the developing person through the lifespan 8e

experiments allow researchers to:
determine a cause-and-effect relationship.
the idea that the study of development involves several academic fields defines the _______ characteristic of development.
Traits, capacities, and limitations that we each receive from our biological parents are said to be a result of:
the golden rule of netiquette is:
remember the human
After he got his first job and a regular paycheck, Juan found himself buying more and more DVDs, especially as he got pay raises. The correlation between the size of his paycheck and the DVDs is:
Research data that may be categorized, ranked, or numbered is:
in an experiment, the group of participants who do not receive the independent variable is called the:
control group
The more Hank eats, the less hungry he feels. The type of correlation between his food intake and his hunger is a:
if a group of people have the same ancestors, religion, and language, they are said to be part of the same:
ethnic group
a reason why surveys might not be the most valid of research methods is because:
many people give inaccurate responses to impress the interviewers
A 9 year old girl learning to be competent at school would be in Erikson’s psychosocial stage of :
industry vs. inferiority
according to Freud individual’s’ lifelong patterns of behavior are determined by
how they experience and resolve psychosexual conflicts.
Rachel is a young child who has been given a vaccination each time she has been to the doctor’s office. She now starts to scream and cry each time she sees the doctor’s office building. According to the principles of classical conditioning, she is screaming and crying because she:
has learned to associate the building with the pain she feels when she gets a shot.
most developmental psychologist are
eclectic, because each theory of human development has its limitations.
Mr. McGinty works with his child, Edward, to put together a new puzzle, his father helps him less and less, and he requires less help from his father. this example best supports the view of development put forth by:
The concept of the zone of proximal development suggests that the parent or teacher:
provide support as the child takes on new challenges
Danielle sucks her thumb because she finds it very pleasurable. According to Freud, Danielle is most likely in:
the oral stage
if you were to see a man from the nation of Fiji, but had never seen someone from there before, you would still recognize him as a human being. This cognitive process called:
according to psychoanalytic theories, human development is mainly determined by:
our unconscious motives and drives
in Erickson’s psychosocial theory, resolutions to developmental crises depend on the interaction between the individual and:
the social environment
Saul and Joe are unrelated next-door neighbors. What percentage of human genome do they share?
99.9 percent
phenotype refers to:
the actual expression of genetic traits.
when a sperm and ovum unite, what is formed?
a zygote
chromosomal abnormalities occur when a zygote’s cells have:
more or fewer than the usual 46 chromosomes.
a gene is recessive when:
its influence can be hidden by a more powerful gene.
a person’s sex is determined by:
the 23rd pair of chromosomes.
in which of the following countries are dizygotic twins most common?
what is unique about stem cells?
they have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell.
when a particular inherited characteristic is controlled more by one gene of a pair than by the other, the stronger gene is called:
a genome is:
the full set of genes for a particular organism.
babies considered small for their gestational age (SGA):
weigh less than expected, given the length of pregnancy
a teratogen is:
a substance or a condition that can increase the risk of prenatal abnormalities.
Kyoto’s daughter is five days old. Kyoto is feeling sad an inadequate. she may be experiencing:
postpartum depression
the age of viability refers to the point when the preterm newborn:
can survive outside the uterus.
the five vital signs that are evaluated in the Apgar are:
heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes.
with excellent medical care, a fetus can survive if it is born as early as:
22 weeks after conception.
the first organ system that shows any sign of activity is the:
cardiovascular system
identify the accurate statement regarding prenatal development and birth.
in the last months of prenatal life, the lungs begin to expand and contract and the valves of the heart undergo final maturation.
the neural tube will become the:
brain and spinal cord.
the Apgar is used one minute and five minutes after birth to:
determine weather the newborn needs immediate medical care.
the sense that is the least developed at birth is:
a process that stimulates the body’s immune system to defend the body against a contagious disease is called:
binocular vision refers to the ability to:
focus on an object with both eyes
early weight gain is mainly
increase in fat.
Michael was subjected to much stress as an infant due to repeated episodes of family violence. Now, as an adult, he shuts down emotionally whenever he starts to experience any type of stress. this response may be because during infancy stress hormones in his brain were:
Jen had little to play with as an infant but developed into a curious, intelligent preschooler who concocted toys out of whatever she could find. she is developing her brain through:
Brest milk:
provides antibodies to fight diseases.
the process that is involved when a sensory system first detects an external stimulus is:
unusual swelling of a toddler’s face and abdomen and thin, colorless hair are symptoms of:
marasmus results from:
protein-calorie malnutrition in early infancy.
according to Chomsky’s theory of language acquisition:
children have an inborn ability to learn language.
Piaget’s basic test for object permanence involves:
showing a baby an interesting toy and then covering it with a cloth.
an infant’s growing awareness of vertical depths and their dangers is mostly due to:
the experience of crawling
when Becky’s mother speaks to her, she uses a high-pitched voice, simple words o phrases, and lots of repetition. at four months of age, Becky delights in her mother’s use of:
child-directed speech.
the affordances that are actually perceived depend on the individual’s:
sensations, past experiences, and immediate motivation.
infant’s repetition of certain syllables at the age of 6 or 7 month is called:
The Swiss scientist who emphasized that infants are active learners and that early learning is based on sensory and motor skills was:
jean Piaget
Piaget believed children begin to develop cognitively at:
newborns prefer:
speech over most other sounds.
Salma is 10 month old who is being tested on the visual cliff. we would expect her to:
refuse to cross over the visual cliff.
A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:
social referencing.
A 9-month-old explores new environments when her mother is present but shows distress when her mother leaves the room. The child’s behavior illustrates:
secure attachment
When playing with their children, mothers are more likely than fathers to
Play peek-a-boo and patty cake
basically, the strange situation measures how a child:
responds to separations and reunions with a caregiver.
Regina is easily disturbed, unhappy, hard to distract, and emotionally tense. The new York Longitudinal study researchers would say that Regina is:
when Caitlin falls and hurts herself, she runs to her mother crying, Rather than comforting Caitlin, her mother offers her a toy to distract her. her mother is a(n):
distal parent.
how do people become fixated in Freudian stage?
their normal developmental urges are frustrated.
margarita and Roberto are warm, nurturing parents who hold their baby all of the time and cradle him. They are exhibiting:
proximal parenting.
if we place a dot of rouge on an 18-month-Old’s nose and stand in front of the mirror, she may then touch her nose. this shows that the child has some:
when a baby is upset because a caregiver is leaving, the baby is exhibiting:
separation anxiety.
in contemporary society, foster care generally means:
children’s removal from the original parents.
once a young child starts to cry, the child may continue to do so long after the initial cause is no longer present, which sometimes frustrates the parent. This behavior is an example of :
the amygdala is the brain structure that registers:
Pete’s father is physically abusive toward Pete, often leaving bruises. his mother, also living in the home, witnesses the abuse but says nothing. she is:
public health expert recognize that while injuries to children occur, their effects may be minimized through:
injury control.
in developed nations, which of the following is/are most likely to be lacking in a child’s diet?
calcium, iron, and zinc
secondary prevention involves:
responding to the first warning signs of a problem.
an example of a gross motor skills is:
waving good-bye.
Kindra, age 4, is very particular about her daily routines, especially at mealtime. She will only eat from one certain plate, drink from one certain cup, and must have folded napkin next to her plate. She is exhibiting the phenomenon of:
jus right.
symptoms of maltreatment include:
which of the following processes depends heavily on exploration and social experiences?
guided participation
a persons understanding of the thoughts of other people is called:
theory of mind.
to find a good preschool, a parent should look for:
teachers responsive to children’s need; high teacher-child ratios.
a critical-period view the language learning refers to:
the only time language can be learned.
low income children are given preschool education through:
head start.
preschoolers have a tendency to try to make up a reason for why things that they see and hear occur. This tendency is known as:
the structures, rules, and techniques used to communicate meaning in language are referred to as:
Vygotsky’s theory includes the idea of:
young children as apprentices in thinking.
each time Juan puts a puzzle together, his father gives him a little less help. Which theorist would be happy with Juan’s father?
romy understands that if she has a 4 pieces of pizza and we give her 2 more, she will have 6. However, she does not know what happens if she has 6 and we take away 2. Piaget would say Romy:
has demonstrated the concept of irreversibility.
Children who lack self-control are most likely to have parents who are:
Sara, age 3, sees a little boy fall and hurt himself, and a look of concern appears on her face. She is probably experiencing:
aggression used to obtain or retain a toy or other object is called:
instrumental aggression.
three girls start a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier. they are demonstrating:
relational aggression.
Erickson’s stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years of age is called:
initiative vs. guilt.
According to Freud, little boys cope with the guilt of wanting to kill their fathers by:
identifying with their fathers.
Theorists who focus on children’s thinking as opposed to observable behavior are:
cognitive theorists.
Mrs. Kaminsky is a very nurturing parent and has good communication with he children whom she never disciplines. Her parenting style is:
an angry 5-year-old might stop herself from hitting another child because she has developed:
emotional regulation.
identify the scenario that best demonstrates learning theories:
Christine wears a dress, and both her parents tell how pretty she looks.
the time that takes for someone to respond to a particular stimulus is called:
reaction time.
a significant delay in a specific area of learning not associated with a physical handicap, mental retardation, or stressful environment is an indication of:
a learning disability.
although the test you are taking measures many things, it is supposed to be a test of:
having a developmental perspective on any special problem that a child might have makes it clear that the symptoms of the problem:
change as the child grows older.
insights from normal development are applied to the study of childhood disorders in:
developmental psychopathology.
the belief that our society’s obsession with cleanliness and sterile environments may actually increase the risk of asthma is referred to as:
the hygiene hypothesis.
being overweight means having a BMI above the _____ percentile for age on growth charts whereas being obese means having above the _____ percentile.
85th; 95th
Maria has dyslexia. Maria is taught in the regular classroom, where she has her own reading tutor for the part of the dy. This is an example of:
Asthma is a disorder caused by _____ of the airways.
A person’s mental age and chronological age are factors used to determine their:
intelligence quotient.
the information-processing theory likens many aspects of human thinking to the functioning of:
the so-called reading wars are most specifically related to:
whole language vs. phonics.
According to Piaget, a child between the ages of 5 and 7 can apply logical principles to:
concrete and visible examples.
ignoring distractions and focusing on essential information is called:
selective attention.
The series of federally sponsored test in the United states is the:
Jefferson high school has rules and regulations that guarantee student representation in school affairs. John, a senior, has learned that the administration of his high school wants obedience. Obedience at John’s school is an example of a hidden:
Metacognition refers to:
thinking about one’s thinking processes.
the memory system in which signals are held for less than a second, yet long enough for one to process them further, if so desired, is called _____ memory.
Piaget has provided us with the _____ context of children’s concepts, whereas Vygotsky has provided us with the _____ context.
individual; social
Sonja is studying for an exam while her room mate is talking to her boyfriend on the phone. Sonja cannot concentrate on her books because she is unable to use:
selective attention.
Family structure refers to:
legal and genetic relationships of family members.
Alisha’s family was experiencing multiple problems , including her mother’s illness, her father’s loss of employment, and two relatives having moved into their home. Through the stress, her grades remained high and her study skills good. most likely Alisha was:
using school achievement as an escape from the stress of home.
During the school years, self-esteem typically:
a family that consist of one man, several wives, and the biological children of the man and woman is a(n):
polygamous family.
Male bullies are often:
above average in size.
over time, consequences of bullying:
may lead to problems with relationships for the bullies and their victims.
According to Erickson’s theory, children in middle childhood tend to judge themselves as either:
industrious or inferior
The child who weathers severe family problems, even abuse, and somehow remains unscathed in the process is termed as:
When children are able to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of behavior, they have acquired a measure of:
social cognition.
Girls who bully typically:
mock and ridicule their victim.
The number of U.S. ninth- to twelfth- grade students who reported having intercourse in 2009 is _____ than 1991.
The glands producing hormones that regulate growth and also directly activate the adrenal glands is the:
During the growth spurt, the last part(s) of the body to grow is (are) the:
The hormone that causes the ovaries and testes to greatly increase their production of estradiol and testosterone is:
gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
which of the following STIs can increase the risk of cervical cancer?
Human papilloma virus
which of the following is listed in your text as one of the general elements that leads to disordered eating?
cultural images
the biological events that begin puberty involve a hormonal signal from the:
which of the following has the largest impact on weather adolescent sexual discovery and exploration is healthy and enjoyable or shameful and frightening?
their culture
In adolescence, changes in heart and lung capacity include:
greater lung capacity
Janet and Carlos are both in their growth spurt. If they are typical of their sex, compared with Carlos, Janet will:
have a higher proportion of body fat.
Because adolescents regard themselves as uniquely special:
it is difficult for them to envision another person’s perspective
In general, adolescent egocentrism refers to the:
view that one is noticed by everyone.
compared with younger children, when thinking about historical or other serious problems adolescents tend to:
consider more possibilities.
sixteen-year-old Paul drinks heavily and drives dangerously fast, believing that he cannot be hurt. Paul is demonstrating:
the invincibility fable
Large high schools are economical, and they:
do not increase student learning
In Inhelder and Piaget’s balance experiment, Trial-and-error problem solving was most characteristic of
concrete operational thought
compared with that of preadolescents, adolescents’ thinking about science is more likely to:
recognize alternative possibilities
a 15-year-old girl realizes that the dress she has worn to school has a small stain on it. Her belief that everyone will notice it is an example of:
adolescent egocentrism
analytic thinking requires a certain level of:
brain capacity, intellectual maturity, and motivation
the common middle -school schedule that involves classroom changes every 40 minutes has the effect of:
creating a developmental mismatch.
sexual self-definition is comprised of three aspects:
gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation
parents’ awareness of where their children are, what they are doing , and with whom they are doing it is referred to as:
parental monitoring
a retrospective study of gay men demonstrated that, on average , they first became aware of their sexual interests at age_____ and told people at age _____.
11; 17
several suicides committed within the same group of people in a brief period are referred to as:
cluster suicides
assume that you are a college professor who teaches human sexuality courses. In one of your classes you have three teens who have recently come to the United States from Germany. The majority of your students were born and educated in the united states. Since you tailor your curriculum to meet the needs and knowledge level of your students, what might you discover in this particular class?
The German teens most likely already know much of what you are teaching in college.
adoption of parents’ or society’s roles and values, rather than questioning and exploring a personal identity, is referred to as identity.
according to Dunphy, which of the following descriptions lists the sequence of heterosexual relationships during childhood and adolescence?
groups of same-sex friends , public interactions within a crowd of mixed- sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd, formation of couples with private intimacies.
Efrain and Theresa are both high school juniors and have been serious romantic partners for nearly 2 years. Research indicates that such early pairing signifies.
emotional trouble
parasuicide refers to:
a deliberate act of self-destruction that does not end in death.
Identify the accurate statement about adolescent crime.
there are many one-time offenders.
which of the following states is the goal of homeostasis?
Michael eats when he’s hungry and stops eating when he’s full. His body weight remains stable and is regulated by his:
set point
the term “organ reserve” refers to:
the extra capacity available to an organ when subjected to stress.
an example of homeostasis is the:
increase in heart rate and breathing that occurs during physical exertion.
the pattern that limits sexual activity to one steady partner at a time is called:
serial monogamy
as we age, the resting heart rate:
remains stable
In the Cardia study that followed 18- to 30-years-olds into middle age, those who were the least fit:
were four times as likely to have diabetes and high blood pressure 15 years later.
compared to 20-year-olds, 35-year-olds are less likely to:
bounce back quickly after a physiologically stressful activity.
Larry is 30 years old and will play tennis with 18-year-old Chris. They are equally matched inability. Larry will probably:
need more rest afterward to allow bodily functions to return to normal.
most girls reach their maximum height by age _____, and most boys reach their maximum height by age _____.
the critical intellectual accomplishment of adulthood is:
combining emotion and logic
emerging adults usually exhibit more mature reasoning ability than adolescents when a topic is:
emotionally charged
Grappling with personal and social problems during late adolescence and emerging adulthood using both emotion and logic demonstrates _____ thought.
which of the following personal facts correlates with depth and flexibility of thought in adulthood?
college eduation
the study in which adults were asked to suggest solutions to 15 real-life problems demonstrated that:
familiarity with situations enabled adults to be more flexible
Dr. Marquette is a researcher who studies the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information throughout life. What approach to cognitive development does she take?
information processing
when evaluating the effects of college, it becomes clear that:
even some college benefits emerging adults’ cognitive development
the first phase of college students’ thinking is:
believing in the existence of clear and perfect truths.
Alicia is a chemical engineer who has endured sexism throughout her career. her 14 year old daughter would like also to go into chemical engineering. Alicia supports her daughter’s goals but worries that she, too, will be subjected to _____ as Alicia had been.
stereotype threat
a new idea that integrates an original idea and its opposite is referred to as a(n):
According to Sternberg, when commitment, passion, and intimacy are all present, the form of love is:
During adulthood, intimacy:
is found primarily in friendship and sexual partnership
if a man talks about his problems with his male friend, he is most likely to expect:
practical solutions
the dominant traits of commitment are:
mutual caregiving and dedication
which of the following lists states Sternberg’s three dimension of love in the order in which they generally develop in a relationship?
passion, intimacy, commitment
which of the following occurrences is a result of intimate terrorism?
battered-wife syndrome
heterogamy refers to marriage between two people of:
dissimilar ethnicities, interests, attitudes, and religion
intimacy is best defined as:
Clara and Gus have been married for 55 years. They share deep intimacy and commitment but are no longer passionate. According to Sternberg, their love is now:
which of the following occurrences is a characteristic of situational couple violence?
both partners arguing
one of the effects of moderate drinking is:
a reduction in coronary heart disease.
at a recent physical exam, janet was told that she is an inch shorter than she was five years ago at age 50. What would cause her decrease in height?
natural collapse of vertebrae in the spine
A major safeguard of health, vitality, and reduced rates of chronic illness and disability is:
high socioeconomic status
research studies on alcohol use have shown that:
moderate use of alcohol may increase longetivity
which of the following statements about hormone replacement therapy is true?
researchers now believed that the studies demonstrating its positive effects were invlid.
which of the following statements about male menopause is true?
men suffer from sudden, stress-related shifts in hormone levels
the changes in appearance that occur in middle adulthood:
all the answers are correct
which is most costly to society?
to increase her sexual desire following menopause, Janine has begun:
taking testosterone supplements
a woman in the United States today is most likely to die from what type of cancer?
which of the following conditions would Schaie say affects changes in intellectual functioning in adulthood?
marital status, occupation, state of health
all the answers are correct
The Mullers have just had a baby. Both parents must now adapt to the new demands of caring for an infant. This will require the form of intelligence that Sternberg calls:
the Flynn effect is probably due to changes in:
nutrition, education, and family size
the Flynn effect refers to the:
rise in average IQ over the generations
which of the following primary abilities declines the earliest in adulthood?
number ability
K. Warner Schaie traced which of the following intelligences over the years of adulthood?
five primary abilities
early studies of adult intelligence led researchers to the conclusion that intelligence in adulthood:
peaks at about age 18, remains stable until the mid 20s, and declines thereafter.
of the following, the best example of fluid intelligence is:
the ability to quickly perceive logical relationships between words
Analytic intelligence involves:
abstract planning, focused attention, and verbal and logical skills
the type of basic intelligence that makes learning quickly and thorough is referred to as _____ intelligence.
aunt Emily is the family’s kinkeeper. This means that she assumes responsibility for:
gathering the family for holidays, sending birthday reminders, and disseminating family communications.
the belief that family members should be close and supportive of one another even if it means sacrificing individual freedom and success is referred to as:
A person who seems to thrive on changes in his or her work, lifestyle, and relationships would most likely be rated high on the personality dimension called:
the group of people who move through life with an individual providing protection and encouragement is their:
social convoy
According to Erickson, failure to achieve generativity results in:
stagnation and personal impoverishment
research indicates that remarried people:
have a greater chance of divorce than do people in first marriages
relationship challenges of marriage are quite the same for:
same sex partners as for heterosexual partners
a particular lifestyle and social context that evokes and reinforces personality traits is called an
ecological niche
after nearly 20 years with his company, mike’s job was outsourced . he wants his new job to offer not only a good wage but also job satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment. he focused on the:
intrinsic rewards of work
according to recent research, personality through adulthood is a product of four major sources. The one that probably exerts the most influence is:
the term “ageism” refers to:
judging people on the basis of chronological age.
the irreversible changes that naturally occur with time are called _____ aging
the term “free radicals” refers to:
electrons that are unattached to their nuclei
people who live to see their 100th birthday are referred to as:
now that Hank is 75, he uses selective optimization with compensation while driving, for example he:
drives more slowly
in developed nations, the most common living arrangement for people over age 65 is living:
with a spouse or alone
using elderspeak when engaging in conversation with an older adult:
is demeaning
the leading cause of death for men and women is:
cardiovascular disease
which senses become less sharp in late adulthood? smell and taste; hearing and vision; touch and smell
all of the answers are correct
factors that contribute to a long life include:
lifelong work and a diet rich in fresh vegetables
which of the following conditions can cause reversible dementia? alcohol abuse; overmedication; undernourishment
all the answers are correct
when Schaie tested adults on the five primary mental abilities, the average scores after age 60.
decline in all areas
Joan suffered a ministroke that left her mildly impaired. much to her delight and family’s delight, she soon recovered. what is her likely prognosis?
she will most likely have other strokes ; first is just a warning.
the most common cause of dementia is:
Alzheimer disease
in the final stage of Alzheimer disease, patients:
no longer talk
going outside barefoot in winter, walking through the neighborhood naked, or forgetting about the lighted stove are behaviors often found in the _____ stage of Alzheimer disease.
which of the following attributes is associated with wisdom?
practical life experience
Research on wisdom finds that:
a minority of adults are wise
in the second stage of Alzheimer disease, a person:
exhibits aimless and repetitious speech.
a main symptom in Lewy body dementia is loss of:
which of the following activities is one of the IADLs?
grocery shopping
life satisfaction for the elderly correlates with:
friends more than family
ed and Janet have been married for 60 years. When asked to share their secret to a long marriage, Ed replied:
we have learned how to disagree
Earl and Lynn enjoy babysitting their grandchild when their other commitments and their busy lifestyle give them time for it. Their grandparenting style is:
an intermediate form of care for older adult is:
assisted living
Barbara’s relationship with her two adult sons is prepared with conflict and tension over choices they make in their lives. they rarely listen to her advise. Barbara is typical to many parents with grown independent, children in that she:
hasn’t stopped parenting
according to Erickson, each new experience throughout life requires:
a reassessment of identity
with regard to their grown children, most elderly people:
are more likely to give financial support than to receive it.
most elderly abuse is committed by:
adult children
if the government pays grandparents to provide for grandchildren because the parents have been judged neglectful and abusive, the practice is called:
kinship care
in all religions and cultures, death is regarded as a(n):
palliative care:
provide relief from physical pain
a DNR order:
allows a natural death
Mrs. Cannon has been diagnosed as terminally ill, but she insists that she will recover because her laboratory results were mixed up with someone else’s. Kubler-Ross would say that Mrs. cannon is in the emotional stage of:
several recent trends have contributed to making a good death more likely than bad death. They are:
honest conversation, the hospice, and palliative care
The period in the life span in which death is less feared is:
which of the following statements regarding hospice care is true?
a diagnosis of terminally ill must be made order to qualify for services
George is terminally ill and in constant pain. He asked his doctor for pain-killing medication that his doctor knows George will use to end his life. if the doctor gives the prescription and George uses it to die, it is considered:
physician-assisted suicide
researchers who have subsequently investigated Kubler-Ross stages have:
rarely found the same stages occurring in sequence
in comparison with grief, mourning
is more dependent on cultural practices.