T. D. A 2. 2 Safeguarding the welfare of children and young people 3. 1 *identify the characteristics of different types of child abuse Abuse, harm or bullying of children and young people can take many forms. Sometimes more than one form of abuse is experienced at the same time for example a child may be physically abused as well as neglected. Shown below is a table with examples and characteristics of abuse – FORM OF ABUSE |CHARACTERISTICS |SIGNS | |PHYSICAL |*hitting/kicking/throwing |*bruises/burns | | |*beaten with objects |*not wanting to get changed for P.
E | | |*being burnt or scolded |*heavy clothing or wearing lots of layers | | | |(to hide marks) | |SEXUAL |*viewing porn |*self-harm | | |*touching private parts |*personality changes | | |*acts of penetration |*inappropriate sexual behaviours | | | |*medical problems (urine infection) | |EMOTIONAL |*undervalued/bullied |*becoming withdrawn | | |*shouting |*under-confident | | |*negative criticism |*nervous behaviour | | |*showing no affection | | |NEGLECT |*not providing- |*tiredness | |warmth |*hungry | | |adequate food |*frequent illness | | |medical care |*not growing or gaining weight | | |education | | T. D. A 2. 2 Safeguarding the welfare of children and young people 3. 2 *describe the risks and possible consequences for children and young people using the internet, mobile phones and other technologies There are many risks that children and young people may be exposed to whilst using modern technology. The internet can also be accessed through mobile phones as well these days so it is made easier to receive more messages and images. Risks when using the internet – giving out personal information (at risk from building ‘friendships’ with other children who turn out to be adults (grooming) *accessing inappropriate info (often accidentally when innocent words are entered into search engine) *taking or receiving photos over the internet which could lead to them being exploited by another person or adult Risks from text messaging – *unwelcome texts that are threatening or cause discomfort *images sent to make the victim feel embarrassed or threatened Risks from mobile phone calls – *silent/abusive calls *stealing the victim phone and using it to harass others to make them believe that the victim is responsible Risks from E-Mails – threatening or bullying E-mails *bullying or name calling through websites/social networks T. D. A 2. 2 Safeguarding the welfare of children and young people 3. 3 *describe actions to take in response to evidence of concerns that a child or young person has been abused, harmed (including self-harm) or bullied, or may be at risk of harm, abuse or bullying It is Paramount for anyone working with children or young people to understand how to respond to evidence of abuse and to understand safeguarding procedures. The very first thing to do is to raise your concerns with another member of staff. In most cases this should be your supervisor or manager.
Children who are being abused are usually quite anxious children so it may be difficult for them to talk to anyone about it. When a child tells you or suggests that he/she has been harmed this is called a disclosure. It can be quite upsetting to hear a child speaking about it but it is important to take the following actions – • listen and do not show any shock or disbelief • do not ask any questions (e. g. ‘where did he touch you’) • accept what the child is saying and don’t interrupt or rush them • reassure them and tell them they have done the right thing in speaking to you •
You should never discuss with everyone about it but at the same time it is important for you to get some support from someone as well. T. D. A 2. 2 Safeguarding the welfare of children and young people 3. 5 * Describe the principles and boundaries of confidentiality, and when to share information. In any school setting confidentiality is very important. You may have been told private information about a particular child as you may need to know this as it may effect the way you work with a child. This should never be disclosed with other parents or be a discussion with colleagues. As a T. A or support staff, parents may speak to you concerning their own child. You must let them know that you will be discussing it with your supervisor.
You do not need permission from the parent to share this with your senior if you have good reason to feel the child is at risk. Do not share with everyone and only speak to the appropriate people (manager, supervisor, headteacher) they can follow up and take action. It is important also that information is shared between the correct professionals and agencies. Over the years there have been many failings in serious child abuse cases – e. g. Victoria Climbie, Baby P, The west family – Where failings by services and agencies have been found to fail in the reports into these children’s deaths. These findings highlighted the importance of sharing information early. There are protocols in every school which need to be followed.