Test 3/ Final Exam Political Science 301

Civil liberties and First Amendment issues-
Two religion Clauses- Establishment Clause- Laws/government cannot establish a religion

Free Exercise Clause – Laws/government cannot deny religion

Freedoms that are guaranteed to the individual.

Guarantees take the form of restraints on government and others.

Civil liberties declare what the government cannot do. For example, the First Amendment declares that “Congress shall make no law…abridging the freedom of speech.”

Court’s cases involving the First Amendment pertains to conflicts between freedom and order.

The protection of civil liberties (freedom to the individual) in the Bill of Rights has been a center of conflict between the basic values of freedom and order.

Miranda warnings
1.You have the right to remain silent.
2. Anything you say can be used against you in court.
3. You have the right to talk to a lawyer of your choice before questioning.
4. If you cannot afford to hire a lawyer, a lawyer will be provided without charge.
Supreme Court and social order
During the recent decade, the U.S. Supreme Court has tended to side with social order (as opposed to personal freedom).
Under the cloak of the Constitution, the Supreme Court makes public policy.
Equality of outcome and equality of opportunity
Most Americans support equality of opportunity. However, Americans are less committed to equality of outcome.
Civil rights and the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights are powers or privileges guaranteed to the individual and protected from arbitrary removal at the hands of the government or other individuals.
So, Civil Rights are guaranteed by the government!
Equal Rights Amendment was all about Gender.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
1. Full & equal enjoyment of goods, services, & privileges
2. Equality in employment opportunities
3. Strengthened voting rights legislation
4. Created Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
5. Government can withhold federal funds for violators
Public policy-making
A public policy is a general plan of action adopted by the government to solve a social problem, counter a threat, or pursue an objective.
1. Problem Identification, 2. Formulation 3. Adoption 4. Implementation 5. Evaluation

Governmental approaches to solving problems (or public policy making) can be divided into four categories: Prohibit,= stop terrorism, Protect,
Provide= FEMA

The concept of issue networks (interest groups interacting with each other and government within policy areas) seems to be a more accurate description of contemporary policy subsystems in United States politics than iron triangles.
Issue Networks are rarely tied to a political party, are open to all, and are typically grassroots operations

The United States House Ways and Means Committee, and the Senate Finance Committee
Congressional tax committees are the House Ways and Means Committee and Senate Finance Committee.
Tax policy
Tax policies raise revenue, promote equality, and control the economy
Taxes and spending are the major tools with which government implements policy.
The Federal Reserve System (or Fed) controls the monetary policies in the U.S. and acts as the country’s central bank. The Fed is located in Washington, DC.
Supply-side economies cut taxes to stimulate investment and increase productivity. Also, less government regulation
The budget states how much money government agencies will be allowed to spend on their programs.
Before 1921, Congress prepared the federal budget……with the Budgeting and Accounting Act of 1921, the President has the responsibility to develop the budget and submit to Congress.
The Office of Management and Budget plays a key role in developing the federal budget.

The budget process has three important characteristics: Political; Complex; Incremental

Social welfare policy and reform
A significant and debatable domestic policy issue is individual welfare or social welfare. This includes health, food, housing, elderly subsidies, transportation, medicine, and many other important items.
The promotion of individual welfare or social welfare through government policies is controversial because it requires the government to choose between freedom and equality.
Social welfare policy in the United States today has been significantly shaped by what??1. Great Depression 2. New Deal 3. Great Society

The national government provides two types of benefits: Means tested and Non-means tested

Federal food stamp program
The federally funded food stamp program was designed to improve the food purchasing power of poor households….to improve the diets of low- income households.
High and low politics
High politics – Issues of war and peace
Low politics -Issues of global economic and environmental problems
Globalism and isolationism
Globalism- Focus on foreign policy. the entire world is regarded as the appropriate sphere for a state’s influence. The increasing economic interdependence of many nations.
Isolationism- the belief that a country should not be involved with other countries. Declining to enter into alliances, foreign economic commitments, international agreements, etc.
Foreign policy
Policymakers use military and economic tools to implement foreign policy, but their views differ significantly on the importance of these tools.
The institutional setting of foreign policy making has constitutional and administrative aspects.
Primary leader is the President

American foreign policy is developed and administered by four organizations of the executive branch. The four organizations include: 1. Department of State
2. Department of Defense
3. Central Intelligence Agency
4. National Security Council

The State of California and its authority
482 cities and 58 counties
California determines traffic laws and regulations, divorce laws, public school curriculum, and other items.
The California Constitution
Must be amended by a direct vote of the public. The document is very long and detailed. It has been amended more than 500 times. It is much easier to amend the US Constitution. It has 29 special codes.
A California Constitution amendment must appear as a proposition on the ballot and be approved by a simple majority of voters.
Statutes and ordinances
Remember, a statute is a law, not a constitutional amendment.

Statutes- State Law; Ordinances- City Council Law

Issue-oriented organizations
Issue-oriented organizations are nonpartisan political organizations; and, they:
1. Are not tied directly to a political party.
2. Are rarely affiliated with a political party.
3. Usually open to anyone who wants to join.
4. Are usually a grassroots operation.
The recall and its impact
– a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before their term has ended. It might lead to impeachment.
Proposition 140
– Is very important because it instituted term limits. Two four years for Senators and three two years for Assembly
Governor appointees
Members of task forces that advise the Governor or executive agencies on specific issues and policies; or. State elected and judicial offices when vacancies occur by resignation or death of the office holder.
California’s judicial system
California judicial system differs considerably from the federal system and involves both appointments and elections of judges.
City revenue
Property tax; Sales tax, Bonds, Fees, no income taxes
The governor and the budget
Fiscal year July to June; controls programs Dept of Finance is most powerful
Brown vs. Board of Education (1954)
Discrimination in education is illegal.
The Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Great Depression
a long and severe recession in an economy or market. the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
New Deal policies
A group of government programs and policies established under the President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s; the New Deal was designed to improve conditions for persons suffering in the Great Depression
Social insurance programs
Medicare and other social programs are expensive
California Legislature
It is a bicameral body consisting of the lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members, and the upper house, the California State Senate, with 40 members.

Issue of redistricting and gerrymandering the legislature (drawing the lines)
Who does this?- California Citizens Redistricting Commission

California statewide executive officials/offices
8 Executive Officials. California voters elect eight statewide executive officials. Who are they?
Governor- Most powerful/veto power
Lieutenant Governor- succeeds governor
Attorney General Oversees
Controller State Money
Secretary-Verifies petitions on recalls enforcing election, notary, public issues, historic records and operates programs.
State Treasurer
Insurance Commissioner
Superintendent of Public Ed.
City and county general plans
Cities and counties must prepare and maintain general plans…. NOT optional.
Special districts
a separate local government that delivers a limited number of public services to a geographically limited area. Designated to work only on one area.
Unincorporated and incorporated land
Annexation- Requires a majority vote/approval by unincorporated residents & LAFCO approval.
How are cities created? They are incorporated. Existing cities annex land and expand their boundaries.

Unincorporated- A rural area that is not part of a town or city usually policed by the county; small population

Fifth Amendment
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation
“All people are by nature free and independent and have inalienable rights. Among these are enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining safety, happiness, and privacy.”
Sustainable development can be facilitated by policies that integrate environmental, economic, and social values in decision making. Sustainability is often defined as a balance of the three E’s: the environment, the economy, and social equity.