# Technology in the Classroom Critical Essay

Running Head: Students’ Achievement in Mathematics Technology’s Impact on Students’ Achievement in Mathematics Angela R.Hill Georgia Southwestern University Table of Contents Title Page…………………………………………………………………………………1 Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………2 Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………… 3 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………..4 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………………………….

**Technology in the Classroom Critical Essay**

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4 Significance of the Study…………………………………………………………………….. 5 Definition of Terms………………………………………………………………………………………………. Delimitations……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 Review of Literature……………………………………………………………………… 6 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………. 6 The Reformation of Technology… ……………………………………………………….. 7 Teachers’ Attitudes towards Technology……………………………………………….. 10 Student Achievement Through the Use of Technology…………………………………. 14 Recommendation………………………………………………………………………… 19 References………………………………………………………………………………. 32 REFERENCES START ON 33

Abstract Schools today face the ever-increasing demands in the attempt to ensure that students become better educated and equipped to enter the workforce. Various researchers have suggested that computer technology can help support this effort, and at the same time be useful in developing the higher-order skills of critical thinking, and analysis. Technology in the mathematics program has advanced greatly in the last decade. More curricular materials related to the use of technology are being positioned in schools across America.

The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the advancement of technology and how it can be utilize to increase students’ performance in the mathematical program. With the support of stakeholders, administration, teachers, parents and students, research indicates that the transition to advance use of technology will encourage, improve, and strengthen teachers’ and students’ behavior toward the use of technology. Technology’s Impact on Student’s Achievement in Mathematics INTRODUCTION Mathematic instruction and students’ achievement in math continues to be a major concern for educators, researchers, and policy makers (Neiss, 2006).

Educators are using several resources to ensure mathematics is being taught and understood. One of the major resources educators are embarking upon is the implementation of technology into the mathematic program. More and more schools are using instructional technology to enhance and engage students’ learning in mathematics, as well as in all other subject areas. Technology can be used as a major supporter for teachers who are comfortable with technology-based teaching rather than traditional-based instruction.

Also, technology can play a major role in the everyday success of many students. By using the data provided in this study, administrators, teachers, counselors, and parents will be able to guide students’ learning and the teaching instruction. This study could be beneficial in showing the need to have funds allotted to purchase, train and instruct in America’s quest to better educate students. Statement of the Research Problem The purpose of this study is to examine technology’s impact on students’ achievement in mathematics.

The study will also demonstrate how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning style that takes place in a regular classroom setting. Significance of the Study The goal of this study is to explain three important components of students’ success through the use of technology, these include, the reformation of technology, teachers’ attitudes, and technology affect on students’ success. This study will also show how the use of new technology equipment and updated software can support the teacher as well as the student in an attempt to move forward in achieving success in mathematics.

Definition of Terms Georgia Performance Standards- Georgia must maintain a curriculum that specifies what students are expected to know in each subject and grade. Additionally, the state’s standardized tests, the Criterion Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) for grades 1-8 and the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) for Grade11 must be aligned with that curriculum. No Child Left Behind Reform-Education Act passed by President George Bush and the Congress that encourages the use of assessment to promote high quality education for all students.

Traditional Based Mathematic Instruction-instruction design based on the textbook and lecture, which is structured with time and place for students to complete daily assignments. Technology Based Mathematic Instruction-using technology to deliver training and educational materials through the use of the Internet or on CD-ROM. Interactive Whiteboard -interactive learning tool that lets students have hands on practice and personal involvement with their education. Classroom Performance System- (CPS) a technology system that is used for educational purposes within a classroom.

It includes both hardware and software that works together to create a modern, interactive learning environment for students. Math achievement- how well students perform in the area of mathematics being taught from an aligned curriculum that measures understanding and knowledge (Adhami & Shayer, 1998). Delimitations This study will focus on the impact of technology into the mathematics program to better educate all students. This study will examine how schools are moving forward in the 21st century with new methods of teaching students by implementing technology into the curriculum.

This study will also seek to demonstrate how schools are changing, how teachers are adapting to the changes, and how students are responding academically to the vigorous use of technology. Review of Literature Introduction Throughout all levels of education, schools and teachers are faced with the demands of ensuring that students are well equipped to enter a world where they are suited to work and become successful (CEO Forum, 2001). One of the most current and crucial moves towards better educating students is the implementation of technology into all areas of study.

Schools across America are beginning to spend millions of dollars to provide classroom with the necessary material to help students and teachers, teach and learn on a level that are different from any before. This study examines three essential components of technology’s impact on students’ achievement in the mathematics program. These components of technology’s impact include the reformation of technology into the mathematic curriculum, teachers’ attitudes towards the implementation of technology, and how technology affects students’ achievement in the mathematic program.

The Reformation of Technology in Mathematics One place to begin the study of implementing technology in mathematics education is through the reforms and changes that have occurred over the years. The traditional way of teaching is through reading from the textbook and doing problems through rote memory of formula and facts (Kimmel, Deek, & Frazer, 1995). Schools continue to progress in their endeavors to move forward in the area of equipping classes with the necessary materials that will assist in better educating students.

School systems across the country are investing in technology in the hopes of reaping the educational benefits and better preparing students for the future. Moreover, instructional developers have been working for decades to improve mathematics with technology, and they have made significant contributions to student achievement (Kulik, 2002). Educational Government research has shown that the reformation of technology in the mathematics program contributes to a change in the role of the teacher, and it helps to create a culture that supports learning in and out of the classroom.

The nature of the mathematics classroom can be changed through the use of technology. Flores (2008) believes the purpose of using technology is not to make the learning of math easier, but richer and better. Stone Wiske (2008) states that technology carries three major points for its purpose in education. First, the technology must afford significant educational advantages. Second, the technology must be readily affordable, networked, and portable. Third, technology alone does not change school practice, curriculum goals and materials, assessment policies, and teacher development must shift as well.

Nevertheless, technology had historically been used in mathematical education as an afterthought that may have hit or missed when enhancing the curriculum and students’ learning (Vigil, 2007). However, Buckleitner (2001) states that it is more and more important that students feel at ease with mathematics since math plays a role in understanding how things work. Because of this, textbook kits are now being designed to include technology in the curriculum. When schools are looking to adopt new math books, one of the major benefits to that series is if there is technology included.

Several math kits include web sites and CD-ROM materials that will aid teachers in their efforts to help students get numerous opportunities to complete and understand lessons that are being taught. Textbooks are also including school-home connection letters to parents, which includes the “go online” information that allows parents, and students to practice at home. Another very important part of the reformation is the addition of computers in classrooms. In the past decade classrooms have move from having one computer to housing 4-6 desktops and one laptop.

Instructional developers have been working for four decades to improve mathematics with computer technology (Kulik, 2002). Mistretta’s (2005) findings revealed that when appropriately used, computers may serve to improve student mathematics achievement as well as enhance the overall learning environment of the classroom. In addition to computers, classrooms are being equipped with Interactive Whiteboards (IWB). This implementation of the IWB enables teachers as well as students to shift in their efforts to reform classrooms into a new way of exploring mathematics.

Miller, Glover and Averis (2005) have found five very important contexts for the use of the white boards. The contexts include, teachers as demonstrator, teachers as modeler, teacher in control-inviting the pupil, pupils in control with the “teacher” advising (guided) and pupils working independently. Miller et al. , NO COMMA(2005) also believe that there is increasing evidence that the interactive white board contributes to understanding and applications in the teaching of mathematics. Technology cannot address all the teaching, but it does provide for new and innovative ways to learn (Basilicato, 2005).

White boards have been shown to improve student participation and motivation in the mathematic program. By using the IWB creative possibilities exist when instructional tools are adapted to meet the unique learning style s of students, permitting knowledge to be shared by all (Basilicato, 2005). Bell (2002) study showed statistically significant improvement in students’ attitudes towards using computers for instruction when the IWB was in use. Interactive white boards become the focal point of students’ attention immediately after being turned on.

Students are ready to interact and participation greatly increases. This different form of teaching has been seen as an improvement of student participation during whole group activities and during small group tutorials after school. It is a kid magnet! Students are drawn to participate no matter the age An IWB is the perfect facilitator of this type of learning. This type of technology enables students with subject materials in ways that focus on their individual strengths (Bell, 2002).

Students enjoy the surround sound, the big screen, and all the neat and unusual gadgets that help to make the interactive white board the new and exciting way of teaching and learning. Moreover, the IWB can accommodate different learning styles. Tactile learners can benefit from touching and marking at the board, audio learners can have the class discussion, and visual learners can see what is taking place as it develops at the board (Bell, 2002). Along with the use of the IWB, the integration of the Classroom Performance System (CPS) has played a major role in moving classrooms forward as well.

This technology system includes both hardware and software that works together to create a modern interactive learning environment for students. In a CPS classroom, the teacher can use a handheld CPS chalkboard to give lessons or tests that are visually displayed on the projector. Students can interact with the lesson or test by using the response pads, which are similar to remote controls (Tech Terms, 2008). This advancement has shown to improve students’ learning capabilities because each student is able to interact with every lesson.

Tech Terms (2008) states that by using the CPS a significant increase in students’ interest in mathematics will be visible. With much consideration of how difficult it can be to keep students attentive during important lesson, many teachers have found CPS to be a blessed addition to the teacher family. Teachers’ Attitudes towards Technology Teachers alone have many barriers to overcome when accepting all the current changes that are taking place in education. Teachers’ attitudes, values, and methods of teaching must shift in order to welcome the new and reformed way of educating children.

It has been stated that to a certain extent teachers face disappointing results in the use of technological equipment in their classroom due the lack of support of the principle that technology is a powerful tool for teaching and learning (Niess, 2006). Many teachers find technology-based teaching to be offensive to their method of traditional-based teaching that has worked for years. Countless teachers still believe that their instructional beliefs have a strong impact on how students learn.

Several undergo an attitude of resistance toward using computers in the classroom, so the development of teachers’ positive attitude towards technology is considered to be a key factor in fostering technology integration (Yuen, 2004). The first step that must take place to move teachers forward in technology is to educate all teachers in the use of technology. In studies done by Yuen and Ma (2004), they found that the lack of experience in the computing area is one of the most common reasons for teachers’ negative attitudes towards computers.

Today’s technology standards challenge teacher education programs across the nation to address the need to produce computer literate teachers who are not just knowledgeable of the technology, but teachers who are also confident in their ability to incorporate this technology into everyday classroom teaching (Mistretta, 2005). Teachers must be ready and equipped to prepare and deliver instruction using new approaches, which includes the use of technology. Kimmel et al. NO COMMA(2008) state that less than half of K-12 teachers have adequate training in the use of technology for instruction of their students. Training is important to successful implementation of technology in the mathematics program (Wilson & Peterson, 1995). These trainings are significant for at least two reasons. First, teachers who feel they are supported in the area of technology are less likely to feel threatened and pressured to work in areas where they lack competence; they are likely to develop more positive attitudes towards using technology.

Second, teachers who receive adequate support and training are more likely to become proficient users of technology in the classroom. Without training and support, growth cannot be expected in the area of technology-based teaching (Wilson, & Peterson 1995). Whether or not technology can enrich the learning environment of young children depends on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of their teachers. Niess’s (2006) research states that teachers need to be prepared for exploring the current and emerging possibilities.

The important thing is that the teacher should be suitably prepared to integrate the new technologies into the learning environment in such a way that they will respond to the developmental needs of the young child (Tsitouridou & Vryzas, 2003). Niess (2001) states that teachers must be well prepared to professionally redeliver the techniques to ensure that all students are gaining a fair education. Teachers must be willing to commit time and effort in learning how to use technology in the classroom.

Therefore, teachers who are interested in using technology will find ways to obtain the training they desire to move themselves as well as the students to a higher level of learning. In Roblyer’s (2003) studies it is suggested that teachers, not technology, hold the key to achieving integrated technology use, and that how technology is used is more important than if technology is used. The teachers’ attitudes will determine the final success or failure of every initiative to introduce computers into the classroom. Yet teachers have remained slow and often reluctant to integrate technology into classrooms.

Tsitouridou and Vryzas (2003) confirm that this reluctance is due to a long list of conditions, such as time, access, and training that can facilitate or obstruct technology-use. Nevertheless, as teachers begin to enjoy using technology, learning takes on a different approach and all attitudes begin to shift in a positive direction. Teachers begin to change their way of thinking; instead of watching other teachers, they begin to try the equipment out for themselves, find their comfort levels, and become individuals who are not afraid to step out of the box (Flores, 2000. . Teachers’ attitudes can help bring the mathematics in computer work to a conscious level of awareness and extend the ideas encountered; focus attention on critical mathematics aspects of activities, emphasizing the need for consistency and mathematical language; facilitate the assimilation and accommodation of new ideas using the computer feedback as a catalyst; construct links or mappings between computer and non-computer work; and provoke reflection and prediction (Flores, 2000).

Over ninety-nine percent of all public schools currently have Internet access and have improved student access to an average ratio of four students per computer (Tsitouridou & Vryzas, 2003). Teachers need to be able to choose as well as use programs that can help bring mathematics and technology together (Flores, 2000). The teacher plays a crucial role in a curriculum where technology is embedded. It is not enough to have the new technology available; teachers need to develop a teaching and learning environment that is conducive to learning mathematics through the use of technology.

The kind of software, and the way it is used are vital. Software and web-sites can help students learn mathematics better when they provide; vast amounts of examples, adaptive sequencing and feedback, and sustained contextualization in a meaningful and engaging application (Flores, 2000). As teachers’ attitudes begin to shift, researchers believe classrooms will shift as well (Wilson & Peterson, 1995).

Teaching methods which includes technology causes classrooms to shift from; whole-group to small group instruction, lecture to coaching, working with better students to working with weaker students, assessment based on test performance to assessment based on products, progress, and effort, competitive to a cooperative social structure, all students learning the same things to different students learning different things, primary of verbal thinking to the integration of visual and verbal thinking, and a shift toward more engaged students (Wilson & Peterson, 2007).

As technology becomes an everyday part of classrooms, teachers are continuing to realize their own self-efficacy. Teachers’ attitudes are that of a person who feels that they are students in this ever-growing world. Student Achievement Through the Use of Technology The most significant component of implementing new technology into the instructional program is student achievement.

When all is over the important question that has to be answered is whether or not the use of technology in schools will raise student achievement. Pittalis, Mousoulides, and Christou (2002) have found that the effective integration of technology into the teaching can and will result in higher levels of achievement. Pittalis, et al. (2002). also feel that using technology in mathematics classrooms can help students’ master fundamental skills and more importantly, motivate students to develop higher-order thinking skills.

When students are freed to explore math through technology and as result not confined to paper and pencil tasks, they are able to explore the rich math present in real world math modeling (Franz & Hopper, 2007). By providing a technology-rich classroom, student work is no longer limited to simple symbolic manipulation. Instead, students can interact with complex, real-world problems that enhance their understanding and pique their interest in school mathematics (Cuban, 2001). Technology is a valuable tool that can be used to help students achieve educational objectives.

When combined with other very important key factors that increase achievement, such as clear, measurable objectives, parental and community involvement and increased time spent on a task, technology can help deliver significant and positive results in mathematics (CEO,PUT OTHER WORDS FOR AUTHOR HERE, COMPELTE AUTHOR NAME EACH TIME, CHECK THROUGHOUT 2001). Also, through the use of technology students’ learning environment can be transformed so that the environment is student-centered and problem and project centered, which creates a learning environment that improves student achievement and develop 21st century skills (Billig, 2003).

When technology is applied to well-defined educational objectives, and integrated into the curriculum by trained teachers, it can assist in producing dramatic result for students (CEO, 2003). • Improved basic skills in math and other subject areas. • Improved scores on standardized test. • Improved inventive thinking skills (e. g. problem solving, higher order, reasoning). • Improved productivity skills, which creates high quality work. • Improved access to information that increases knowledge. Many administrators, teachers, and parents feel that when technology is implemented, students are more challenged, engaged, and independent.

Vigil (1998) state STATES that technology empowers students who may have limited mathematical knowledge and skills to learn multiple ways of problem solving and provides an effective way for promoting multiple representations in mathematics. Therefore, how technology is used is crucial if it is really going to help students in their cognitive growth and understanding of mathematics (Knaupp, Middleton, & Staley, 2002). In Kulik’S (2003) study, he concluded that when technology is effectively used the following achievements will be noted. • Students usually learn more in less time when they receive computer-based instruction. Students like their classes more and develop more positive attitudes toward computers when their classes include computer-based instruction. • Students in technology-rich environments experience positive effects, on achievement in all major subject areas, preschool through high. Kulik (2003) goes on to say that schools also see other benefits as well. He believes that as schools continue to add technology, there are improvements in attendance, and the drop rate is lowered. As a result, Kulik (2003) believeBELIEVES that technology offers the tools and information that students need to explore mathematical connections to the real world.

As technology helps empower teachers, it also empowers students to explore and to use their higher-order mathematical and physical relationships in an open-ended environment (Kulik, 2003). What is more, when looking at the big picture of the effectiveness that technology has on student achievement, we can clearly see that if used properly student’s attitudes toward learning and students’ own self-concepts improves consistently when technology becomes a vital part of the daily instruction.

It is important that teachers know and understand that the level of technology used by teachers significantly affect student academic achievement in mathematicsBE SURE TO GIVE ENTIRE TITLE HERE. CREDIBILITY DEPENDS ON THE READER KNOWING WHO CARET IS. PUT THE WHOLE NAME FIRST, ALSO GIVE ABBREVIATION, THEN YOU CAN JUST USE THE ABBREVIATION (CARET, 2008). Again, the big question still remains, “how can technology influence students’ academic performance. ” CARET (2008), avows that technology improves performance when used in environments where teachers, the school community, and school administrators support the use of technology.

CARET (2008) concludes that test scores can be increased with implementation of education plans that include technology, students’ and performance improved on standardized tests in mathematics. Therefore, we can clearly conclude that technology improves student performance when the application of technology supports the curriculum objectives that are being assessed. James Kulik (1994) used a research technique called meta-analysis to aggregate the findings from more than 500 individual research studies of technology-based instruction.

Kulik drew several positive conclusions from his work. He states, on average, students who used technology-based instruction scored at the 64% on test of achievement, students learn more in less time when they received technology-based instruction, and students like their classes more and develop more positive attitudes when their classes included technology-based instruction. In using technology to enhance and advance students’ achievement two general distinctions can be made. Students can learn “from” and students can learn “with” computers.

Students can learn “from” computers where technology used essentially as tutors and serves to increase student basic skills and knowledge; and students can learn “with” computers where technology is used as a tool that can be applied to a variety of goals in the learning process and can serve as a resource to help develop higher order thinking, creativity and research skills (Valdez, 2000). In addition, technology can also be used to improve students’ motivation, attitude and interest.

Technology improves motivation, attitude, and interest when students use technology applications to produce, demonstrate, and share their work with peers, teachers, and parents (CARET, 2008). These areas also improve when students use challenging, game-like programs and technology applications designed to develop basic skills and knowledge (CARET, 2008). Implementing technology into the educational arena has demonstrated a significant positive effect on student achievement (Software & Information Industry Association, (SIIA), 2000). NOTE THAT I ADDED THE PARENTH.

IN THE PREVIOUS SENTENCESIIA (2000) goes on to say that positive effects have been found in all major subject areas, for both regular education and special needs students. More specifically, educational technology has been found to have positive effects on student attitudes toward learning and on student self-concept. Students begin to feel more successful in school, are more motivated to learn and had increased self-confidence and self-esteem when using technology-based instruction. Technology has been used effectively to support mathematics curricula that focus on problem solving and hands-on, constructivist, experimental ctivities (SIIA, 2000). SIIA (2000) studies indicate that students who participate in such technology-supported learning experiences have demonstrated superior understanding of targeted math topics than students receiving traditional instructional. Students feel more successful in school, are more motivated to learn and have increased self-confidence and self-esteem when using technology-based instruction Recommendations for Instruction Based upon the positive effects that technology has on teaching and learning, it is evident that technology is a tool that needs to be used to its fullest potential.

It is therefore, important that teacher education programs determine effective ways to prepare teachers to integrate technology into their classroom. These effective ways will allow technological expansion to continue and allow students to be successful with the addition of technology. As educators continue to be enlightened on the fact that mathematical requirements are increasing in America, administrators, policyholders, teachers, and parents must be willing to embrace changes that contribute to the growth of education. More importantly, as schools continue to move forward, the manner of how teachers instruct has to move forward as well.

Schools are now teaching and assessing using techniques that grade students through the process of using performance-based data rather than depending solely on paper grades. The National Council of Teachers in Mathematics’ Standards states that technology is essential in teaching and learning mathematics and it influences the mathematics being taught and enhances student learning (NCTM, 2000). As the NCTM Standards are often the foundation of state and district curriculum and guidelines, the use of technology in mathematics is something that many schools are required to include in the curriculum.

As it is very well known, teachers are responsible for carrying out the curriculum requirements, and technology for mathematics is now one of the requirements. It has been determined that educators need not wait to implement technology into the everyday life of educating. First graders are now being required to take in a lager amount of information than ever before, therefore, it is vitally important to first grade teachers to use the materials and technology that will afford their students a better education.

Georgia Performance Standards have now become the driving force on how and what teachers will teach to students, the following Georgia Performance Standards are those that push the use of technology for first grade students to help them become more aware of the how the world around operates (Georgia Department of Education, 2008). MATHEMATICS Grade 1 By the end of grade one, students will understand and use the concept of ones and tens in the place value number system. The students will add and subtract small numbers with ease.

They will represent quantity with numbers, models, diagrams, and number sentences. They will begin to use tools for measuring and observe, create, and decompose geometric shapes and solve simple problems including those involving spatial relationships. The students will pose questions, record data, and interpret simple charts and picture graphs. Instruction and assessment should include the use of manipulative and appropriate technology. Topics should be represented in multiple ways including symbolic, verbal/written, numeric/data-based, graphical, and concrete/pictorial.

Concepts should be introduced and used in the context of real world phenomena. NUMBER AND OPERATIONS Students will understand how to represent numbers, and be able to add and subtract small numbers. M1N1. Students will estimate, model, compare, order, and represent whole numbers up to 100. a. Represent numbers less than 100 using a variety of models, diagrams, and number sentences. Represent numbers larger than 10 in terms of tens and ones using counters and pictures. b. Correctly count and represent the number of objects in set using numerals. M1N2.

Understand place value notation for the numbers between 1 and 100. (Discussions may allude to 3-digit numbers to assist in understanding place value. ) a. Determine to which multiple of ten a given number is nearest using tools such as a sequential number line or hundreds chart to assist in estimating. b. Represent collections of less than 30 objects with 2-digit numbers and understand the meaning of place value. M1N3. Students will add and subtract numbers less than 100 as well as understand and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction. . Identify one more than, one less than, 10 more than, and 10 less than a given number. b. Skip-count by 2’s, 5’s, and 10’s forward and backwards – to and from numbers up to 100. M1N4. Students will count collections of up to 100 objects by dividing them into equal parts and represent the results using words, pictures, or diagrams. a. Use informal strategies to share objects equally between two to five people. b. Build number patterns, including concepts of even and odd, using various concrete representations. MEASUREMENT

Students will measure basic quantitative attributes of concrete objects. M1M1. Students will compare and/or order the length, weight, or capacity of two or more objects by using direct comparison or a nonstandard unit. a. Directly compare length, weight, and capacity of concrete objects. b. Estimate and measure using a non-standard unit that is smaller than the object to be measured. M1M2. Students will develop an understanding of the measurement of time. a. Tell time to the nearest hour and half hour and understand the movement of the minute hand and how it relates to the hour hand. . Begin to understand the relationship of calendar time by knowing the number of days in a week and months in a year. GEOMETRY Students will understand the concepts of basic geometric shapes and spatial relationships of concrete objects. M1G1. Students will study and create various two and three-dimensional figures and identify basic figures (squares, circles, triangles, and rectangles) within them. a. Build, draw, name, and describe triangles, rectangles, pentagons, and hexagons. b. Build, represents, name, and describe cylinders, cones, and rectangular prisms.

M1G2. Students will compare, contrast, and/or classify geometric shapes by the common attributes of position, shape, size, number of sides, and number of corners. M1G3. Students will arrange and describe objects in space by proximity, position, and direction (near, far, below, above, up, down, behind, in front of, next to, and left or right of). DATA ANALYSIS AND PROBABILITY Students will pose questions, collect, organize and interpret data about themselves and their surroundings. M1D1. Students will create simple tables and graphs and interpret them. a.

Interpret tally marks, picture graphs and bar graphs. b. Organize and record data using objects, pictures, tally marks, and picture graphs. M1P1. Students will solve problems (using appropriate technology). a. Build new mathematical knowledge thorough problem solving. b. Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts. M1P2. Students will reason and evaluate mathematical arguments. a. Recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics. b. Make and investigate mathematical conjectures. M1P3. Students will communicate mathematically. a.

Organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication. b. Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers and others. M1P4. Students will make connections among mathematical ideas and to other disciplines. a. Recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas. b. Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole. M1P5. Students will represent mathematics in multiple ways. a. Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas. b.

Select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems. When viewing these standards, we can clearly see how technology can be implemented into each and every standard to promote achievement. By using the guidelines laid out by the standards, teachers will have their students equipped for standardized testing and promotion. However, if schools want to learn how to make the most of the technology to enhance the learning of mathematics, in addition to using ways that are helpful across the curriculum, they need to develop effective ways of using technology for the teaching of mathematics.

Schools have to focus on ways in which technology-based environments can enhance students’ own construction of mathematics. Technology environments should not do the mathematics for the students, but it they allow them to express their own mathematical ideas (Flores, 2000). The following are examples of how the use of technology aids in promoting growth and achievement in first grade students. • First graders are able to use software on the computer that relate to modeling, comparing and ordering numbers.

These techniques help to have students readily equipped to complete any related problem on unit test as well as on the CRCT • By using the IWB numerous times to demonstrate place value in many different forms, students learn to appreciate the lessons, understand nearest ten, and remember place value better than they would by the simple use of a workbook. • As a result of adding more computers to classrooms, students as well as teachers are able to expand classrooms to suit center activities that will allow all students the opportunity for daily computer time. Through the use of the CPS, students begin to feel more confident and eager to learn. When using the CPS students is unable to see the difficulties other students may encounter. This helps motivate students to move forward without the intimidation of being judged because of their mistakes. • No matter which standard, teachers can and will be able to link it to some form of software or web-site that will not only help students understands the math that is being taught, but it will also be an enjoyable learning experience for students. Students who are provided with the necessary tools gain a deeper understanding of concepts and are better able to recall information. • Additionally, when students are comfortable with technology, they carry this knowledge home and many other places where they begin to make it a part of their everyday learning. • Students tend to become more attentive and receptive during lessons that are not on paper. Their ability to use this new technology helps classrooms to grow and become more students friendly. Students tend to watch less television while enhancing their problem-solving skills, critical-thinking skills, and basic math skill, they find that technology can expand their knowledge at a faster pace than television. • Another effective advantage of having available technology in the classroom is the fact that computers are able to give individualized instruction and offer non-offensive feedback to the students. Elementary school is important to children both for their cognitive development and as a foundation for further education.

For children with weak academic support at home, the primary responsibility for providing this foundation rests on elementary classroom teachers. Society now expects that schools will successfully prepare all students to meet national standards in mathematics. Moreover, with adequate training and positive attitudes, teachers can organize their classroom to accommodate the atmosphere of learning through variety of learning styles. It is important that schools ensure that technology is being utilized to the fullest extent during mathematics. Technology offers numerous options to assist teachers in teaching mathematics.

In order for reform to take hold, second order learning environments where teachers are exploring new ideas about teaching and learning are essential. Teacher development is absolutely essential if technology that is provided by the schools is to be used effectively. Teachers need to have a sense of ownership within the learning environment where technology is involved. As teachers become better educated they begin to see the availability of computers as motivation for students in the learning process whereby lessons can be delivered, explained or illustrated in a more interesting and entertaining way. Teachers are able to set up their classes knowing that they can depend on the technological equipment to enhance the learning environment. • By using the CPS, teachers are free from the “grading system,” the CPS does all the work for them. This system keeps a running record on each students, which makes the teachers’ job as a simple as printing the records in an effort to help students in areas that show deficiencies. • Students gained knowledge through computers. Teachers find that by using technology to teach weaker students will be more attentive and there is less boredom, it is out of their normal routine and gets them “pumped up”. • Teachers become more open to new ideas and find that they are willing to accept new ideas on more ways to use the technological equipment that is available to them. • Teachers are able to make their very own web pages to facilitate the teaching of many any lesson. • Teachers will become fueled with positive experiences in the classroom. Teachers will be encouraged to seek additional opportunities to spend time in becoming better educated in teaching through technology. If teaching with technology truly accomplishes its goal, teachers will view themselves as ongoing passionate teachers who are improving their ability to teach. It is important that schools promote the use of technology as a tool to promote educational excellence. For this to be accomplished, schools have to ensure that their teachers and students are equipped with material and proper training.

With that being said, it is especially important that schools have improvement plans that will adhere to their goals. This improvement plans should include the following. • Schools need to encourage the best practices and create an educational environment in which, students and teachers use technology easily without fear, and as a tool for gaining and applying knowledge. • Technology must be used to broaden horizons, be well integrated into the curriculum, readily available, equally accessible to all students and must aid the school in its mission to move forward. It is necessary that schools continue to update their technology plans in order to meet and exceed the state criteria. • The purchasing of new and efficient software and the time allotted for training on the use of this software is vitally important when attempting to better educated children. • Training and professional development must be ongoing. • Schools need to conduct a needs assessment to determine training methods for staff members and offer a variety of trainings that encourage teachers to integrate technology into the classroom. Administrators need to provide technology facilitators for educators as a means for providing support at the school level by demonstrating in teachers’ classrooms student-centered lessons. • Technology facilitators need to serve as mentors to assist teachers with planning of student-centered lessons. • Administrators should request evaluation feedback on every training session in order to continue to improve the technology training that needs to take place. • Efforts should be made to continually enhance technology use and technology literacy of teachers and students.

When schools begin to see and believe that to educate for the future means to teach students “How to Learn,” technology will take its place in the classroom and great things can happen. Students will find themselves rapidly adapting to the changing environment and will become learners who are more enthused and eager to participate in the learning process. Schools must set goals that will help in the advancement of using technology to promote better education. These goals should include the following vital components. • To continually update technology plans in order to meet and exceed the state requirements.

This plan should serve as a tool to guide future technology expenditures. • To purchase and provide instruction in the use and application of software resources appropriate for K-5 students. Emphasis should be placed on classroom integration that will be facilitated by more joint planning time of technology and regular teaching staff. • Every effort must be made to continually enhance technology use and technology literacy for teachers and students. Educators must be committed in helping students achieve mathematical goals that will promote the opportunity for a better education.

Moreover, the keys to raising student achievement are to provide students with a solid foundation of basic skills and to motivate them to learn. Lederman and Neiss (2000) believe that technology can help accomplish this goal. They go on to say that technology engages students and fires their imagination, and helps teacher stimulate young minds in ways that make a difference (Lederman & Neiss, 2000). As a result of these findings the following conclusions have been made. • Students, especially those with few advantages in ife, learn basic skills better and faster with adequate practice using technology. • Technology engages students, and as a result they spend more time on basic learning tasks than students who use more traditional approach. • Technology offers educators a way to individualize curriculum and customize it to the needs of individual students so all students can achieve their potential. • Students who have the opportunity to use technology to acquire and organize information show a higher level of comprehension and a greater likelihood of using what they learn later in their lives. By giving students access to a broader range of resources and technologies, students can use a variety of communication to express their ideas more clearly. • Technology can decrease absenteeism, lower dropout rates, and motivate more students to continue on to college. • Students who regularly use technology take more pride in their work, have greater confidence in their ability, and develop higher levels of self-esteem. Integrating technology into the curriculum is not an easy task especially for those teachers and students who are still in the training stage.

It requires a great deal of thought and patience: thought to ensure that technology is being used to increase student achievement and patience to ensure the comfort of teachers with technology. Because many people worry that technology is replacing teachers, schools must continue to educate the community on the fact that computers can never replace teachers. Teacher use technology to as a supplement in their classrooms to help guide and model vital that is a part of the curriculum.

Also, schools must believe that technology has the potential to promote their vision of teaching in the 21st century. Working together with a common vision and plan action, administrators, and teachers can ensure that all students have the opportunity to utilize technology to enhance achievement. Across the country, schools are developing and implementing technology plans. Educators realize that technology can offer flexible and powerful new ways to accomplish a range of goals in the mathematic curriculum.

Schools are held accountable for fulfilling the promise of enhancing student learning and moving them forward in math. How can schools ensure that the promise that technology holds for student achievement is realized? What factors need to be in place to support the effective use of technology? What resources can schools use to help them plan for technology that will have a positive impact on student achievement, and how can they justify that investment. To answer these questions, educators need to look at the research on technology and the student achievement in the mathematic program.

It is essential that educators’ expectations of technology can support meaningful, engaged learning for students (Kulik, (2003). Schools have major responsibilities in the shaping of the future of students. In order to do that, technology must be given the opportunity to play its role in the reshaping in all academic areas. Because so much time has been spent on closing the gap in mathematics, schools must use this powerful tool known as technology in their efforts to introduce to society young men and young women who are dully prepared to face the challenges that this world may bring.

To ensure that this happens schools must provide the best tools in the classrooms, arrange the best support groups, provide comfortable environments for teaching and learning, change the mind set from power-leader to team player and coach, get the best use from technology that shows improvement in student academic success and most of all, appreciate and encourage innovative ways of using technology to make dreams become reality. Take a look at Miller. I can’t tell what type it is, a website, pamphlet, etc. Look at Neiss, needs pages

I ITICIZED IN AMPHITHEATER; biling, and I changed the caps; Buckleitner, I changed the Knight reference. Take a look throughout. Each entry needs something to be in italics, either the website, the title of the book, etc. Look at Baker. The initials are before the last name in O’Neill References Amphitheater Public Schools (2008). Interactive White Board Resources. Amphitheater Public Schools Publication, Retrieved March 9, 2008, from http://www. amphi. com Baker, E. L. & H. F. O’Neil, Jr. (Eds. ). Technology assessment in education and training. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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