Test 3 concepts

Developmental psychology
studies the systematic changes that occur during the life span
Genetics or environment which most influences development?
in the early 20th century, John Watson maintain that behavior is determined by learning and experience. He believed he could take healthy, “well-formed” infants and, by controlling their environment, turn them into doctors, lawyers, or even beggars or thieves. Gesell emphasized the role of biological processes in human development and was heavily influenced by Darwin’s theory of evolutino and believed that child development proceeds through a series of genetically determined changes that unfold according to nature’s plan. Scientists today recognize that biology and experience work together to enhance the organism’s ability to adapt successfully to its environment
Methods used to study development
Longitudinal method- repeated study of the same individuals over time to track developmental changes
Cross-sectional method- comparision of individuals from different age groups or developmental stages at the same time
Stages of prenatal development
germinal stage- period from conception to implantation, period of dividing zygote and implantation
embryonic stage- begins with implantation and extends to about the eighth week of development; it is characterized by differentiation of the major organ systems
fetal stage- begins around the ninth week and continues until birth; it is characterized by continued maturation of the fetus’s organ systems and dramatic increases in size
Where does egg fertilization occur?
usually occurs in the fallopian tube but then makes its way to the uterus where it becomes implanted within the uterine wall
What is the purpose of the amniotic sac/placenta/umbilical cord?
amniotic sac- the uterine sac that contains the fetus. it acts as a kind of shock absorber to cushion the embryo and later the fetus from damage that could result from the mother’s movements
placenta- the placenta allows nutrients and oxygen to pass from mother to fetus
umbilical cord- connects the embryo and the placenta
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Fetal development by weeks-what develops at what week?
week 3- central nervous system and heart
week 4- ears, arms, eyes, legs
week 6- teeth, palate
week 7- external genitilia
age of viability?
the point at which the fetus becomes capable of sustaining life on its own- about week 20
Recommended to prevent neural tube defects?
multivitamin with folic acid- the federal government recommends that all women of childbearing age take four hundred micrograms daily of the B vitamin folic acid and that pregnant women take eight hundred micrograms. Folic acid greatly reduces the risk of neural tube defects but only if it is taken during pregnancy
When can teratogens damage a fetuses arms and legs?
most likely to have a n effect during the fourth through eighth weeks of development
Problems for fetus with maternal smoking and drinking in pregnancy?
can lead to miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, and increased risk of infant mortality. Also linked to increased risks in sudden infant death syndrome, childhood asthma, as well as prenatal developmental problems such as reduced attention span, lower IQ, and hyperactivity
Infant reflexes- for survival?
blinking, sucking: ex- palmar grasp reflex- so strong that the infant can literally be lifted by its hands. in ancestral times, these reflexes may have had survival value by preventing infants from falling as their mothers carried them around all day
What would explain why children are taller today than a hundred years ago?
development depends on environmental factors, such as nurtition. improved nutrition largely explains why children today are generally taller than children of a century ago
In research, what is the visual cliff used to study?
used to study depth perception in infants
Which skills has a one year old mastered?
basic reflexes, thumb sucking, mimicking facial acts, lifts chin, brings objects to mouth, grasps stationary objects, brings objects into field of view, able to roll over, sits without support, stands holding on, walks holding on, stands without support, has developed near 20/20 vision
Is there a connection between infant temperament and adulthood? what is it?
Temperament observed in infancy predicts later differenced in adjustment. The easy infant is generally better adjusted as an adult than infants with other temperaments. The slow-to-warm up infant tends to experience more anxiety or depression in childhood than do other infants. The difficult infant is at higher risk for developing acting-out or other problem behaviors in childhood
Which researchers were pioneers in the study of attachment?
Konrad Lorenz, Harry and Marguerite Harlow, Bolby and Ainsworth
What did Harlow’s study with rhesus monkeys determine about attachment?
It showed that baby monkeys developed attachment to inanimate objects placed in their cages. Newborn rhesus monkeys were separated from their mothers within hours of birth and raised in experimental cages in which various objects served as substitute mothers. In one study, infant monkeys were raised in cages containing two types of substitute mothers: a wire cylinder or a soft, terry-cloth-covered cylinder. The infants showed clear preferences for the cloth mothers, even when they were fed by an apparatus containing a bottle attached to the wire mother. Contact comfort apparently was a stronger determinant of attachment than food
Ainsworth noted which type of attachment was common in the majority of infants?
infants and young children need to use their parents as a “secure base” to venture into unfamiliar situations
Differences between children raised with stay at home mom, vs those attending day care?
evidence shows that placing infants in day care does not prevent the development of secure attachments to their mothers
Bowlby found children with secure attachments developed what characteristics?
children who form secure attachments in infancy will develop an internal working model of others as basically dependable and trustworthy and of themselves as deserving of love and capable of developing caring relationships. They tend to show better psychological adjustment in childhood and adolescence and have fewer problem behaviors and better relationships with peers and teachers than less securely attached infants
Sequence of psychosocial stages in child development?
trust vs mistrust (birth to 1 year), autonomy versus shame and doubt (ages 1 to 3), initiative versus guilt (3 to 6), and industry versus inferiority (6 to 12)
Parental actions associated with children who have behavior problems?
Harsh punishment, inconsistent discipline: Children of authoritarian parents tend to be inhibited, moody, withdrawn, fearful, and distrustful of others. Children of permissive parents may develop problems with impulsivity and lack of self-control. Because they lack the experience of conforming to other people’s demands, they have difficulty developing effective interpersonal skills.
Which activities with their children do fathers mostly engage in?
Fathers are more likely than mothers to encourage children to be independent and assertive and to take risks. Compared to mothers, fathers typically provide less basic care but engage in more physically active play with their children. For example, a father might zoom the baby in the air (play airplane), whereas a mother might engage in more physically restrained games like peek-a-boo and talk and sing soothingly to the infant.
Types of parenting styles, differences. Most effective parenting style
Authoritative- set reasonable limits for their children but are not overcontrolling. The parent is the authority figure, firm but understanding, will to give advice, but also willing to listen to children’s concerns. Parents explain the reasons for their decisions rather than just “laying down the law”
Authoritarian- rigid and overcontrolling. They expect and demand unquestioned obedience from their children. If children dare to ask why they are being told to do something, the answer is likely to be “because i say so”. Authoritarian parents are unresponsive to their children’s needs and rely on harsh forms of discipline while allowing their children little control over their lives
Permissive style- have an “anything goes” attitude toward raising their cildren. they may respond affectionately to children but are extremely lax in setting limits and imposing discipline.
children of authoritative parents tend to show the most positive outcomes in childhood adolescence. They tend to have high self-esteem and to be self-reliant, competent in tasks they undertake, and popular with their peers. The flexible but firm child-rearing approach of authoritative parents encourages children to be independent and assertive but also respectful of the needs of others
Most influential theorist on cognitive development?
Jean Piaget- in his view, adaptation to the environment consists of two complementary processes, assimilation and accommodation
What is object permanence?
the recognition that objects continue to exist even if they have disappeared from sight (placing a pillow over a teddy bear and child looks for hidden object by pushing pillow out of the way
in Piaget’s theory, the tendency to see the world only from one’s own perspective. David Elkind- believes that adolescent egocentrism basically reveals itself in two ways: through the imaginary audience and the personal fable
What is the zone of proximal development?
IN Vygotsky’s theory, the range between children’s present level of knowledge and their potential knowledge state if htey receive proper guidance and instruction.
How does television viewing impact children?
Though violence on TV and in other media may foster aggressive behavior in children, there is evidence that view ing certain types of children’s programs may improve the preacademic skills of preschoolers.
Responsible television viewing suggestions? (for parents)
Screen violent or sexually provocative programming, watch TV with your kids, don’t use television as a baby-sitter, set limits, encourage children to regulate their own television viewing, monitor the news, limit snacking while watching TV, encourage children to develop other interests
Definition of puberty?
the stage of development at which individuals become physiologically capable of reproducing
Difference between boys and girls with early development?
for early maturing boys, their greater size and strength give them an advantage in athletics and contribute to a more positive self-image. earlier-maturing girls may encounter unwelcome sexual attention and believe they no longer “fit in” with their peers. They tend to have lower self-esteem, a more negative body image, and more symptoms of depression than later-maturing girls.
Examples of formal operational thought
deductive reasoning- figuring things out with a certain amount of info; people who develop formal operational though become capable of creating hypothetical situations and scenarios and playing them through in their minds. tthey can mound an argument in favor of something that runs counter to their own views. They are also able to use deductive reasoning in which one derives conclusions about specific cases or individuals based on a set or premises.
Adolescent egocentrism- who identified this?
Piaget- adolescents often show a form of egocentric thinking in which they believe their concerns and needs should be as important to others as they are to themselves
Imaginary audience/personal fable, how do they relate to adolescence?
imaginary audience describes the adolescent’s belief that other people are as keenly interested in his or her concerns and needs as the adolescent is. Adolescents may feel as though they are always on stage, as though all eyes are continually scrutinizing how they look, what they wear, and how they act.
personal fable is an exaggerated sense of one’s uniqueness and invulnerability. Adolescents may believe their life experiences or personal feelings are so unique that no one could possibly understand them, let alone have experienced them. When parents try to relate to what their adolescent is experiencing, they may be summarily rebuffed: “You can’t possibly understand what I’m going through!” Another aspect of personal fable is the belief that “Bad things can’t happen to me.”
Risky behavior patterns in adolescence include?
the belief that “bad things can’t happen to me” or what psychologists refer to as a myth of personal invulnerability, may contribute to risk-taking behavior in adolescents, including reckless driving, unsafe sex, and excessive drinking
Who was Kohlberg/his life/his theories of development
he was a psychologist who explored how individuals make moral judgments; his theory of moral development consists of a sequence of six stages organized in terms of three levels of reasoning
Preconventional level: stage 1- behavior is judged good if it serves to avoid punishment; stage 2- behavior is judged good when it serves personal needs or interests
Conventional level: stage 3- “good boy-nice girl” orientation, conforming with rules to impress others; stage 4- authority or law-and-order orientation, obeying rules and laws because they are needed to maintain social order
Postconventional level: stage 5- social contract orientation, viewing rules and laws as based on mutual agreement in the service of the common good; stage 6- universal ethical principle orientation, adopting an internal moral code based on universal values that takes precedence over social rules and laws
Carol Gilligan/moral decisions
Gilligan pointed out that Kohlberg’s model was based only on the responses of males and did not take female voices into account. Through her own research, she concluded that females ten to adopt a care orientation, whereas males tend to adopt a justice orientation.
Adolescent/parental relationships
Adolescent yearnings for independence often lead to some withdrawal from family members and to arguments with parents over issues of autonomy and decision making. Some distancing from parents may be healthy during adolescence, as young people form meaningful relationships outside the family and develop a sense of independence and social competence. As it turns out, and despite popular conceptions to the contrary, most adolescents and their parents express love and respect for each other and agree on may of the principal issues in life. Though disagreements with parents are common, serious conflict is neither normal nor helpful for adolescents
Stressful time in adolescence is called?
identity crisis
When a 17 year old thinks about personal values and life’s goals this is called?
ego identity
Parents/teen beliefs about peer pressure
peer pressure is an important influence in the social and emotional development of adolescents
Factor linked to sexual restraint and sexual activity among adolescents
peer pressure, moral reasons, those who restrain may be concerned about getting caught becoming pregnant or contracting a std. Other factors linked to restraint are living in an intact family, having a family with low levels of conflict, having at least one parent who graduated from college, placing importance on religion and attending religious services frequently, having less exposure to sexual content in music, movies, tv, and magazines
Definition of middle age?
begins at age 40 and ends at 60 or 65
Fluid intelligence
a form of intelligence associated with the ability to think abstractly and flexibly in solving problems
Crystallized intelligence
a form of intelligence associated with the ability to use accumulated knowledge
What is the time when women’s reproductive capability ends?
called menopause and typically occurs in late forties of early fifties
What is time from adolescence to adulthood called? What happens during this period? Who coined this phrase
emerging adulthood (18-25). Its the age of identity exploration, the age of instability, the self-focused age, the age of feeling in-between, the age of possibilities. Coined by psychologist Jeffrey Arnett
people who did not learn a basic sense of trust early in life may also have a greater fear of intimacy in adulthood and so may experience more loneliness and difficulties establishing close relationships
What psychological challenge may a 42 year old man experience?
midlife crisis
Marriage-true facts about
Most people in all human societies-in some cases, nearly all-marry at least once. More than 95% of Americans eventually marry by age 60. However, experts say that for the first time in memory, a majority of adult women in the US- 51% – are living without a spouse, compared with 35% in 1950. Among adult men, a bare majority (55%) are married and living with their partners
Similar qualities for people who marry
People in our society tend to marry others from the same geographical area, race, educational level, religion, and social class. Generally speaking, people also marry others who are similar to themselves in physical and psychological characteristics– in height, weight, personality traits, intelligence, and even use of tobacco and alcohol
Finances after divorce
Divorce is often associated with financial and emotional problems. The splitting up of a household’s resources often leaves both partners with a lower standard of living. The financial burdens are not evenly distributed, however. More women contend with lower income levels after divorce than do men.
Fastest growing group in the US
late adulthood: people of age 65 and older
Life expectancy in the US
Comparison for high/low SES
Members of ethnic minority groups are more likely to live below the poverty line, and people living in poverty have life spans that are about seven years shorter on the average than those of more affluent people. Several lifestyle factors associated with lower socioeconomic level may be responsible for the life expectancy gap between the rich and poor. Poor are more likely to smoke and have high-fat diets, are less likely to exercise regularly , and are less likely to have access to regular health care. Genetic differences may also play a role in ethnic differences in longevity