clusters of ideas about objects, places, and events.
the use of one word in place of another word.
those that relate a story or sequence of events
texts that provide factual information and explanations.
Directed Reading Activity (DRA)
teacher activates and develops schemata by linking the topic of the text to students’ own experiences or finding ways to get students interested in an unfamilar topic. (a teacher directed activity)
K-W-L teaching model
K- What I know. W- What I want to know. L- What I learned. Relies on metacognition.
awareness of mental contents and processes. If “cognition” refers to thinking, then “metacognition” refers to thinking about thinking.
refers to the understanding of information that is explicitly stated in a written passage. (main idea, sequence of events, knowlege of vocabulary)
understanding of information that isn’t explicitly given, but rather implied in a written passage. (make predictions)
ablility to use critical thinking skills, logical analysis, and aesthetic considerations to evaluate a text.
meanings of words and phrases
structure of a phrase or sentence.
rules for effective connunication in different contexts.
reading readiness skills
childeren’s beliefs about and experiences with reading and writing prior to formal instruction.
understanding the nature of print, the function it serves, and the conventions governing its use. (Allows children to distinguish between words and other forms of representation.)
written text that’s observable in one’s surroundings, such as signs, labels, stickers, billboards, and brand names.
takes place when a group of students or an entire class reads out loud.
teacher explains the purpose for reading a particular text as well as the structure for how to respond to what is read.
ability to read quickly, accurately, smoothly, and with expression. (ability to make use of prosodic cues) (is a dimension of oral reading)
refers to the pitch, loudness, tempo, and rhythm of language. (the meaning of a written sentence, punctuation)
patterns of pitch that contribute to the meanings of phrases and sentences.
alphabetic and graphophonemic knowledge, may be in the process of learning word-analysis skills, but they don’t yet have ability to read unfamiliar words.
initial reading stage
sound out many of the words they read through phonic analysis. (Also known as the decoding stage because they focus on decoding of individual words.)
Children become more familiar with written language, and their decoding becomes more automatic as a result of lerning more sight words.
reading to learn stage
attention is focused primarily on content rather than the act of reading itself.
Method in which children reread a short, meaningful passage until a degree of fluency is achieved.
oral recitation lessons (ORL)
kind of repeated reading activity exercise based on interactions between teacher and students.
(paired reading) requires students to work in pairs and students take turns reading a passage.
contributes to fluency by allowing children to familiarize themselves with key vocabulary, so that oral reading of the same passage can be based on a higher proportion of sight words. (SSR, Sustained Silent Reading or DEAR, Drop everything and read)
self-correction and feedback
contribute to greater fluency. (Important for Teachers to help students maintain positive attitude.)
used to describe the ability to use written texts as sources of information about a given topic or area.
is a student-directed approach in which students are taught five steps for studing content-area and expository texts: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, & Review.
use horizontal or vertical bars to contrast quantities
show changes in quantity and other variables over time
show part-whole relationships
visual representation of textual content.
cases in which a student reads a word that is different from the one that is printed.
used to track students’ reading progress
Independent Reading Level
student pronounces 95% or more of words correctly and shows more thatn 90% accuracy in response to comprehension questions.
Instrudctional Reading Level
student pronounces 90-94% of the words correctly & 70-89% of the questions correctly.
Frustration Reading Level
student pronounces less than 50% of the words correctly and answers less than 70% questions correctly.
suitable for the student who needs the tactile experience with the triangle.
provide tactile experience of creating right triangles. (a block of wood with rectangular array of pins. Pins are used to hold rubber bands or geobands in place. They are used to form triangles or other polygons.) (useful for demonsrating congurence and similarity.
ability to compare and contrast objects
5 stages of learning geometry:
visualization-recognize and name figures; analysis- describe figures and objects; informal deduction- classification of figures and objects. (These are noticeable during elementary school.); deduction- involves writing proofs from definitions; rigor- work in several geometrical systems.
have same shape
have exactly the same size
occurs when perfect matching occurs
ideal for working on congruence and similarity.
illustrats congruence and similarity
tiling patterns, are repeating a shape in a systematic pattern in order to completely fill a space.
circle graphs, or pie charts
represent the relationship that each part has to be whole.
based upon chance: the likelihood of an event occurring
based upon data accumulation over time
A fractions is used to represent probability:
# of times the successful event occures/ # of attemps that wer made
average of the values
middle value in the set
value that occurs most frequently
found by subtracting the smallest value in the data set from the largest value in that set
data value that is far from the other values in that particular set
study of the material record of the past
Alonso Alvarez de Pineda explores and maps the Texas coastline.
Cabeza de Vaca is among the first Europeans to explore the Texas interior
Corpus Christi de la Isleta, the first of many Spanish missions, is established near El Paso.
Mexico gains independence from Spain.
Stephen F. Austin establishes the first Anglo-American colony, the Old Three Hundred
Mexico forbids the entry of further U.S. Settlers into Texas
The struggle for the Independence of Texas begins with the Battle of Gonzales.
The Texas Declaration of Independence is created and signed
At the Battle of the Alamo, losses include David Crockett, im Bowie, William Travis
Santa Anna is routed by General Sam Houston at the Battle of San Jacinto
Sam Houston is elected first president of the Republic of Texas
The Texas Congress meets for the first time in Austin, the new capital of the Republic
Texas is admitted to the Union as the 28th state
The Mexican-American War is fought over claims to the southern boundary of Texas
The current Lone Star flag is flown for the first time
In the compormise of 1850, Texas relinquishes territory and acquires its present shape
Texas secedes from the Union and joins the Confederacy
Texas rejoins the Union
The current Texas State Constitution is ratified
Oil is discoverd at the Spindletop oil field, initiating the modern petroleum industry.
On the Coastal Plains, hunters and gatherers who lived in huts but often moved in search of food.
Along the Texas coast, lived in family groups and had a nomadic lifestyle.
lived in rock shelters, built houses that were relatively permanent in desert climate where they lived. Were farmers, but also fished and hunted
Coastal Plains, Main crop was corn, but grew other crops,were Hunters and fishers, built houses that were relatively permanent- built of cedar frames, worshiped in large wooden temples , The Caddo word for friends or allies is Tejas which is where the name of our state is derived.
monadic buffalo hunters and gatherers who lived in central texas
Age of Exploration
The 15th & 16th centuries
Alonso Alvarez de pineda
sailed along the Gulf coast in 1519 in search of a strait to the pacific ocean.
The Wright Brothers make the first powered flight
William DeForest invents the vacuum tube
Henry Ford begins mass production of the automobile
KDKA-Pittsburgh become the first commerical radio station on air
Insulin is created by Canadian researchers
The first successful television transmission takes place in New York
Alexander Fleming dicovers penicillin
Wallace Carothers invents nylon
Radar is developed by Robert Watson- Watt
Significant oil fields are discoverd in Saudi Arabia
Researchers as Bell Labs invent the transistor
information consist of actual records, first-hand accounts of events and experiences.
information consist of descriptions and explanations that are created after a historical event has already taken place
the study of the earth and its inhabitants
concerns the physical environments of the earth
focuses on the relationships between people and their physical environments.
branch of geology that concerns the structure of the earth’s crust, as well as changes that take place in the crust over time as a result of folding and faulting.
earth’s crust consists of about 20 plates that drifts, collide, and separate over long periods of time.
change in the positions of continents over long periods of time
the creation and movement of new oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges
breaking down of physical material
breaking down and removal of physical material
constitues a major source of topographic change
branch of earth science that concerns climate, weather, and earth’s atmosphere more generally.
six flags over Texas
refers to the fact that flags of six governments have flown over Texas. These are Spain, France, Mexico, Republic of Texas, The Confederate States of America, and the United States of America.
Mother of Texas
Jane Long- because she reputed to have been the first Anglo to bear a child in Texas.
first of two women to serve as governor of Texas
first African-American woman from a southern state to serve in Congress when she was elected to the House of Representatives in 1973.
maps that contain outlines of geographic regions, such as states, without additional detail
maps that contain raised features repreenting the topography of a region
maps that the tecacher cuts into shapes for students to reassemble
maps that use different colors and symbols to represent various geographic characteristics
study of how society maintains order through government institutions and the political process.
average of a set of continuous data
middle point in a set of continuous data
the most frequently observed number in a set of continuous data
name of the color
lightness or darkness of the color
brightness or dullness of the color
visual or actual feel of the surface
two-dimensional area difined by lines, colors, or values.
three-dimensional quality of objects: depth, height, and width
mark made by a tool moving across a surface
area that surrounds shapes and forms
how loud or soft music is played or sung
how fast or slow music is played or sung
tune of a song or piece
relates to the exact placement of a note on the staff
accompainment of a song
analogous to how the syllables in a sentence sound
promote for the development of better health now and in the future
way put together
how are you putting it together? fuctioning to solve a problem
associating letters w/ sounds
Texas primary reading inventory (2 or 3 times a year)
diagraph “The H brothers”
sh- quiet brother, wh- whisler brother, ch- train brother, th-nasty brother
two vowels to make another sound, oe in “shoe”
First Spanish missions were established to?
Strenghten Spains claim
smallest unit of sound
ability to understand what is being said
samllest meaningful components of words
one meter is equal to
one inch is equal to
Anna Mary “Grandma” Moses
Spanish surrealist painter
Spanish painter and sculptor
when teachers ask and then help students answer questions by propsing hypotheses, gathering and evaluating data, and generating conclusions. This promotes an understanding of the scientific method.
working with phonemes in words; includes working with onsets and rimes, deleting phonemes from words, adding phonemes to words, substituting one phoneme for another to make a new word, blending phonemes to make words, and segmenting words into phonemes.
combining individual phonemes to form words or combining onsets and rimes to make syllables, then combining syllables to make words.
breaking words into individual phonemes, breaking words into syllables, or breaking syllables into onsets and rimes.
The main feature of a systematic and explicit phonics program is:
the direct teaching of a set of leeter-sound relationships in a clearly defined sequence.
a reading activity in which students rehearse and perform a play whose script is derived from a dialogue- rich book; promotes reading fluency and cooperative interaction with peers.
A balanced reading program consists of…
explicit, systematic phonics instruction with meaningful, connected reading of informative, engaging text. It includes five main areas of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text domprehension.
knowledge of letter names and shapes; acquired in a sequence that begins with letter names, then letter shapes, and finally letter sounds. Instruction should be informal, but planned, and should include activities in which children have many opportunities to see, play with, and compare letters and learn to identify, name and write both upper case and lower case versions of the letters.
an awareness of an the ability to manipulate the sounds of sponken words; it is a broad tern that includes indentifying and making rhymes, recognizing alliteration, identifying and working with syllables in spoken words, identifying and working with onsets and rhymes in spoken syllables.
an understanding that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken words.
the separable, individual sounds in a word. A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in speech; e.g., in the word cat, there are 3 phonems: /k/, /a/, /t/.
the letters that spell the sounds in a word; e.g., in the word cat, the sound /k/ is represented by the grapheme (letter) c.
An onset is the initial consonant(s) sound of a syllable, and a rime is the remaining set of phonemes in the syllable; e.g., in sat, the onset is /s/ and the rime is /at/.
Effective sequence for introducing children to phonemes
1. phoneme comparison in the following order: beginning, ending, and middle sounds 2. Phoneme blending 3. Linking letters 4. Manipulating phoneses through deletion, addition, substitution 5. Phoneme segmentation
Early blending activities should use words that begin with….
continuous consonants (e.g., f, l, m, r, s) because these sounds are easy to hear and can be blended without distortion. The children should “stretch out” and connect the sounds in the word (e.g., ssssaaaatttt, rather than /s/–/a/–/t/).
Two best predictors of later success in reading are…
phonemic awareness and alphabetic knowledge.
Directed reading- Thinking activity (DRTA)
A guided reading activity in which the teacher breaks the text into shorter segments, and next facilitates a discussion on the key concepts related to the text tiopic an thereafter leads the student in predicting, reading silently to confirm predicitons, discussing to refine and clarify predictions; and then formulating new predictions about the remainder of the text; this process is repeated until the reading of the text is completed.
the ability ot notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words. (Focuses on sounds of language, not meaning)
refers to the sounds that letters represent and how these sounds and letters combine to form words.
the systematic, exlicit presentation of sound-letter relationships; for children to benfit from it they need phonemic awareness.
the process of tranlating written words using letter-sound correspondence and blending the sounds into words
accurate, speedy word recognition; is necessary, but not sufficient, for fluency development.
the smallest unit of meaning. It cannot be divided into smaller units without losing its meaning. Sopme morphemes can stand alone like the words, a, dog, or cat; others cannot such as the prefix re or the suffix ly.
a prefix or suffix
constist of two consonants that together represent one sound- like the ph sound in the word digraph.
constists of two or more consonants sonded together in such a way that each is heard- like the blend of b and l in the word blend.
concepts of print
print represents spoken language; print is directional from left to right and top to bottom; books are read from front to back; the strings of letters separated by spaces in text are words, and individual letters are different from words; sentences begin with capital letters and end with periods, etc…..
text in which most of the words are made up of sound-letter relationships that have been taught, but that contain enough high-frequency irregular, and story words to make them sound natural.
words children identify quickly, accurately, and effortlessly.
words that appear often in printed English (e.g., a, the, in, to, no, you, for), but are not readily decodable in the early stages of reading instruction.
consists of two vowels that together represent one sound- like the oa in boart tht makes the long o sound.
a vowel pain in which the sound glides from one vowel to the other- like oi, oy, ou, and ow in foil, boy, out, and cow.
A modeling activity in which the teacher verbalizes the teacher’s thoughts while reading; used to model ways in which skilled readers make predictions, use visulization, related prior knowledge, and moitor and self-correct their comprehensions.
An assessment method used to determind readability of a text that involves deleting words from the text and leaving blank spaces.
Books that have been sorted according to level of difficulty so that children and teachers can select books at the child’s appropriate reading level.
The role of phonemic awareness in emergent literacy is
to prepare students to match speech sounds with letters in written words.
cues based on letter-sound correspondence that help readers decode text and determin its meaning. (When readers are using letter sounds and thier poistion in word sto help decode a word.)
When a student attempts to read a word in a sentence and asks the teachers, “Is that right?” The teacher’s best response is-
to ask the student to reread the sentence and see whether the word makes sense.
cues used by the reader to draw on or gain meaning from text. They include: structural analysis- word identification skill that focuses on word parts- prefixes, root words, suffixes, inflectional endings (e.g., -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est), and derivational endings (e.g., -y, -ly, -ial, -ic). semantic- using background knowledege/ experience with word meanings. Syntactic- using word order and knowlege of language patterns. Graphophonic- using knowldege of letters and sounds.
Context clues are
clues to the meaning of a word contained in the text that surround it. These clues include definitions, examples, and restatements. Teaching students strategies for identifying and using context clues is an important technique for vocabulary development.
Reading fluency includes…
a combinabtion of accuracy and rate; developed by reading and rereading a large number of stories and informational text that are at an apporpriate reading level.
getting meaning from written text
comprehension strategies of skilled readers
activating and using background knowledge, generating and asking questions, making inferences, predicting, summarizing, visualizing
Reading levels for text material
frustrational- is able to read less than 90% of words correctly: instructional- can read/understand between 90-95% of text; independent- reads/understands at least 95-100% of text.
steps in the writing process
1. prewriting- strategies such as brainstorming, graphic organizers, notes, and logs to generate ideas and plans to determind audience and purpose; 2. draft- develop by organizing ideas into paragraphas to suit the audience and purpose 3. revise- draft for coherence, progression, and logical support of ideas by adding, elaborating, deleting, combining, and rearraging text; 4. edit- drafts to ensure standard usage, varied senence structure, and appropriate word choice; 5. publishing- use available technology to support aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing final product
expressive language skills
speaking and writing
receptive language skills
listening and reading
fiction; plots are simple, fast- paced, predictable
the stongs, stories, myths, and proverbs of people or “folk” as handed down by word of mouth
fiction; stories are not intended to be accepted as ture; larger-than-life characters adn very unusual happenings
humorous, exaggerated story with characters who do unbelievable things
fiction; short brief stories that teach a lesson or moral.
fiction; stories seen as true in the culture
fiction; plots center around adventures of heroic figures.
Reading to students in a text that is beyond their independent reading level is a good practice because
is exposes students to new vocabulary and concepts to expand their knowledge of word meanings.
fiction; story that can actually happen and is true to life
fiction; based on real historical events
nonfiction; contains factual information about a specific subject.
nonfiction; contains factual information about a real person
books of true experience
nonfiction; true stories aobut real events from a person’s life or parts of his/her life
fiction; plots are fast-paced and revolve around a suspenseful crime or mysterious happening.
How can a teacher best identify a student’s word identification stratategies?
Ask the student to explain how he/she figured out the word.
a mistake in reading written words such as saying the wrong word, leaving out a word, repeating a word, inserting a word.
What are the advantages of using a basal program?
Basal books are controlled in their vocabulary and sentence structure
How can a teacher help students learn the importance of punctuation?
Have them read a passage in which punctuation has been omitted.
An effect way to promote the oral develpment of a 3-year-old preschooler is to…
verbally label adn describe events in the child’s world.
What word identification strategies would help a child understand and pronounce correctly the words read, wind, and in a reading passage?
semantic and syntactic cues
fictional play; plot is carried by the dialogue.
narrative poem (tells a story) set to music
poem consiting of 14 lines with a formal rhyming scheme
rhythmic and melodic poem
a poem where the first letter of each line spells a word
a seven-lined poem set up in a diamond shape
poem consiting of four lines of verse
a short, unrhymed poem consiting of twenty-two syllables distributed as 2,4, 6, 8, 2 in five lines.
a rhymed humorous, nonsense poem of five lines with last line ending in a suprise twist; highly controlled. Lines 1,2, and 5 rhyme.; Lines 3 and 4 rhyme
poetry that lacks rhyme and structured meter
a unrhymed japanese verse consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables or 17 sylllables in all.
peom that has the shape of its subject.
a type of oral or written discourse that is used to explain, describe, give information or inform.
character, plot, setting, theme, point of view, tone, style.
figure of speech which involves a direct comparison between two unlike thinks, usually with the words like or as
figure of speech which involves an implied comparison between tow relatively unlike things using a form of be
repeated consonant sounds occurring at the beginning of words or within words; e.g., big, blue bear
the use of words that mimic sounds; e.g., pop!
not fully developed; we only know one side of the character
fully developed, with many traits–bad and good– shown in the story
The most common type of narrative order in children’s books is…
chronological; the events are told in the order they happen
Preschool children’s oral language development is best fostered by…
providing the children with opportunities to communicate with their peers and with adults in a wide range of contexts.
SSR (Sustained silent Reading)
a reading activity in which a block of time, typically 15-30 minutes, is allotted for students to engage in uninterrupted silent reading for pleasure.
Analyzing what an unfamiliar words’ placement in a sentence suggest about the meaning of the word is an example of….
using syntactic clues.
When brainstorming potential topics for writing assignments, students should be mindful that…
no suggestion or statement by a student should be criticized as wrong or inappropriate.
instruction that supports and extend the reading process
a modeling strategy in which the teacher reads a story and the children join in.
One of the easies phonemic awareness tasks for young children is…
the ability to identify the initial sound of a word, such as the /d/ sound in dog.
What graphic organizer is best to use for literary fiction?
story map or story tree.
A student’s has satisfactory decoding skills, but the student has weak comprehension when reading. What should the teacher do to help the student?
Explicitly teach the student how to apply various comprehension strategies as the student reads.
A student has comprehension difficulty with content area reading. What shoudl the teacher do to help the student?
Explicitly teach the student about the parts and format of various nonfiction texts and the specialized terminology and language the texts use.
To promote a preschoolers’s understanding of the connection between spoken and written language
have the child tell a story and watch as the teacher writes down what the child says.
A most effective informal reading assessment to check students’ understanding of a reading passage is to-
have the student stalk in their own words about what they have read.
A child’s ability to point to words during th intitial stages of reading indicates-
the child’s development of an awareness of words and of the correspondence between written and spoken language.
To help preshcoolsers develop an understanding that print has meaning-
have the sutdents “write” messages and draw pictures on holiday cards.
To help ESL students begin to develop a sight vocabulary-
display high frequency words and label objects in the classroom
.To help young children hear, and pronounce, all the sounds in a new word…
have children clap the syllables as they hear, and pronounce, them.
To help children understand that words are made up of individual sounds that can be separted and counted use….
auditory cues (e.g., clapping the syllables) and viual cues (e.g., Elkonin boxes, counters, chiops, blocks, etc.) to mark the syllables.
Invented or temporary spelling
helps to increas phonemic awareness and increases knowlege of spelling patterns.
the teacher ask questions to guide students through a series of steps they must follow to complete a task.
the teacher shares with students the thinking process that he/she goes through to complete a task.
For helping preshcool children listen attentively
establish a cuing system that signals that its time to listen and use it routinely.
To promote children’s receptive language development
have frequent conversations with them- both individually andin gorups- about topics and activities of personal interest to them.
When a teacher read aloud expressively, modifying his/her voice to convey story elements this…
models good reading and also promotes children’s receptive language development.
Children learn letter shapes by…
playing with blocks, plastic letters, and alphabet blocks.
Large, oversized books used in shared reading, usually at the emergent reading level.
a tool for scoring and analyzing a student’s reading ability.
groups of words that have the same ending soudn (rime) but a different beginning sound (onset), such as can, man, fan.
patterns of letters or sounds in words that constitute a word family, for example, -an as in can, man, fan.
A third grade teacher make a practice of reading aloud to students from hig-interest books that are above the students’ independent reading level. Why do this?
to stimulate students’ interest in literature and to introduce new vocabulary words and concepts to expand their knowledge of word meanings.
Having first graders write simple words at the same time they are first learning to recognize words in print is most likely to promote their reading development by-
reinforcing their knowledge of the alphabetic principle.
To best asses a preschoolers understanding of concepts of print?
Ask the child to “read” a book while the teacher watches and listens.
A fourth grader who reads at the seventh grade level often seems bored and unchallenged. What would be most appropriate for the teacher to do to promote this student’s reading development?
Help the student find books to read that are of high personal interest.
A fourth grade teacher asks a paraprofessional to lead a small-group discussion of a story students have read. To ensure the likely success of this activity, the teacher should-
provide the paraprofessional with a set of questions to help promote students’ comprehension of the story.
A fourth grader demonstrates good decoding skills when reading leveled word lists, but often makes miscues and rarely self-corrects when reading text passages. To help this student learn to self-correct, the teacher should-
Encourage the student to think about whether each sentence makes sense as it is read.
When discussing reading issues with parents/guardians teachers should-
use nontechnical terms since the use of professional jargon can create barriers to communication.
In evaluating the suitability of children’s books for use as elementary classroom reading material, what is most important to consider first?
wheter classroom use of these reading materials will address the grade level reading TEKS.
An appropriate activity to imporve first-graders’ listening comprehension skills is-
to have them follow short (3-step) directions presented orally.
How long should phonics be taught?
According to the National Reading Panel, approximately two years is sufficient in the primary grades.
being able to draw conclusion by reading “between the lines”
understanding that written words of a text
spatial, sequence, cause and effect, comparison and contrast
organized by actual location in space
organized in numerical or chronological order.
explains how two or more things are alike and/or how they are different
cause and effect
lists one or more cuases and the resulting effect or effects
an awareness of and the ability to manipulate the sounds of spoken words.
reading aloud to children and talking about the books and stories
letter recognition and letter-sound correspondence.
fiction; plots contain some elements that could not happen in the world as we know it today
One way to help a child that is having trouble with letter recognition is-
to have the child use his/her finger to trace a letter that the teacher has made from textured material and say the letter name while tracing.
Literacy develpment instruction for English language learners should…
value and build upon children’s home languages.
identifying and manipulating the individual sounds in spoken words.