides associating this to its web site. It is understood that since opening the new college has attracted a higher quality of pupil.
Biomass – The Biomass boiler can utilize wood pellets or french friess as the fuel beginning. Though wood bit is being used ab initio. The fuel is sustainable and about C impersonal. The boiler provides 80 % of the Heating and domestic hot H2O maximal demand, with gas boilers supplying the balance ‘peak ‘ burden.
Natural airing – The edifice is preponderantly of course ventilated, and Windowss and equipment linked to the edifice direction system ( BMS ) control warming and chilling. Most of the learning cods off of the chief atrium have exposed precast concrete board ceilings. These provide thermic mass to assist to chair temperature alterations. Night-time chilling is achieved via high degree Windowss linked to the BMS.
Photovoltaic glass and Wind turbine – The front entryway is about to the full glazed with photovoltaic laminate. In combination with the solar control glazing, the dense agreement of the PVs every bit good as making electricity, besides contributes to restricting solar addition. A air current turbine takes advantage of the site ‘s lift. The turbine and PV ‘s between them generate a respectable sum of power for the college. In between term times, these installings will go on to supply energy back to the National Grid, therefore constructing up an extra economy on energy costs for the College.
Sustainable drainage – Due to the impermeable clay dirts leting small soaking up and hapless environing drainage substructure, a big figure of fading armored combat vehicles and swales have been installed to maintain the H2O on site..
Rainwater Harvesting – Rain is stored in an 8400 liter armored combat vehicle and used for blushing lavatories in the instruction block. This can be topped up from the brinies if required in a drouth. The armored combat vehicle storage is besides designed for fire brigade usage if required.
Materials – Many achieved an ‘A ‘ evaluation in the Building Research Establishments ( BRE ) Green usher to specification. This usher gives counsel on best environmental picks – stuffs and constituents on an elemental footing, It assess from ‘Cradle to Grave ‘ on A+ to E ranking. It is now available free online to assessors, clients and design squads
Chapter 3 Research Methodology
For this thesis, the purposes are to place suited attack in the development of sustainable edifices in Hong Kong. Therefore, a research should be carried out to happen out the existent state of affairs of the development of sustainable edifices and so compare with the point of position from the literature reappraisal.
Actually, the purposes of the research are as follow:
Find out the degree of cognition of sustainable edifices in Hong Kong.
Find out the authorities policy can be efficaciously to development of sustainable edifices in Hong Kong
3.2 Background of Research Methodology
For the method of research methodological analysis, there are chiefly two methods of research. They are 1. Qualitative method and 2. Quantitative method. In fact, these two methods have their advantages and disadvantages.
First, Strauss ( 1987 ) states that qualitative methods emphasize the usage of descriptions and classs, derived from the experiences of people, as a agency of understanding and explicating phenomena. Through the usage of open-ended interviews, focal point groups, participant observation/ethnography, documental stuffs, and behavioural studies, qualitative methods engage research inquiries through inductive logical thinking and “ grounded theory ” . Like the attack of quantitative methodological analysis, qualitative methods rely on a systematic and structured attack to data aggregation, organisation, and analysis. In this manner, qualitative methods can be understood as more than a auxiliary option to carry oning quantitative research.
Qualitative methods frequently consist of words that describe an experience or feeling from the point of position of the people being studied. However, the observations and experiences related by plan directors and undertaking staff are besides an of import portion of the qualitative methodological analysis. Some normally used qualitative methods are focus groups and cognition, attitudes, and patterns studies.
On the other manus, Strauss ( 1987 ) states that quantitative methods emphasize the usage of Numberss and statistics to understand and explicate phenomena. In this attack, replies to denumerable inquiries are derived through the aggregation of numerical informations. Quantitative methods enable research workers and practicians to better understand societal constructions and to do general statements over broad populations on a figure of societal subjects runing from infant mortality to unemployment. Numerical data supply an chance to originate correlativity surveies, and to track alterations over clip.
For case, quantitative methods can be used to find the figure of behaviour alteration communicating messages prepared, the figure of rubbers distributed, or the figure or frequence of clinical services delivered. Quantitative methods can besides be in the signifier of studies that seek numerical information that can take to a better apprehension of how to carry on programmatic work.
3.3 Limitation of Research
Practically, all the research methods have their ain advantages. On the other manus, they besides have their ain restrictions. In this portion, it will analysis the restriction of the sing three research methods ( Case Study, Questionnaire Survey and interview ) .
The major restriction of instance survey method for this thesis is the information may be limited to one building contract merely. It is because instance survey can give more item of informations to be analysis. Therefore, it can non roll up the information from excessively many sites within the limited clip to be completed.
Furthermore, the consequences of instance survey may non generalise to others. In fact, the information or consequence may non be applied to other building site. It can merely reflect the existent state of affairs of the sing site to be research. For illustration, the information of edifice plants can non be applied to civil work or redevelopment plants.
For the questionnaire study, the restriction is that the gathered information is non so much item compared with instance survey. But it can reflect the existent state of affairs or sentiment from different professionals or other workers. Apart from this, the informations to be collected may hold some mistakes because the respondent may non cognize the issue on Sustainable Buildings in Hong Kong. Then he or she may give the incorrect reply in the questionnaire and therefore the informations analysis may hold some mistakes.
There are certain affairs which can be written in privateness but about which 1 does non talk before others. If these affairs are capable of an interview, the likeliness is that merely a cloaked version of these will be presented. Again, there are people who are temperamentally unable to discourse things though they are powerful authors. These individuals are besides improbable to show true facts in an interview.
Defects due to interviewee:
If an interviewee is of low degree intelligence he is unfit to give right information. Some individuals are in the wont of speaking in around about mode and it is impossible to decode what they say.3.
Biass of Interviewer:
The biass of interviewers are every bit much job of research as are the insufficiencies of the interviewees. If the interviewer is unable to stamp down his biass, his apprehension and reading of the information given in interview will be faulty.
Nonreversible and uncomplete research:
In the interview, certain facets of human behavior acquire over-emphasized at the disbursal of others. There is a inclination to give excessively much importance to personal factors and minimise the function of the environment factors. For these grounds, the research by interview is apt to endure from one-sidedness.
Interviewing is an art instead than scientific discipline:
Another restriction of interview method is that its processs can non be standardized ; there is excessively much room for improvizing. The success of an interview is more due to skill and tact than due to knowledge. However, the success in interview depends entirely on the intelligence and accomplishment of the interviewer. Therefore, the method of interview is more an art than scientific discipline.
Trouble in Carrying the Interviewee:
Many people are unwilling to take part in interviews. Under these fortunes, the first job before the interviewer is to carry the prospective interviewee to widen his cooperation for the research undertaking and hold for being interviewed.
3.4 Choose of Research
Refer to the restriction of research. There are really two research methods to find the existent state of affairs of development of sustainable edifices in Hong Kong issues in this thesis. They are 1. Case Study and 2. Questionnaire Survey. For instance survey, it is a qualitative method. On the other manus, questionnaire study is a quantitative method.
This instance survey is used to look into the existent status of development of sustainable edifices in Hong Kong. The research will happen out the authorities attempts and their effectivity in the publicity of Sustainable Buildings.
This questionnaire study is to roll up the information and information under difference building site about sustainable edifices. This questionnaire study is used to happen out the existent state of affairs for the degree of cognition of sustainable edifices in Hong Kong.
The questionnaire will be send to the individuals who are engaged in the building field. It will direct out approximative 50 nos. of questionnaire by electronic mail or by manus. Furthermore, the period of this study is about 2 months and the period is from Nov, 2012 to Jan, 2013.
3.5 Detailss of the Questionnaire Survey
Harmonizing to Appendix 1 and for the inside informations of the questionnaire study, it contains entire 25 inquiries to be answered. By and large, it divides in 5 parts. The constructions of the questionnaire are as follow:
1 to 5
Personal informations of those invited respondents.
6 to 10
Historical background and the recent development of Sustainable Buildings.
11 to 15
Government attempts and their effectivity in the publicity of Sustainable Buildings.
16 to 20
Major Barriers and possible ways to get the better of in the development of sustainable edifices.
21 to 25
Explore possible ways to get the better of these barriers.
Table 1: Structures of the Questionnaire Survey
Harmonizing to the Table 1, portion 1 is to roll up the general information of the respondent. Separate 1 contains 5 inquiries. It chiefly includes the personal information of the respondent sing the building house who are engaged and the working experience of the respondent. It is used to roll up the information of respondent from different building house and different working experience in building field. Furthermore, if the respondent has more on the job experience in building field, the credibleness is higher.
Furthermore, for portion 2, it contains 5 inquiries. The purpose of this portion is to roll up the cognition of the respondent which is knowledge the historical background and the recent development of Sustainable Buildings
Furthermore, there are 5 inquiries in portion 3. It is used to reexamine the authorities attempts and their effectivity in the publicity of Sustainable Buildings.
Furthermore, there are 5 inquiries in portion 4. It is used to reexamine the major Barriers in the development of sustainable edifices and possible ways to get the better of these barriers.
Last, there are 5 inquiries in portion 5. It is used to roll up the type ( s ) of sustainability could be adopted in Hong Kong and how they could be implemented