TEXES Special Ed. EC-12

Prevalence of LD in school population?
Prevalence of ED in school populations
What’s a IFSP?
individualized family service plan ( for
students birth to 2 yr. 11 mo.)
What’s task analysis?
process of breaking a learning task into
smaller elements & sequencing from
simplest to most complex
What’s fading?
gradually reducing the physical or verbal or
gestural prompts required by learner
What’s chaining?
components in a response chain taught in
their natural order
What’s a physical prompt?
Consist of physical assisting the learners
through a learning task, can use totally
control to light tap
What’s negative reinforcement?
behavior is followed by removal of
aversive event
What’s positive reinforcement?
behavior is followed by positive event
(smile, approval, privileges, money, etc.)
What’s extinction?
behavior is not followed by positive event
associated with previous occurrence.
What’s six principles of IDEA 2004?
Zero reject, Due process, LRE, FAPE with
IEP, parent participation,
nondiscriminatory evaluation
Prevalence of AD/HD?
5 out of every 100 children
Three main signs of AD/HD?
inattention/problems with attention, very
active, impulsivity
Three types of AD/HD?
Treatment of AD/HD?
create program to fit needs, help child
manage behavior
medication if parent/doctor feel helpful
What does “Other Health Impaired”
category include?
students with “limited strength, vitality or
alertness that is due to chornic or acute
health problems.
What is the hearing impairment definition?
It is an impairment in hearing, fluctuating
or permanent, that adversely affects a child
What is deafness?
It is defined as a hearing impairment so
severe that child is impaired in processing
language with or w/or amplification.
What is the incidence of hearing
It is 1.3 % of all students with disabilities.
What was determined in
Lau V. Nichols (1974)?
Schools must provide bilingual education
or instruction in native language
What did Larry P. v. Riles determine?
This was concerned with IQ testing of
young black children that resulted in
over-representation is sped.
What was determined in Tatro v. Irving
Supreme Ct. rules if medical services (cath)
were needed and didn’t need Dr., then
school was to provide
What was the result of Diana v. Board of
Education CA?
This referred to bias free evaluations, not
using culturally biased assessment, testing
must be in native language.
What are signs of TBI (traumatic brain
One of more problems in speaking,
physical disabilities, thinking, memory,
social/behavioral domains
What is TBI?
What is TBI?
injury to the brain caused by the head being
hit or shaken violently (not born with it).
How is mental retardation diagnosed?
Two things assessed: intellectual
functioning and adaptive behavior skills,
both 2 SD below mean
What is prevalence of MR?
3 out of 100 people have MR
1 out of every 10 in sped are MR.
What are four causes of MR?
genetic conditions, problems during
pregnancy, problems at birth, health
What is severe or multiple disabilities (also
know as multiply handicapped)
Students requiring extensive support in
more than one major life activity, 3 or more
What are characteristics of severe or
multiple disabilities?
Problems in communication, physical
mobility, memory, trouble generalizing
skills, need for support in major life
activities. traditionally labelled as severe or
profound MR,
Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
process of determining the cause or
function of behavior before developing an
Assistive Technology
technology used to assist individuals with
physical, cognitive and speech disabilities
to accessing environments such as school
or home
American with Disabilities Act prohibits
discrimination on basis of disability
a reading disorder whereby individuals
reverse words and letters
Child Find
annually identify and locate all children
with disabilities in one geographic area
Individual Transition Plan
individual plan to help student transition
from school to work by age 16
Zero Reject
prohibits schools from excluding any
student with disability from a free and
appropriate public education
Definition of Visual Impairments
includes partially sighted, low visions,
legally blind and totally blind (Braille)
What is prevalence of VI?
under age of 18, 22.2 per 100,
What are characteristics of VI?
social, motor,and social developmental
What are educational implications for VI?
need for technology, modifications in
content, orientation & mobility, visual
aides, early intevention
PL 94-142
Education for all Handicapped Children
Act-1975 mandated FAPE, ensured due
process, IEP and LRE
PL 101-392 Carl Perkins
required vocational education for students
with disabilities be provided
PL 101-476
mandated (IDEA 1990) assistive
technology and transition services, added
AU and TBI
What is cerebral palsy?
a condition caused by injury to the parts of
the brain that control our ability to use our
muscles and bodies; falls under
“Orthopedic Impairment” which adversely
affects a child’s educational performance,
What are medical procedures done at
vision/hearing screenings, catheterization,
tube feedings, nebulizer treatments,
Grace Fernald
proposed a
visual-auditory-kinesthetic-tactile method
of teaching reading & writing
Marie Carbo
reading proponent who stated phonics is
not for everyone
Slingerland Method
a highly-structure multisensory teaching
method used for group instruction of
student with learning disabilities
What is two-prong test for eligibility for
special education?
1) disability and 2) a need for specialized
instruction only provided in special
Stages of Literacy
emergent PreK-K; initial reading (1st and
2nd); transitional reading (2nd -4th); basic
literacy (4th-6th); refinement (6th -7th)
Strategies to Improve Reading Fluency
model, reading orally, Choral rdg, tape
assisted reading, echo reading, partner
reading, reading theatre
What is reading rate?
speed at which student read or words per
Language Experience Approach
process where there’s an event, children
write a story, and reread it and sequence it
Gillingham Method
method stressing sound blending
KWL Chart
large chart where students first write “what
they Know”, “what they want to Learn” and
then “what I learned”
Stages of Writing
prewriting; drafting; revising (here you
share it); editing (correcting it); publishing
Types of informal assessment
observations, checklists, anecdotal record,
interviews, interest inventories,
SQ3R Method
method which includes survey, questions,
read, recite and review reading passage
Three types of Reading Comprehension
literal (recall details)
inferential (cause/effect, predict);
evaluative ( critical thinking, attitudes)
What was Deno remembered for?
he proposed a cascade of services
Who was Dunn?
he questioned special education efficacy
Functional language instruction
involves teaching a student material hat can
be used in every day life in a variety of
a student’s undeveloped potential or ability
substantial changes in level, content or
performance criteria, test formats, and
alternate assessments
continuum of services
instructional settings that range from
Relationship between TEKS and IEP?
IEP objectives should reflect the TEKS as
closely as possible
Orientation and Mobility specialist
provides related service to VI students to
help them ambulate and navigate their
What’s transition?
coordinated set of activities for a student
with a disability desgined with an
outcome-based process, promotes
movement from school to post school
Nonverbal learning disability
up to 10% of students, with soft
neurological signs, poor organization skills,
great memorizer, social ineptness,
kinesthetic learner
grouping by disability
is not effective because where
exceptionality is concern, there are
different degrees of severity
a process that provides an individual with
instruction and practice to develop or
strengthen skills which are nonexistent or
characteristics of hearing impairment
inability to follow instructions, seeming
distracted or confuse, asking for
information to bve repeated,
mispronunciation of words.
characteristics of ADHD
impulsive, moody, forgetful, and restless to
the point of disruption, umpredicatble and
unable to follow through with tasks.
condition that requires individualized
instruction, additional educational support
or services and encompasses physical,
mental and/or emotional conditions
procedural safeguards
given to parent when child is first referred
for evaluation, re-evaluated and notified of
IEP meeting
Rehabilitation Act Section 504
no qualified handciappped individuals
should be excluded from participation in,
be denied benefits of, or be subjected to
discrimination under any program or
activity receiving federal funds.
Discipline removal and IDEA
IDEA has very specific guideline regarding
the # of consecutive days and the
accumulative days a child with a disability
can be removed.
standard deviation
the variability from the mean, find
difference of each score from the mean,
square each difference, average the squares
and take square root
aptitude-achievement discrepancy
a discrepancy ( or significant difference)
between a student’s ability (measure on IQ
tests) and academic achievement; a factor
(not total issue) in the diagnosis of a
learning disability
refers to the ability of the measurement to
measrue what it claims or purports to
referring to the repeatability and accuracy
of a measurement
Least restrictive environment
enables them to interact with studernts who
do not have disabilities with appropriate
aids and supports
cued speech
used by hearing impaired, to reduce
uncertainty that is sometimes associated
with lip reading.
a form of dispute resolution mandated by
Child Find
requires states to identify, locate and
evaluate all children with disabilities who
are in need of early intervention and special
education services between the ages of
birth to 21
a congenital anomaly of the central nervous
system where the head circumference is >3
standard deviations below the mean for age
and sex
Bipolar Disorder
recurrent episodes of depression, mania
and/or mised sysmptoms with unusual,
extreme changes in mood, energy and
most common cause of MR
genetic causes account for 60% of severe
mental retardation
Two most common forms of genetically
transmitted MR
Down’s Syndrome and Fragile X syndrome
major known cause of MR, not genetic
Fetal Alcohol syndrome
Characteristics of LD
conceptual deficits, memory deficits,
behavior deficits,visual perceptive and
auditory perceptive deficits, and
spatial/body awareness deficits
Retinopathy of prematurity
causes strabismus (crossed eyes);
amblyopia (lazy eye), myopia
(near-sightedness) glaucoma or retinal
participants of ARD meeting
parent, administrator, regular ed teacher,
special ed teacher, related service providers
individual plan written in long form to help
student transition from school to work by
age 16
spina bifida occulta
an opening in one or more of the vertebrate
bones of the spinal column without
apparent damage to the spinal cord.it’s a
birth defect, casing around spinal cord fails
to close
Incidence of spina bifida
40% of all Americans, this seems high, but
there are various levels of severity
Characteristics of Down Syndrome
poor muscle tone, slanting eyes with
epicanthal folds, hyperflexibility, low-set
ears, small head, broad feet. 1/3 have heart
defects, lowered resistance to infections
Sound Measurement
sound is measured in loudness or intensity
(decibels, DB) or in frequency (hertz, Hz)
types of hearing loss
conductive (caused by disease or
obstructions) or sensorineural (loss at inner
ear or nerve) or mixed (both)
characteristics of ED
inability to build or maintain interpersonal
relationship, depression, learning inability
not explained by health, sensory or IQ
accommodations in testing
include changes in the presentation format,
the response format, the test setting or the
test timing.
accommodations in instruction
involves changes that enable a student with
a disability to function as normally as
response cost
a behavior management technique that
consists of stating the cost for a specific
misbehavior before it occurs, implementing
the penalty every time the misbehavior
occurs and comgining this with a reward to
teach or strengthen the desired behavior.
differential reinforcement
to decrease inappropriate behavior by
ignoring it and providing reinforcement for
positive behavior
Applied behavioral analysis
practice of learning theory that involves
understanding what leads to new skills
applied and integrated curriculum
connects academic and vocational learning
Idea Part C
part of federal law that outlines services for
birth to 3 students with disabilities, early
intervening services
types of related services
parent training; counseling; occupational
therapy, physical therapy, special
transportation, audiological services,
psychological services
Minimum number of ARD meetings per
Texas state assessments for students with
TAKS, TAKS Accommodated, TAKS M,
What percent of students with disabilities
can take TAKS M or TAKS ALT
TAKS M= 2% of all students grade 3-8 &
10 on day of testing
TAKS testing is Texas State testing
mandated by law for grades 3-8, 10th and
exit level
Asperger’s Syndrome
high functioning student with autism, on
autism spectrum disorder continuum
Orthopedically Handicapped
disability with orthopedic impairment,
difficulty with movement, bone/muscle
disorders, eligibility determine by
physician who lists functional implications
as they affect school functioning
Other Health Impaired
eligibility determined by physician, such as
epilepsy, severe asthma, spinal bifida,
hemophelia, that needs school health
services and the disability has functional
implications that affect school
Pervasive Developmental Disorder
DSM IV diagnosis, child with autistic like
behaviors, major concern is lack of
SBOE rules
rules from State Board of Education,
outlining services, settings, etc. of special
education program in Texas, each state has
their own set of state rules, these mandates
begin with TEC (Texas Education Code)
strabismus (cross-eyed), nystabmus
(involuntary rapid movement of the eye,
usually side to side) and amblyopia (lazy
eye) are all types of visual impairments
Retinal defects
types of visual diagnoses under visual
impairment, such as diabetic retinopathy,
retinitis pigmentosa, and macular
Refractive errors
types of visual impairments,
(farsightedness) and astigmatism (blurred
vision due to irregularities in eye surfaces)
blurred vision due to cloudiness in the lens
loss of vision due to pressure build-up of
fluid in the eye, even young children may
have this condition
Definitions of handicapps
For each of the handicapps, try to review
the IDEA federal definition (begins with
CFR), then SBOE rules,
Convulsive disorders
under Other health impairment, occurs with
other neurological conditions or could be
tonic or clonic seizures
formerly known as grand mal seizures,
characterized by a loss of consciousness
and contractions of the muscles, child
usually loses bladder control and becomes
very drowsy when the seizure ends.
Absence seizures
formerly known as petit mal seizures,
characterized by periods of inattention or
daydraming which may be acompanied by
slight repetitive muscle movements
Mental retardation levels
Mild= 50-55 to 70 IQ
Moderate= 35-40 to 50-55
Severe= 20-25 to 35-40
Profound= below 20 or 25
Continuum of services
range of services for special education in
public schools, ranging from least
restrictive to most restrictive,
districts/schools must have a full
continuum of services, they cannot say “we
don’t do resource,”
resource room
setting used for handicapped students who
require services for 50% or less time of the
regular school day
Self-contained Mild or Moderate
setting generally is used for mildly or
moderately handicapped students who
require services for 50% or more of the
regular school day
Self-Contained, severe
setting generally is used for students who
may not be capable of attending more than
two regular education classes.
Self-contained, separate campus
arrangement is offered to students who are
in a self-contained program at a separate
campus operated by the school district,
district must show that services could not
be provided on the child’s home campus
Multidistrict class
instructional arrangement is for providing
special education and related services to
students from more than one school district
Vocational Adjustment Class
instructional arrangement is for providing
instruction to students who are placed
on-the-job for a minimum of two hours
daily, but they can work full time once
trained in the job
Community Class
instructional arrangement is provided for
students in a facility not operated by a
school district, such as a sheltered
arrangement is for providing of special
education and related services to students
who are served at home or in hospitals,
setting for a minimum of 4 weeks and
doctor must complete forms
hospital class
arrangement is for providing special
education instruction in a hospital facility
or residential care and treatment facility not
operated by the school district
speech therapy
instructional arrangement is for providing
speech therapy services
Non-public day school
instructional arrangement is for providing
special education services to students
through contractual agreements, like
Goodwill services, etc.
Vocational Education for the Handicapped
setting is designed to teach the student
vocational skills through on-the-job work
placements for handicapped students
stimuli that are presented to the learner
along with the learning task in order to
increase chances that the correct response
will be made
Can be:
physical prompts=hand on hand
verbal prompts= oral directions
gestural prompts= physical actions do not
involve touching, like touching the table,
professional that conducts audiograms on
students to determine hearing acuity in a
soundproof booth, more than the nurse’s
hearing screens with beeps
Social skills
Self-help skills
good grooming
good table manners
good eating behaviors
dressing appropriately for occasion
Social skills
Problem Solving and coping skills
staying calm and relaxed
listing possible solutions
alternative to aggression
following directions
choosing the best solution
taking responsibility
staying out of trouble
Social skills
classroom task-related skills
on-task behavior
attending to teacher or speaker
following directions
classroom survival
trying one’s best
politeness to the teacher
problem solving
internalizing behavior
anxiety, shyness, withdrawn,
emotions/behaviors of emotionally
disturbed student directed toward self,
involves mental and emotional conflicts,
dimensions not mutually exclusive, you can
have both internalizing and externalizing
externalizing behavior
behavior of ED student directed outward,
like tantrums, lying, aggression, etc.
striking out against others
Socialized aggression
steals in company with others, is loyal to
delinquent friends, is truant from school
with others, has “bad” companions, freely
admits disrespect for moral values and
is self-conscious, is easily embarrassed, is
hypersensitive, feelings are easily hurt, is
generally fearful, is depressed, is always
Psychotic behavior
student expresses far-fetched ideas, has
repetitive speech, shows bizarre behavior,
not in touch with reality, under emotionally
disturbed classification
Educational and Developmental
implications of hearing impairment
language severely impaired, but depends on
severity, social skills immature, motor
skills not affected, cognitive skills within
normal limits on nonverbal measures of
Etiology (causes) of hearing impairments
either congenital or acquired (like from
meningitis, encephalitis) Prenatal diseases
include otosclerosis, rubella, etc. Acquired
causes include postnatal infections, and
physical trauma.
due process
a set of legal procedures to ensure fair
educational decisons
respite care
temporary relief provided the primary care
giver on a weekly or monthly basis, for
parents with severely handicapped students
who need a break/vacation OR
services of a trained individual to relieve
the primary care giver of the child with
handicaps on a temporary basis, like
weekend or for vacation
pre-referral services
services to help children adapt to regular
classroom before they are singled out for
special education programs, now called
“response to intervention”
surrogate parent
represents the student as a parent would in
all matters of identification, evaluation,
placement and provision of FAPE, this is
required when a minor child’s parents are
unknown or cannot be found or when the
state is the managing conservator of the
student, school districts decides when one
is needs and assigns one to student, and
trains them.
a process used when school and parent
disagrees so an impartial third party
mediator meets with both side, reviews
documents/plans/settings to work out
solutions amenable to both sides
adult student
for special ed purposes, a student becomes
a legal adult when he or she reaches 18
years of age, unless a court has declared the
student incompetent
due process hearing
a formal legal procedure used to solve
disagreements concerning the education of
students in special education, there’s an
impartial hearing officer who makes
decisions which are binding about issues at
extended year services (EYS)
individualized instructions programs for
eligible students in SE that are offered
beyond the regular 175 day school year.
Nondiscriminatory evaluation
thorough individual evaluation with tests
appropriate to the child’s cultural
background, before placement into special
ed program
medical model
model that implies a phsycial condition or
disease within the person
practice of assuring that all students with
disabilities participate with other students
in all aspects of school
Itinerant teacher
teacher consultant who serves the needs of
several schools, such as a HI teacher that
goes to many schools, or a VI teacher
AAMR definition of MR
disability characterized by significant
limitations both in intellectual functioning
and in adaptive behavior as expressed in
conceptual, social and practical adaptive
skills, originates before 18, it is not a
mental or medical condition
Five assumptions of AAMR definition
1. limitations in present functioning
considered with community environments
2. valid assessment considers cultural and
linguistic diversity
3. limitations coexist with strengths
4.when describing limits also develop a
profile of needed supports
5. with appropriate supports over time, the
life functioning of MR person will improve
Center-based program for MR student
child and family come to center for
training; a program implemented primarily
in a school or center, not in student’s home
Classwide peer tutoring
an instructional procedure in which all
students in the class are involved in
tutoring and being tutored by classmates on
specific skills as directed by teacher
Cooperative learning
teaching approach in which the teacher
places student with heterogeneous abilties
together to work on assignments
Response to intervention
way of determining whether a student has a
learning disability; increasingly intensive
levels of instructional intervention are
delivered, and if the student does not
achieve, he/she is determined to have a
learning disability or is referred for special
ed evaluation
prereferral teams
teams made up of a variety of
professionals, in regular and sp education,
who work with regular class teachers to
come up with strategies for teaching
difficult-to-teach children, designed to
influence regular educators to take
ownership of these students and to
minimize inappropriate referrals to special
collaborative consultation
an approach in which a special educator
and a regular ed teacher collaborate to
come up with teaching strategies for
students with disabilities, relationship
based on the premises of shared
responsibility and equal authority.
special educator working side-by-side with
a general educator in a classroom, both
teachers providing instruction to the group
term used by activists who fault the
unequal treatment of individuals with
disabilities, term is parallel to the term
“racism”, coined by those who fault
unequal treatment based on race
Diability rights movement
patterned after the civil rights movement of
the 1960s, this is a loosely organized effort
to advocate for the rights of people with
disabilities thru lobbying legislators, they
view people with disabilities as an
oppressed minority
supported employment
method of integrating people with
disabilities who cannot work independently
into competitive employment; includes use
of employement specialist, or job coach,
who helps the person with a disability
function on the job
job coach
person who assists adult workers with
disabilities, providing vocational
assessment, instruction, overall planning,
and interaction assistance with employers,
family and related government and service
Manifestation determination
determination that a student’s misbehavior
is or is not a manifestation of a disability
family systems theory
stresses that the individual’s behavior is
best understood in the context of the family
and the family’s behavior is best understood
in the context of other social systems
a legal term that gives a person the
authority to make decisions for ntoehr
person, can be full, limited or temporary;
applies in cases of parents who have
children who have severe cognitive
disabilities, especially after they reach 18
action that is taken on behalf of oneself or
others; a method parents of students with
disabilities can use to obtain needed or
improved services
Advocacy, Inc.
a federally funded program which provides
legal services (lawyer or advocate) to work
with parents to get services from public
schools for students with disabilities
Fragile X syndrome
condition in which the bottom of the X
chromosome in the 23rd pair of
chromosomes is pinched off; can result in
physical anomalies as well as MR, more
often in males than females, thought to be
the most common hereditary cause of MR
Williams syndrome
condition resulting from deletion of
materials in the 7th pair of chromosomes;
results in mild to moderate MR, heart
defects, and elfin facial features, affected
people often display good language and
social skills, while having severe deficits in
reading, writing and math.
fetal alcohol effect
abnormalities that are most subtle than
those of FASm caused by themother
drinking alcohol during pregnancy
deprivation of oxygen, can cause brain
injury, before or after birth
venereal disease that can cause MR ina
child, during latter stages of fetal
herpes simplex
viral disease that can cause cold sores, if it
affects the genitals and contracted by
mother to be in later stages of gestation, it
can cause mental subnormality in the child
mental age
age level in which a person performs on an
IQ test, used in comparison to
chronological age, i.e. he’s 7 but has the
mind of a 3 year old, mental age of 36
learned helplessness
motivational terms referring to a condition
wherein a person believes that no matter
how hard he/she tries failure will result
working memory
ability to remember information, while also
performing other cognitive operations
refers generally to a person’s ability to
regulate his or her own behavior; an area of
difficulty for person who are MR
a person’s awareness of what strategies are
needed to peroform a task, the ability to
plan how to use the strategies and the
evaluation of how well they are working
Sheltered workshop
a facility that provides a structured
environment for persons with disabilities in
which they can learn skills, can be either a
transitional placement or a permanent
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
neuroimaging technique whereby radio
waves are used to produce cross-sectional
images of the brain; used to pinpoint areas
of brain that are dysfunctional or damaged.
nonverbal learning disabilities
term used to refer to individuals who have
a cluster of disabilities in social interaction,
math, visual-spatial tasks and tactual tasks
Strauss syndrome
behaviors of distractibility, forced
responsiveness to stimuli, and
hyperactivity; based on the work of Alfred
Strauss and Heinz Werner with children
with MR
Contingency-based self-management
educational techniques that involve having
students keep track of their own behavior;;
for which they then receive consequences,
i.e. reinforcement
most commonly prescribed
psychostimulant for ADHD, generic name
is methylphenidate
psychostimulant for ADHD; its effects are
longer acting than those of Ritalin
nonstimulant medication for ADHD affects
the neurotransmitter, norephinephrine
affective disorder
a disorder of mood or emotional tone
characterized by depression or elation
urinary incontinence, wetting oneself
bowel incontinence; soiling oneself
hesitation, repetitions and other disruptions
of normal speech flow
congenitally deaf
deafness that is present at birth, can be
caused by genetic factors, injuries during
fetal development or by injuries occurring
at birth
a method of measuring the middle ear’s
response to pressure and sound
evoked response audiometry
technique involving electroencephalograph
measurement of changing in brain wave
activity in response to sounds
an individual trained in audiology, the
science dealing with hearing impairments,
their detection and remediation
cochlear implantation
surgical procedure that allows people who
are deaf to hear some environmental
legally blind
person who has visual acuity of 20/200 or
less in the better eye even with correction
or has a field of vision so narrow that its
widest diameter subtends an angular
distance no greater than 20 degrees
functional vision assessment
an appraisal of an individual’s use of vision
in everyday situations
magnifying devices
often recommended for people with low
vision can be close vision or distance
vision, ie.s monocular telescope, hand
Kurzweil 1000
a computerized device that converts print
into speech for persons with visual
impairments, place book over scanner, then
it reads material out loud with electronic
Usher Syndrome
inherited syndrome resulting in hearing
loss and retinitus pigmentosa, a progressive
condition characterized by problems seeing
in low light and tunnel vision, 3 types
any repetitive stereotyped activity that
seems only to provide sensory feedback
self-injurious behavior
behaving causing injury or mutilation of
oneself, such as head banging, self biting,
usually in individuals with severe and
multiple disabilities
s= abnormal curvature of the spine
p- a device designed to replace, paritally or
completely, a part of the body
o- a device designed to restore a lost
function of the body (crutch, brace)
professionals working cooperatively to
provide educational services
general ed and special education teachers
teaching together in the same room, for all
of or part of the school day
child find
a function or office in each state’s
department of education that helps refer
and identify children with disabilities
Full inclusion
an interpretation (not law) that states that
the least restrictive environment for all
children with disabilities is the general ed
Pull in Programming
rather than having students with disabilities
leave the general ed class for special ed or
for related services, delivering those
services to them in the general ed
resource room
pull out programming, students attend a
regular class most of the day but goes to
sped class several hours per day or for
blocks of time each week
itinerant/consultative teachers
teachers who teach students or consult with
other in more than one setting or more than
one school.
collaborative teaching
general ed and special ed teachers working
together to meet the needs of special needs
Home or Hospital Teacher
a special teacher who teaches in the child’s
home or hospital when the child must be
absent from school due to health problems
Procedural Safeguards
IDEA guarantees students with disabilities
and their parents the right to FAPE, LRE,
and a process to resolve disagreements and
disputes beginning with mediation and
ending with civil action.
Center schools or multi district classes
separate schools some residential, for
students with a particular disability
Non-public day school
a separate school, not within a district, like
Goodwill that serves a particular
population and age
behavioral objectives
statements of actual instructional intent
usually for a three to four month period of
time for individuals with severe disabilities.
annual goals
statements of yearly program intent, not
liable if not met, but must show progress or
else amend goals
ability to perform a response over time
without reteaching
ability to perform a newly learned response
to a certain criterion
the rate at which a newly acquired response
is performed
simple-discrete behaviors
simple movements that usually occur in
and across different situations (smiling, eye
contact, touching, holding, lifting)
Continuous-ongoing behaviors
behaviors that last a substantial time (how
long can a student work at a particular job
or activity?)
Complex-chained skills
a chain of related behaviors required to
complete a task (folding laundry, playing
the pinball machine)
functional routines
contain several complete acts in a chain,
initiated by a natural cue, and are finished
when the student experiences the natural
consequence that serves as a reinforcer for
the entire event
a stimulus that immediately follows a
response and increases the likelihood that
the response will be repeated
any teacher behavior that cause the student
to know how to do a behavior correctly,
they increase the probability of correct
error correction
any procedure that causes the behavior to
occur correctly when a student either does
not respond or gives an incorrect response
a stimulus that immediately follows a
response and decreases the likelihood that
the response will be repeated.
ability to perform the behavior in untrained
situations,i.e. the child ties his shoes in the
class, and also can do it in PE, or at lunch
or at home.
Parten’s Developmental Stages of Play
0 to 2 trs
Unoccupied behaviors= no apparent play
behaviors, enjoyment derived from
watching anything that occurs around them
for short periods, explores hands, toes, feet,
fingers, etc. follows an adult visually and
Parten’s Developmental Stages of Play
2 and older
on-looker behavior= content to play near
and watching others play, may interact, but
does not seek to participate with others
Parten’s Developmental Stages of Play
2 1/2 and older
solitary=plays with toys alone, play is not
dependent on nor involved with the play of
others around him
Parten’s Developmental Stages of Play
2 1/2 to 3 1/2
parallel play= enjoys being near other
children playing along and beside them,
very much involved in own play
Parten’s Developmental Stages of Play
3 1/2 to 4 1/2 years
associative play= enjoys a common activity
with others, borrows and loans toys,
follows one another around, some imitation
occurring, follows no organization or goal,
acts as he/she wishes, mild attempts to
control who may join play group.
Parten’s Developmental Stages of Play
4 1/2 and older
cooperative play= child joins activities or
group of children in organized efforts,
games, etc. there is a sense of belonging,
division of labor, assignment of roles, a
leader and followers, some arbitrary rules
about admitting other to play group.
Other facts about Cerebral Palsy
characterized by the body parts or limbs
affected: monoplegia (one limb);
paraplegia (legs involved); hemiplegia (one
side of the body affected); double
hemiplegia (both sides affected); triplegia
(three limbs involved); quadriplegia (all
four limbs involved); and diplegia (legs
involved more than arms). effects may be
minimal or quite severe
Other facts about Cerebral Palsy
types of motor impairment: spasticity (the
most common); athetosis, ataxia, rigidity;
tremor; atonia and mixed
Other facts about Cerebral Palsy
condition resulting in motor problems,
physical weakness, and lack of
coordination, due to damage or defects of
central nervous system
muscular dystrophy (MD)
an inherited condition in which the muscles
degenerate and are replaced by fatty tissue;
most common form, Duchenne, is
progressive, affects mainly males, and is
almost always fatal.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
characterized by inflammation of the joints,
children experience a great deal of pain;
may need help writing or alternatives to
writing all assignments by hand
juvenile diabetes mellitus
hereditary disorder in which the pancreas is
unable to produce enough insulin to remain
in balance with the glucose (sugar) in the
body, insulin is taken daily, diet is
Causes of Orthpedic or Health Impairments
falls, accidents, sports injuries, child abuse,
prenatal or postnatal disease or infections,
hereditary conditions, and congenital
abmormalities among the causes
Characteristics of Orthopedic or Health
Impairments on Normal Development
most have no delay is oral language
development except if neurological (CP);
same as cognitive, within normal range
unless neurological involvement; social
development affected due to absences,
limitations, stigma; motor area MOST
affected, may need special equipment;
affective development should be close to
normal unless neurological involvement
Possible causes of LD
seldom possible to determine; possible
causes include maturational delays,
neurological damage or abnormality;
inherited abnormalities; environmental
factors such as diet, pollution, additives to
food, drinking water, stree, and intoxicants
adult student
for special ed purposes, a student becomes
a legal adult when he or she reaches 18
years of age, unless a court has declared
student incompetent. adult student assumes
all rights of parents (even if MR) if no
court declaration. parents can continue to
attend with student permission
code of federal regulations
contains the rules of the federal
government, all agencies receiving funds
under a federal law must follow these rules,
this includes all local school districts
accredited by the agency.
extended year services
individualized instructional progremas for
eligible students in sped that are offered
beyond the regular 175 day school year.
ARDC must agree EYS is needed because
child has regressed and skills cannot be
recouped within 6-8 weeks (reasonable
period of time)
parent’s written permission is required
before the school tests for sped the first
time and to place your child in sped,
written consent also needed to release
confidential information from educational
records, consent is voluntary and can be
revoked in writing at any time.
the completion of all required parts of an
educational program, sped student may
graduate under IEP provisions or by
completing the same program required of
reg ed students, or by aging out
school must let parents know in writing
about any actions or proposed actions the
school plans to make, in the parents’ native
language, in writing if possible, but if not
possible then by other means (orally or
with interpreter)
Texas State Curriculum (Chapter 75)
passed in 1981, a well-balanced must be
provided to every student, includes 13
subject areas for K thru 12th, essential
knowledge that is mandated is in Ch. 75
Title 19 Texas Administrative Code (19
contains all rules for all state agencies in
TX, Title 19 includes all rules concerning
education. passed by the State Board of
Commonly Used Individual Assessment
for Achievement
Woodcock Johnson Achievement Test
Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Basic
Peabody Individual Achievement Test
Wide Range Achievement Test III
Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II
Commonly Used Individual Assessment
for intelligence/cognitive
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
Woodcock Johnson Psycho-educational
Commonly Used Individual Assessment
for classroom behavior
Behavior Rating Profile
Devereux Rating Scales
Walker Problem Behavior Identification
Commonly Used Individual Assessment
for reading
Diagnostic Reading Scales
Gray Oral Reading Test
Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests
Commonly Used Individual Assessment
for arithmetic
Key Math Diagnostic Arithmetic Test
Stanford Diagnostic Mathematics Test
Commonly Used Individual Assessment
for Adaptive Behavior
Vineland Scales
AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale
Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children
Commonly Used Individual Assessment
for Language
Oral Written Language Scales (OWLS)
Clinical Evaluation of Language Functions
Test of Language Development (TOLD)
Carrow Elicited Language Inventory
Commonly Used Individual Assessment
for Written Language
Picture Story Language Test
Test of Written Spelling
Test of Written Language (TOWL)
Gates-Russell Spelling Diagnostic Test
Independent Educational Evaluation
if parent disagrees with all or part of
district’s assessment, they may ask the
school to provide an independent edu.
evaluation…. done by a qualified
professional not employed by the school.
school must either a) pay for it or b)
request for a hearing to show that its
assessment is appropriate and not
responsible for another one; schools can
have specific procedures (qualifications of
examiners, location of testing, list of
potential examiners to choose from,
amount limit, etc.)
Independent Educational Evaluation (cont.)
Parents can always obtain at their own
expense an independent assessment, the
ARD committee must consider the info but
doesn’t necessarily agree with all of it, but
must review it and can consider it when
making decision about child’s program
Admission, Review Dismissal Committee
ARDC’s first task is to review the
assessment and any other relevant info
about handicapping condition/eligibility
Admission, Review Dismissal Committee
ARDC’s second task- is there an
educational need that REQUIRES special
education specialized services., If there is a
need, then an IEP is developed, parent
strongly encouraged to be involved in
developing IEP (so don’t come with one
totally done to ARD)
Admission, Review Dismissal Committee
ARDC must meet within 30 calendar days
after the assessment report is completed for
students referred for the first time, if 30th
day falls in summer, then ARD before first
day of classes in fall
Admission, Review Dismissal Committee
Meetings scheduled by school at least once
a year to review progress, but parent may
request ARD at any time to discuss
concerns over placement, IEP goals,etc. but
parent can confer with SE personnel before
asking for formal meeting. BUT any
change in IEP must be made by ARDC.
Admission, Review Dismissal Committee
Notice of meeting
parent must receive written notice of
meeting at least five BUSINESS days
before meeting, unless parent agrees
otherwise. Notice must tell parents
purpose, time, location, who will attend
and what services may be discussed or
Admission, Review Dismissal Committee
ARD meeting must be held at a time and
place convenient for both parent and
school. If parent can’t attend, other means
such as phone, letter or personal
conferences to give parent opportunity to
participate before or during the meeting. If
no parent can attend, school may conduct
w/o parent.
Admission, Review Dismissal Committee
Meeting (with parent) must have an
interpreter present at ARDC meeting if the
parent is hearing impaired or has native
language other than English.
Admission, Review Dismissal Committee
Parent can bring other persons to ARDC
meeting to help or represent them (parent
must sign consent for them to be there
where confidential topics are discussed.)
Admission, Review Dismissal Committee
Parents of VI or hearing impaired students
must be given information about Texas
State School for the Blind or Texas State
School for the Deaf.
Admission, Review Dismissal Committee
Parent can audio tape any ARD meeting
after first informing all members attending
that a recording is being made. Usually if
parent records, school should also make
recording of their own
Admission, Review Dismissal Committee
Parent can indicate on the IEP document,
agreement or disagreement with the
decisions made by the committee.
Admission, Review Dismissal Committee
If initial ard, parent must give consent for
the child to be placed in special education.
If parent refuses consent to place, the
school can request due process hearing.
Madeline Hunter’s Seven Elements of a
good lesson design
1) anticipatory set
2) give lesson objective and purpose
3) instruction input
4) modeling
5) checking for understanding
6) guided practice
7) independent practice
Time Out and Restraint
Restraint limited to use of such reasonable
force as necessary for an emergency which
is defined as “a situation in which a
student’s behavior poses a threat of
imminent, serious physical harm to self or
others, or imminent property destruction
(not tearing a paper, but throwing a
computer, shattering a window, etc.)
Time Out and Restraint
personnel called upon to restrain in an
emergency and who HAS NOT received
prior training, has 30 school days following
restraint to get the training
89.1053 Use of restraint and time out
Beginning April 2003, each school must
have a core team of personnel trained in
use of restraint, and the team must include
a campus administrator or designee and
regular ed or special ed who might likely
use restraint
Use of restraint and time out
When restraint is used, campus
administrator must be notified verbally or
in writing, parent also should ber verbally
notified on day of restraint
Use of restraint and time out
Written notification about restraint must be
placed in mail to parent, placed in student’s
sped eligibility folder (available to ARDC)
Written notification of restraint must
name of student; staff name who restrained;
date, time, location, nature of restraint,
activity preceding restraint; behavior that
prompted restraint; attempts made before
restraint; information about how you
contacted parent. this information is
entered into state’s PEIMS system and
collected by state agency, written
notification should be given to campus’s
PEIMS clerk to enter periodically
Restraint does not include:
holding child’s hand; adaptive equipment;
seat belts; prescribed adaptive behavior or
techniques with autistic or self-abusive
Rules for Time out in Texas law
cannot physically carry or forcefully place
child in time out; must use positive
intervention/techniques also; must be in
child’s IEP or BIP to use timeout; cannot
put child in time out behind locked door;
should not block door of time out room to
prevent leaving,
Rules for Time out in Texas law
You must document the use of time out and
address in IEP or ARDC meeting, for
example what is sequence of events, does it
include use of timeout, for how long,
where, etc.
Rules for Time out in Texas law
Training for time out is the same as
regulation for restraint, there must be
training. May want to look this up further
10 Day Rule
Disciplinary Removals
CFR 300.519
A change of placement occurs if:
removal is for more than 10 consecutive
schools days or
child is subject to a series of removals that
constitute a pattern because they add up to
more than 10 school days IN A SCHOOL
10 Day Rule
Disciplinary Removals
CFR 300.520
After a child with a disability has been
removed from placement for more than 10
school days in same school year, then the
child must receive sped services for any
days of removal subsequent to this,
basically if child goes to ISS or alternative
school, he/she should continue to receive
sped services outlined in his/her ARD/IEP
10 Day Rule
Disciplinary Removals
CFR 300.520
In summary, 10 consecutive or 10
cumulative days in a school year….you may
not exceed 10 days without having an ARD
meeting… you cannot buy 10 more days at
the ARD
10 Day Rule
Disciplinary Removals
CFR 300.520
What the ARD then does
In the ard after child has been removed 10
days,the FBA is reviewed; if there’s not
one, one must be developed; Also review
the BIP, if there’s not one ARD must
complete one in meeting
10 Day Rule
Disciplinary Removals
CFR 300.520
ARD addresses questions such as:
Were child’s IEP appropriate and
implemented? Did the child’s disability
impair his ability to understand the impact
and consequences of the behavior? Does
the disability impair the ability of the child
to control the behavior being addressed?
If the behavior is not a manifestation of the
disability, then the student may receive the
same discipline as any other student.
Forms that are in a referral packet for
special education
enrolled in school
1. Basic Demographic information (anmes,
address, #s)
2. Information from Educational Records
3. Information from Classroom Teacher
4. Nurse’s health screening
5. Information from parent about
developmental, medical history, family
hisitory, sociological info, behavior, etc.
6. If child is LEP, copy of home language
survey and all LPAC
Forms that are in a referral packet for
special education (cont.)
7. Class observation-done by independent
8. Referral meeting minutes- where is was
finally decided to test and signatures
9. Copies of all previous tried interventions
(response to intervention attempts) results,
scores, minutes from STAT teams, etc.
10. Consent to test from parent
11. Notice of Assessment- telling parent
what tests will be given (not names but
Forms in a referral packet for Pre-school
students NOT enrolled in public school
1. Nurse’s health screening
2. Demographic info
3. Parent information
4. notice of assessment
5. consent for assessment
6. Receipt for Procedural safeguards
7. Notice for Release/Consent to request
confidential information
8. Any ECI/birth to 3 services or their
Total communication method
a method of teaching deaf students that
combines finger spelling, sings, speech
reading, speech, and auditory
amplification; also called combined or
simultaneous method
Snellen Chart
a chart, consisting of rows of letters in
graduated sizes, that is used to determine
visual acuity. A variation used with
younger children and people who do not
know the letter names consists of capital Es
pointing in different directions, not really
useful with cognitively impaired students
Jerome Bruner
is responsible or described the discovery
learning, student centered learning, may
wish to look up in methods books or goggle
conductive hearing loss
a hearing condition that reduces the
intensity of the sound vibrations reaching
the auditory nerve in the inner ear, the kind
of loss that is a result of repeated, untreated
middle ear infections or damage to ear
drum, on the ear level, whereas the
sensorineural hearing loss is beyond the
inner ear level
differential diagnosis
pinpointing atypical behavior, explaining it,
and distinguishing it from similar problems
of other children with handicaps,
evaluating a student to rule in certain
conditions and rule out others
ecological inventory
an individualized functional curriculum for
teaching students with severe handicapps to
perform vocational, domestic, recreational
and day to day life skills (approximating
independent living skills) in a natural
environmental, i.e. can he sort clothes,
wash clothes in washing machine, fold
ecological model
them, do shopping with a list, take care of
his/her hygiene needs, etc.
ecological model
a perception of exceptionality, that
examines the individual/student in complex
interaction in his own environment and
contends that behavior problems should be
handled by modifying factors in the
ecology to allow for more constructive,
productive interactions between the
individual and the environment,i.e.
teaching behaviors to ride a public bus,
coaching work skills in a community
butcher shop, etc.
field independent learner
students who are not as dependent on the
teacher, other students and the learning
environment, in psychobabble it means a
student who can focus (despite distractions,
music, traffic) and complete a task
field dependent learner
students who learn best with lots of teacher
and peer interaction and who rely heavily
on the learning environment, in
psychobabble it means a student who is
distracted by numerous things in
environment and must have absolute
quiet/order to complete task.
Grapho-vocal method
a remedial reading program that stresses
sound blending and kinesthetic experiences
a process (genetic testing)by which a
picture of chromosomal patterns is
prepared to identify chromosomal
abnormality (such as is needed to diagnosis
fragile X, and other syndromes caused by
chromosomal abnormalities)
medical model
a view of disabilities or exceptionality that
implies a physical condition or disease
within the patient, can also mean a perception of a service: for example, the
medical model of speech therapy
medical model
medical model of speech therapy could
include all types of skills needed by student
to function in whole environment
(swallowing, keeping oral mechanism
clean, answering phone, etc.) whereas the
school model of speech would include
those skills necessary for student to have
access to his/her educational program,
more like what’s needed for educational
life space interview
a technique of interviewing a student,
directly following an outburst or situation,
in which the student discusses the event
with the teacher or counselor and generates
alternatives he/she could have done instead
to solve problem
Moderate visual disability
a vision impairment that can be mostly
corrected with the help of visual aids
(prescriptive glasses, magnifiers, assistive
technology, etc.)
phenylketonuria (PKU)
a single gene defect, usually diagnosed at
birth or soon after, that can produce severe
mental retardation because of the infant’s
ability to break down pheylalanine, which
is accumulated at high levels in the blood
and thus results in serious damage to the
developing brain
the production of sound by the vibration of
the vocal cords, i.e. “s” is unvoiced, by “m”
the vocal cords vibrate, children learn by
putting fingers on throat to see if motor
(vocal cords) is running, “d” is voiced, “t”
is not, “r” is voiced, “sh” is not
voice disorder
diagnosed by speech therapist, falls under
speech impairment if severe, a variation
from accepted normal ranges in voice
quality, pitch or loudness, i.e. some call it
the “coach” voice, loud, constant
hoarseness, gravelly, etc.
a speech (oral language) disorder of
fluency and speech timing; can include the
student repeating or prolonging (blocking)
sounds, syllables, or words, may show
tension, extraneous movements (like eye
movement, etc.) developmentally
appropriate in normal language
development about 2 1/2 to 3, but not
normal after that stage, usually best to have
speech therapist consulted with school age
socialized aggression
a pattern of deviant behavior displayed by
students who are hostile, aggressive
(usually verbally and physically), and have
few guilt of remorse feelings but who are
socialized (and survivors) within their
group, i.e. a gang. For example, fighting is
unacceptable in school, but very acceptable
within peer group or neighborhood.
Rochester method
method of teaching deaf students that
combines the oral method and finger
total communication
method of teaching deaf/hard of hearing
students that combines finger spelling,
signs ASL, speech reading, speech and
auditory amplification (FM system, hearing
aids), also called “combined or
simultaneous method.”
postlingual deafness
loss of hearing after spontaneous speech
and language have developed, i.e. child is
gifted and seven, has encephalitis and loses
all hearing, that’s postlingual deafness.
polygenetic inherited characteristic
a human trait controlled by the action of
many genes operating together (2007)
complete loss of voice
movement of the mouth and tongue that
shapes sounds (and really air) into speech,
includes also teeth, lips, i.e. saying wittle
for little is an articulation error,another
example, top teeth on bottom lips, and air
movement and vocal cords vibrating to
make a “v” phoneme/sound.
auditory method
method of teaching deaf students that
involves auditory training and makes
extensive use of sound amplification to that
develop listening and speech skills; also
called acoupedic method, aural method,
and unisensory method
ataxic cerebral palsy
a form of cerebral palsy marked by a lack
of whole balance in the coordination of
Assertive Discipline
classroom management approach (Canter)
based on establishing clear limits and
expectations, insisting on acceptable
student behavior and delivering appropriate
consequences when rules are broken.
At risk students
students who meet one or more criteria of
federal/state, they are not currently
identified as disabled, but who are
considered at greater than usual risk or
chance to have learning difficulties. (can
include students involved with CPS, who
failed readiness tests, who failed state tests,
etc.)Usually there are state criteria, but
district can use it or develop their own.

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