1. The role of the leader in the team concept is very important. Research shows that success is enhanced, if an organization understands and effectively manages five team processes. List and discuss these five team processes in Chapter 17. The five team processes are: 1. Buy-in: how the work of the team is legitimized and goals are set. 2. Accountability: how individual and team performance is managed and rewarded. 3. Learning: how performance is improved and skills developed. 4. Infrastructure: how the work of the team is systemized and resources accessed. 5.
Partnering: how people interact and work together to achieve success on the team and across organizational units (Manning & Curtis, 2009). 2. Physical and emotional needs are important determinants of human behavior, helping to explain why people work, why they have certain personal goals, and what they want in their relationships with others. Psychologist Abraham Maslow divides human needs into five categories, progressing from basic needs to complex needs. Discuss Maslow’s five “Hierarchy of Human Needs. ” List and discuss each one. Maslow’s five Hierarchy of Human Needs are: . Survival. The needs that are taken as the starting point for motivation theory are the physiological, or basic body tissue, needs. Taking a breath of air and acting in self-defense are normal expressions of such needs. Survival needs are strong and natural forces within the person. 2. Security. Once survival needs are satisfied, security needs become important. Freedom from threat and protection from loss are major security goals, helping explain our interest in savings accounts, medical insurance, seniority rights, and burglar alarms. 3. Belonging.
When survival and security needs are satisfied, the need for belonging emerges. This is true for people in all cultures, whether aggressive or peaceful, primitive or advanced. Every individual makes a distinct effort to belong to some aspired social group. 4. Respect. Once survival, security, and belonging needs are satisfied, people are motivated by the need for respect the need to be considered favorably by self and others. The pursuit of fame, regardless of the field business, government, and the arts can be explained only by the powerful need for respect. 5. Fulfillment.
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After physical and social needs are satisfied, people are motivated by the need for fulfillment, which Maslow referred to as “self-actualization. ” These people may or may not please others by what they do, and their efforts may or may not result in the attainment of intended goals (Manning & Curtis, 2009). 3. Chapter 18 discusses “why people do what they do. ” There are nine points to remember about human motivation. With these in mind, you will better understand why people do what they do. These points can also explain the complicated relationship between personal goals and work behavior.
List and discuss these nine points for human motivation. The nine points for human motivation are: a. A satisfied need is not a motivator. It is not what people have that motivates behavior; it is what they do not have, or what they have done without. b. Employee motivation and company success are related. c. Psychological needs and social values are not the same. d. The same act can satisfy any of the five motivation levels. e. All people have the same needs, but to different degrees and accompanied by different wants. What it takes to satisfy motivational needs and how much is required are unique to each person. . A person can be deficiency-motivated, bringing harm to self or others. It is possible to have an extreme fixation on a natural need, so strong that it can lead to neurotic and even destructive behavior. g. Unsatisfied needs can harm your health, as surely as if you were physically stricken. If you feel the need for recognition, but no one respects you; if you feel the need for love, but no one cares; if you feel the need for self-expression, but have no outlets, you can develop a motivation condition as harmful as physical illness. h.
Leadership is important in meeting employee needs and preventing motivation problems. What a leader does will vary with the circumstances. Sample actions include improving job safety (survival needs), clarifying job assignments (security needs), offering a word of encouragement (belonging needs), providing praise for a job well done (respect needs), and offering new skills development (fulfillment needs). i. The ideal is to integrate the needs of the individual with the goals of the organization. If the needs of the individual can be satisfied while advancing the goals of the organization, he ultimate in employee morale and organization effectiveness will be achieved (Manning & Curtis, 2009). 4. Managing diversity is very important for both the leader and organizational survival. List and discuss strategies and techniques that can help both individuals and organizations manage diversity effectively. What can individuals do: ¦ Connect with and value your own culture. ¦ Think about how it feels to be different by remembering times when you felt that you were in the minority. ¦ Try to understand each person as an individual, rather than seeing the person as a representative of a group. Participate in educational programs that focus on learning about and valuing different cultures, races, religions, ethnic backgrounds, and political ideologies. ¦ Make a list of heroes in music, sports, theater, politics, business, science, and so forth. ¦ Learn about the contributions of older people and people with visual, hearing, or other impairments. ¦ Learn more about other cultures and their values through travel, books, and films, and by attending local cultural events and celebrations. ¦ Continually examine your thoughts and language for unexamined assumptions and stereotypical responses. Include people who are different from you in social conversations, and invite them to be part of informal work-related activities, such as going to lunch or attending company social events. ¦ When dealing with people, try to keep in mind how you would feel if your positions were reversed. What can organizations do: ¦ Include employees from a variety of backgrounds in decision-making and problem solving processes. ¦ Develop strategies to increase the flow of applicants from a variety of backgrounds. Look for opportunities to develop employees from diverse backgrounds and prepare them for positions of responsibility ¦ Show sensitivity in the physical work environment. ¦ Form a group to address issues of diversity. ¦ Implement training programs that focus on diversity in the workplace programs designed to develop a greater awareness and respect for differences. ¦ Pay attention to company publications such as employee newsletters. ¦ Evaluate official rules, policies, and procedures of the organization to be sure all employees are treated fairly. Develop mentoring and partnering programs that cross traditional social and cultural boundaries. ¦ Talk openly about diversity issues, respect all points of view, and work cooperatively to solve problems (Manning & Curtis, 2009). 5. Historically, women in high leadership positions have come from nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, and public office. However, over the last few years, they are starting to come from the business world. The Center for Creative Leadership has identified six success factors for women in high leadership positions. List and discuss these six success factors for women.
The Center for Creative Leadership has identified six success factors for women in high leadership positions: 1. Help from above. Women in high levels of leadership have typically received the support of influential mentors. 2. A superior track record. Held to high standards, executive-level women have usually managed effectively and have developed an excellent record of performance. 3. A passion for success. Senior-level women have been determined to succeed. They worked hard, seized responsibility, and achieved their objectives. 4. Outstanding people skills.
Successful women executives typically utilize participative leadership, employee empowerment, and open communication to foster trust and high levels of morale among subordinates. 5. Career courage. Successful women leaders have demonstrated courage to take risks, such as taking on huge responsibilities. 6. Mental toughness. Senior-level women are seen as tenacious, demanding, and willing to make difficult decisions (Manning & Curtis, 2009). Applications Exercise 19. 2 1. 4 2. 4 3. 2 4. 3 5. 3 6. 3 7. 4 8. 3 9. 2 10. 3 11. 4 12. 4 13. 2 14. 4 15. 4 Domination = 12 Collaboration = 8 Compromise = 8 Avoidance = 11 Accommodation = 11
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