Test 1 Practice

Where in the atmosphere is ozone found?
a. just the stratosphere
b. the mesosphere and paleosphere
c. just the troposphere
d. It is not found in the atmosphere at any level.
e. both the troposphere and stratosphere
e. both the troposphere and stratosphere
Which of the following statements about the Montréal Protocol is TRUE?
a. All developed nations are required by the United Nations to participate in the Montréal Protocol due to the serious global nature of ozone depletion.
b. The United Nations stated that no amendments can be made to this protocol.
c. The United Nations set a standard for phasing out ozone depletion, and each country must follow this standard.
d. It is administered by the United Nations and outlines a series of deadlines for cutting back production of CFCs.
e. Once a developing nation has a per capita income of greater than $20,000, that country is mandated to come into compliance with the Montréal Protocol.
d. It is administered by the United Nations and outlines a series of deadlines for cutting back production of CFCs.
Which of the following lists the steps of the scientific process in the CORRECT order?
a. observe, create a testable prediction, form a hypothesis, experiment, support or refute the hypothesis
b. None of the answers is correct.
c. form a hypothesis, create a testable prediction, observe, experiment, support or refute the hypothesis
d. observe, form a hypothesis, create a testable prediction, experiment, support or refute the hypothesis
e. create a testable prediction, form a hypothesis, observe, experiment, support or refute the hypothesis
d. observe, form a hypothesis, create a testable prediction, experiment, support or refute the hypothesis
Which of the following provides support for Solomon’s hypothesis that CFCs were contributing to ozone depletion?
a. Ozone-poor air was shown to be lifting and mixing with the stratosphere.
b. Increased NOx levels were observed in the South Pole.
c. NOx levels were observed to be decreasing in the South Pole AND high levels of ClO were observed in the stratosphere.
d. High levels of ClO were observed in the stratosphere.
e. NOx levels were observed to be decreasing in the South Pole.
c. NOx levels were observed to be decreasing in the South Pole AND high levels of ClO were observed in the stratosphere.
Which of the following hypotheses is NOT testable?
a. Bacterial water pollution increases risk of infectious disease.
b. Increased salt intake leads to high blood pressure.
c. Reincarnation exists.
d. Increased UV exposure increases the risk of skin cancer.
e. CFCs are causing depletion of the ozone layer.
c. Reincarnation exists.
Which of the following ensures that only quality scientific studies that have been well controlled and avoid bias appear in scientific journals?
a. the scientist responsible for the experiment
b. peer review
c. funding agencies
d. anecdotal evidence
e. an independent variable
b. peer review
Why should we care about ozone?
a. It is used in the production of CFCs.
b. It’s a major pollutant in our rainwater.
c. It protects the Earth from climate change.
d. It’s a dangerous stratospheric pollutant.
e. It protects the Earth’s surface from UV-B radiation.
e. It protects the Earth’s surface from UV-B radiation.
How does a peer-reviewed article compare to an Internet blog?
a. Any person can easily create and publish a peer-reviewed article.
b. A blog must be written by a researcher and not a reporter.
c. Both are equally analyzed and evaluated by scientists in the field prior to publication.
d. The study design and results are evaluated in a peer-reviewed article.
e. A peer-reviewed article is likely to contain opinions that are not supported by data.
d. The study design and results are evaluated in a peer-reviewed article.
Which of the following statements is TRUE of CFCs?
a. A CFC is a type of ultraviolet radiation between UV-A and UV-B AND CFCs are used to cook food at the McMurdo research station.
b. A CFC is an industrial chemical that was once used as a refrigerant.
c. A CFC is a type of ultraviolet radiation between UV-A and UV-B.
d. CFCs react with water to generate ozone.
e. CFCs are used to cook food at the McMurdo research station.
b. A CFC is an industrial chemical that was once used as a refrigerant.
In risk assessment, why is it not possible to carefully weigh all of the risks and benefits associated with a new chemical?
a. unknown synergistic interactions with other chemicals
b. insufficient funding
c. All of the answers are correct.
d. the need for the chemical to be available immediately
e. not enough people power available
c. All of the answers are correct.
Which of the following are components of a critical thinker’s skill set?
a. All of the answers are correct.
b. watch out for biases
c. be open minded
d. be skeptical
e. evaluate the evidence
a. All of the answers are correct.
During the peer-review process, what criteria do reviewers look for in papers to determine if the papers will be accepted or rejected?
a. quality of the design
b. quality of the data
c. soundness of conclusion
d. statistical analysis
e. All of the answers are correct.
e. All of the answers are correct.
Toxicologists are scientists who study:
a. the specific properties of potential toxins.
b. secondary sources for accuracy as a public service.
c. the interactions between organisms in their natural environment
d. the degree of uncertainty in environmental policies.
e. patterns of disease in a population.
a. the specific properties of potential toxins.
Individuals react differently to toxin exposures. Which of the following factors could affect an individual’s reaction to toxin exposure?
a. route of exposure (inhalation or skin contact)
b. genetics of the individual
c. age of the individual
d. dose of toxin
e. All of the answers are correct.
e. All of the answers are correct.
In vivo data from male mice with BPA levels of 2 parts per billion (ppb) indicate that their prostates are 20% larger than male mice without BPA exposure. What is the BEST conclusion from this experiment?
a. BPA levels of 2 ppb can cause the prostate glands of mice to enlarge.
b. BPA exposure causes the prostate glands of mice to enlarge.
c. As BPA exposure has increased in men, their prostate glands have been getting larger.
d. BPA exposure at 2 ppb may lead to prostate cancer in humans.
e. BPA should be banned from human consumption.
a. BPA levels of 2 ppb can cause the prostate glands of mice to enlarge.
Why is knowledge about the persistence of a chemical important when considering its toxicity?
a. Persistence is a measure of the amount of a chemical present in a particular food chain.
b. Persistence is a measure of the number of carbons in an organic molecule, which is a direct measure of toxicity.
c. Persistence measures how long a chemical remains in its present state in an area and, therefore, how long it might be a health concern.
d. Persistence is an indirect measure of the toxicity of a chemical; that is, high persistence means low toxicity.
e. Persistence is a direct measure of the toxicity of a chemical and so would determine whether it is toxic or nontoxic.
c. Persistence measures how long a chemical remains in its present state in an area and, therefore, how long it might be a health concern.
Describe what it means to be a critical thinker. List four measures that should be included in a critical thinker’s skill set.
To think critically enables one to logically assess and reflect on information, and reach to a conclusion about it. A critical thinker should be skeptical, meaning they should not accept claims without evidence, even from an expert. This doesn’t mean to never accept anything, it just means that one should require evidence before accepting something as reasonable. A critical thinker should always evaluate the evidence. Is the claim being made derived from unscientific observations, or from actual scientific studies? One must be able to answer this question. A critical thinker should be open-minded, and identify their own biases or preconceived notions before rejecting a claim. Last but not least, a critical thinker should always keep an eye out for author biases.
What is biomimicry?
a. recreating natural ecosystems in areas where severe deforestation has occurred
b. cloning technologies and equipment that allow scientists to recreate photosynthetic bacteria in laboratory settings
c. the use of nature as a model for our own systems
d. turning natural ecosystems into scientific experiment sites to help scientists better understand their functioning
e. the process of collecting data from various ecosystems
c. the use of nature as a model for our own systems
Which of the following is a potential trade-off to reforestation efforts?
a. water shortages
b. less land for agriculture
c. All of the above
d. costly
e. fragmentation of habitats
c. All of the above
What does it mean when an environmental issue is a wicked problem?
a. None of the above describes wicked problems.
b. It involves trade-offs that not everyone will be happy with.
c. It is a problem that cannot be solved.
d. It is global in nature.
e. It is created by people who only care about themselves.
b. It involves trade-offs that not everyone will be happy with.
Which statement is FALSE?
a. In a biocentric worldview, all life is valued.
b. An anthropogenic worldview places human lives and interests as the most important.
c. An ecocentric worldview includes all of the organisms and nonliving processes that occur in an ecosystem.
d. In an anthropogenic worldview, human beings have an instrumental value.
e. An ecocentric worldview values the ecosystem as an intact whole.
d. In an anthropogenic worldview, human beings have an instrumental value.
Which statement about environmental ethics is TRUE?
a. People with environmental ethics tend to have an anthropogenic worldview rather than a biocentric worldview.
b. Each person has a philosophy surrounding environmental ethics that influences their interactions with the natural environment.
c. All people with environmental ethics recycle.
d. Worldviews do not tend to influence people’s environmental ethics.
e. Environmental ethics have no control over how people resolve problems in the environment.
b. Each person has a philosophy surrounding environmental ethics that influences their interactions with the natural environment.
Environmental science relies or draws on which of the following?
a. social sciences such as anthropology
b. humanities such as literature
c. applied sciences such as engineering
d. natural sciences such as ecology
e. All of the above
e. All of the above
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a sustainable ecosystem?
a. It contains species that all depend on the same limited resource.
b. It eliminates waste by reusing matter.
c. It recycles matter.
d. Local biodiversity is present to perform essential ecosystem processes.
e. It uses renewable energy.
a. It contains species that all depend on the same limited resource.
How does wealth inequality impede sustainable growth?
a. The world’s natural resources are controlled by the vast majority of the population.
b. Underprivileged people sometimes exploit the environment in order to survive.
c. Poorer nations lack natural resources.
d. People with the most money and power are the first to succumb to environmental problems.
e. Wealthier nations are very affected by resource availability and must pay high costs to access them.
b. Underprivileged people sometimes exploit the environment in order to survive.
Which of the following describes an environment?
a. All of the above describe an environment
b. bacteria living in a human’s intestinal tract
c. mold growing on a wood stump in a forest
d. a cat living in a house
e. fish living in a stream
a. All of the above describe an environment
An age structure diagram that shows a significant loss in the male population for a specific age group is likely representative of __________.
a. pandemic
b. natural selection
c. war
d. epidemic
e. emigration
c. war
When does zero population growth occur?
a. when the replacement fertility rate is higher than the death rate
b. when population growth rates decline
c. when birth rates fall and death rates continue to rise
d. when death rates fall
e. when birth rates equal death rates
e. when birth rates equal death rates
Which of the following issues is not a result of sex preference?
a. sex-selective abortions
b. sex ratio skewed toward males
c. gendercide
d. increased foreign adoptions of female infants
e. increased emigration
e. increased emigration
A good example of a demographic factor that influences population changes would be ________.
a. education
b. health care
c. economic conditions
d. All of these factors influence population changes.
e. cultural values
d. All of these factors influence population changes.
To feed an increasing world population, humanity has needed to increase the carrying capacity of the planet. This has involved ___________.
a. destruction of animal habitat for human use
b. dependence on the use of herbicides to grow food
c. It has involved all of these issues.
d. dependence on the use of fossil fuels to grow food
e. removing more fish from the oceans than they can repopulate
c. It has involved all of these issues.
Which statement is FALSE?
a. Desired family size is one of the best predictors of actual fertility.
b. A high infant mortality rate contributes to higher fertility.
c. More and less developed countries have similar values for demographic factors.
d. Total fertility rate is the average number of children a woman has in the course of her lifetime.
e. The need for labor is a common pronatalist pressure in agrarian societies.
c. More and less developed countries have similar values for demographic factors.
The global population has roughly doubled since _____ to reach the current size.
a. 2000
b. 1750
c. 1967
d. 1935
e. 1800
c. 1967
In terms of reaching Earth’s carrying capacity, developing countries exacerbate the problem due to their ________, while developed countries also aggravate the situation due to their ___________.
a. high fertility rates; overconsumption
b. unsustainable resource use; high fertility rates
c. gendercide; overconsumption
d. high immigration rates; low emigration rates
e. use of nonrenewable energy; high death rates
a. high fertility rates; overconsumption
The rate at which children must be born to replace those dying in the population is called ____________.
a. positive growth
b. fertility rate
c. carrying capacity
d. demographic transition
e. replacement fertility rate
e. replacement fertility rate
Which of the following is NOT a question suitable for scientific inquiry?
a. Which fossil fuel is the dirtiest to burn?
b. Is it ethical to put heavily polluting industries in low-income neighborhoods?
c. Does the burning of fossil fuels contribute to global warming?
d. Does the use of renewable energy sources contribute to ozone depletion?
b. Is it ethical to put heavily polluting industries in low-income neighborhoods?

*This Q cannot be answered or measured. It is a question for opinion-based feedback so it would not be suitable for scientific inquiry.

Science is best viewed not just as a body of facts, but as the _________ used to gain knowledge.
process

*Facts may change as more evidence is gathered.

Observations are what we ______.
Inferences are what we _________.
see; assume
Stratospheric ozone depletion is a concern because:
a. as ozone decreases, atmospheric temperature increases.
b. not enough sunlight will reach the ground to fuel photosynthesis.
c. our exposure to dangerous UV radiation could increase.
d. many organisms use ozone in everyday activities.
c. our exposure to dangerous UV radiation could increase.
We never should say something is “just a theory” in science. Why?
A scientific theory isn’t just a guess, it’s as close to proof as we can get w/ a large accumulation of evidence.
Experimental studies are a hallmark of scientific research, but sometimes we must use observational studies because:
a. some systems are too complex to manipulate in an experiment.
b. we can’t always come up with a reasonable hypothesis to test.
c. not every study produces data we can statistically analyze.
d. we need to test for cause-and-effect relationships rather than just look for correlations.
a. some systems are too complex to manipulate in an experiment.
Good experimentation must have and ____________ group, which is exposed to the independent variable, and a _________ group, which is the basis for comparison.
experimental; control
There are three variables in good experimentation. What are they?
independent variable, dependent variable, controlled variable
Why does a good experiment have replication?
The more, the better. Repeat the study for more accuracy and data.
Why is adaptive management a useful approach for dealing with complex problems?
a. It points us in the direction of the right conclusion.
b. Its primary focus is on addressing the economic issues, allowing the social and environmental issues to fall into place.
c. It allows us to flexible and adjust our response as conditions change.
d. It builds in a buffer to give us a margin of error in the face of uncertainty.
c. It allows us to flexible and adjust our response as conditions change.
What trait determines whether a toxin can bioaccumulate in an individual and biomagnify up a food chain?
a. Its persistence
b. How toxic it is
c. Whether it is fat or water soluble
d. Its route of exposure
c. Whether it is fat or water soluble
Which of the following is an example of a secondary source of information?
a. A personal diary
b. A research article in the peer-reviewed science journal Nature
c. A Scientific American article that reviews the Nature article
d. A website that presents information from the Scientific American article
c. A Scientific American article that reviews the Nature article
An endocrine disruptor:
a. affects the hormone system of the body.
b. is used to fight the disruptive effects of toxins.
c. is released by cells to control body functions.
d. damages DNA and kills the infected cell.
a. affects the hormone system of the body.
To logically assess the quality of information or a claim, we should do all of the following EXCEPT
a. be skeptical and don’t accept claims without evidence.
b. evaluate the quality of the evidence by evaluating the study’s design.
c. listen to experts and go with what the majority says.
d. identify any biases the authors may have.
c. listen to experts and go with what the majority says.
The field of environmental science is best described as:
a. the study of the natural world
b. the study of the intersection of human society and the natural world.
c. the application of technology to address environmental problems.
d. the combination of biology, chemistry, geology, and physics focused on understanding how natural ecosystems operate.
b. the study of the intersection of human society and the natural world.
Why are environmental problems often called wicked problems?
a. They arise out of greed and malice of other people.
b. Potential solutions almost always create additional problems.
c. They cannot be solved or even effectively addressed.
d. They are hard to study using empirical methods, so scientists can’t help find solutions.
b. Potential solutions almost always create additional problems.
Environmental problems are difficult to solve because there are multiple causes and ____________. And, because potential solutions come with _________.
consequences; trade-offs
What is the ‘triple bottom line’?
Ecological, economic, and social aspects of the choices we make.
If an ecosystem is left untouched, it operates ____________.
sustainably
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a sustainable ecosystem?
a. Relies on renewable and non-renewable energy sources
b. Uses matter sustainably
c. Has population control
d. Depends on local biodiversity
a. Relies on renewable and non-renewable energy sources
Energy is not created or destroyed, but lost as heat with energy conversion-it needs to be constantly ____________.
replenished
Unlike energy, matter can be_________!
recycled
What is biomimicry?
Biomimicry is an approach to innovation that seeks sustainable solutions to human challenges by emulating nature’s time-tested patterns and strategies. The goal is to create products, processes, and policies—new ways of living—that are well-adapted to life on earth over the long haul.
Population control prevents the overuse of __________.
resources
If a society hopes to function sustainably, it should do all of the following EXCEPT:
a. avoid social traps like the sliding reinforcer.
b. strive to decrease wealth inequity around the world.
c. focus on short-term benefits to meet our immediate needs and wants.
d. diversify our use of matter and energy resources.
c. focus on short-term benefits to meet our immediate needs and wants.
What could the Greenland Vikings have done to avoid violating the characteristic of using matter sustainably (ovrgrazing land & overharvesting trees) in an ecosystem?
Could have looked for alternate building materials
Why do we do things that are unsustainable?
Because we need resources beyond our needs/wants.
Social traps are decisions that produce _________ benefits, but hurt society in the long run.
short-term
A fisherman who takes more than he should from the ocean, thinking, “If I don’t do it, someone else will”, is caught in the social trap known as:
a. the tragedy of the commons.
b. the triple bottom line.
c. trade-off thinking.
d. None of the above.
a. the tragedy of the commons.
Explain sliding reinforcers.
Actions that are beneficial at first may change conditions such that their benefit declines over time. ex: pesticides.
The growth of human populations in the last thousand years has been __________.
exponential
Where is most future population growth expected to occur?
a. In developed nations.
b. In developing nations.
c. In nations with low population momentum.
d. In nations that have already gone through the demographic transition.
b. In developing nations.
Which of these usually happens FIRST in the demographic transition?
a. Birth rates fall
b. Birth rates rise
c. Death rates fall
d. Death rates rise
c. Death rates fall
Which of these usually happens FIRST in the demographic transition?
a. Birth rates fall
b. Birth rates rise
c. Death rates fall
d. Death rates rise
What generally happens to population growth rate when infant mortality (death) rates increase?
a. It increases.
b. It decreases.
c. It is not affected by infant survival.
a. It increases.
World population growth rates are declining and are currently at 1.12%. What does this mean about population size in the coming decade?
a. It is declining and will continue to do so.
b. It is stable, neither increasing nor decreasing.
c. It is still increasing, just more slowly than it did in the past.
c. It is still increasing, just more slowly than it did in the past.