TCI Final Exam Review Guide

An independent country in which people share a common culture is called
A nation-state
The right to exercise supreme power and authority over a region, a group, or oneself
Sovereignty
Which of these is the best example of a public good?
The Mayflower Compact, Highways, Army
Which of these is an essential feature of political activity?
Purpose and collective action
When people call someone Machiavellian, they usually mean that person is
Cunning and ruthless
Which of these individuals is most likely to exercise power without authority?
Doctor
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On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks went to jail rather than give up her bus seat to a white passenger. Her action was an example of which of the following?
Civil disobedience
Which of the following are considered the basic building blocks of government?
Means of coercion and collecting revenue
A ruler’s legitimacy depends mainly on which of these factors?
That his/her power/authority are accepted by those governed
Which of these is most likely to involve horse trading?
Politicians wanting something
Which of the following is the oldest form of government still in use today?
Rome’s republic
A New England town meeting is an example of
Parliament
Nazism is a form of fascism built on the idea of
Racial superiority
Socialism began as an attempt to correct which disadvantage of capitalism?
Public ownership of farms and factories
Which of these is a common feature of market economies?
Private individuals decide what they want to do
In a command economy, who decides how much to produce?
The government
Which of these factors most distinguishes dictators from monarchs?
Dictators rule by force
In a parliamentary democracy, who chooses the prime minister?
The legislative authority chooses
Which kind of economy is most common in the world today?
Mixed economy
Which kind of country is most likely to have a federal system of government?
A large country with a diverse population
Which of the following best defines the principle of popular sovereignty?
Ultimate source of authority are the people
The idea of representative government first developed in ancient
Roman Republic
Who is known as the Father of the Constitution and as the principal author of the Bill of Rights?
James Madison
Which of these historic documents first established the principle of the rule of law?
Magna Carta or “great Charter”
Which complaint was the greatest barrier to ratifying the Constitution?
That the federal would become too powerful
Consider the quotations below. “Life, liberty, and property . . .” —John Locke “Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness . . .” —Declaration of Independence Both quotations list what our nation’s founders believed to be
natural rights
Which of these issues at the Constitutional Convention was resolved by what is known as the Great Compromise?
The issue representation in Congress: One house based on population the other on equal representation
The Articles of Confederation reflected Americans’ fear of
Individuals gaining to much power
Which political philosopher favored separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches?
Baron de Montesquieu
Thomas Paine, author of Common Sense, was influenced by Rousseau’s argument that a government should be dissolved if it
breaks the social contract
Which of these terms refers to the principle that people accused of a crime must be granted certain legal rights?
Due process
The Preamble to the Constitution lists which of the following?
Purpose of government and goals
Why did the framers of the Constitution create three separate branches of government?
To prevent one branch from having too much power
The first words of the Constitution indicate that power and authority in our system of government come from the
With the people
Which of these is the defining characteristic of a federal system of government?
The constitution divides between the national and regional governments
Over time, constitutional amendments have extended which right to the groups listed below? • African Americans • women • residents of the District of Columbia • 18-year-olds
Right to vote
The Supremacy Clause of the Constitution indicates how to resolve conflicts between
Resolves the conflict between state and federal law
Which of these is the best example of constitutional checks and balances?
Allows each branch to monitor and check the power of the others to prevent any abuses
How did the decision in Marbury v. Madison (1803) strengthen the power of the Supreme Court?
Established a judicial review. Court can declare acts of congress uncontitutional
The process of amending the Constitution involves both
congress and state
Which of these plays the largest role in interpreting the Bill of Rights?
The Supreme Court
Which of these is a civil liberty protected by the Bill of Rights?
birth rights
Which of these unpopular forms of expression is protected by the First Amendment?
Freedom of speech: symbolic speech
Most Supreme Court decisions applying the Bill of Rights to the states are based on the
Decisions made by the lower courts
Which of these acts is protected under the First Amendment?
Freedom of religion, speech, press and assembly
Which of these rights has not been subject to incorporation?
right to bear arms and right to a jury trial in civil cases
The phrase “You have the right to remain silent” reflects the provision in the Bill of Rights regarding
Miranda rights
The term prior restraint refers to which government action?
Attempt by government to prevent publication as broadcast of material considered harmful
What decision did the Supreme Court make on the power of cities to regulate peaceful assembly in public places in Hague v. CIO?
set rules for the use of pulic places
What is the primary goal of political parties?
To further their ideological agenda by electing their members to office
Which of these is the most common form of individual involvement with a political party?
voter
How do lobbyists help government officials to function more effectively?
Influence public policy by persuading politicians to support or oppose action on a certain issue
The National Women’s Party (1913-1930) and the Right to Life Party (1970-present) are examples of which type of third party?
Single Interest Party
The idea that political power should be distributed and shared among various groups in society is known as
pluralism
Which political party in the United States had the longest continuous existence?
Republican Party
Who are the main sponsors of political action committees (PACs)?
Interest groups, corporations, unions
Which of these is the best example of grassroots mobilization?
Anti-war protests
Which of these is found in a party platform?
Position on important issue
Which of these is the first step in the policymaking process?
Issue identification
The process by which people form their political attitudes and values is called
Political socialization
Which of the following is the best definition of public opinion?
The sum of many individual opinions beliefs or attitudes about a public person or issue
Which of the following is the most important reason why a scientific poll is more accurate than a straw poll?
A straw pole is an informal survey and a scientific poll is done with a sampling of people that represent the population of the nation
The founders of our country saw a free press as a safeguard against
Corruption and misuses of power
To test the appeal of campaign messages, media consultants often use
Focus groups
The release of confidential information to the news media by an unnamed source is known as which of the following?
leak
How can the company conducting an opinion poll reduce the margin of error?
Use a scientific sampling
Which of these persuasive techniques takes advantage of people’s desire to conform?
Bandwagon
The primary purpose of staged events and photo opportunities is to
Generate free publicity and memorable images
How do political analysts determine the voting patterns of women and men?
exit polls
The emphasis on elections in the United States most reflects which constitutional principle?
popular sovereignty
In which kind of primary election would a registered independent be unable to vote?
Closed primary
The most common way people become candidates for public office is through
Self announcement
In which type of election is voter turnout likely to be the greatest?
Presidential
Which of the following groups benefited most from the Voting Rights Act of 1965?
Black
Televised debates and radio ads are examples of which of the following campaign approaches?
Wholesale politics
What is the main criticism leveled against the Electoral College system for electing presidents?
It is undemocratic
What is the main source of funding for election campaigns?
donation
What was one purpose of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002, also known as the McCain -Feingold Act?
Clean up campaign financing by banning soft-money
Which of these is the most likely reason for a donor to contribute to two opposing campaigns?
To have influence with the winner of the election regardless of who wins.
Which of these is the best definition of constituents?
people in the home districts and states of the lawmakers
A conference committee is made up of members from both the
the house and the senate
Where do most members of Congress begin their political careers?
local politics city council
In saying “The power of the speaker of the House is the power of scheduling,” Tip O’Neill was referring chiefly to the speaker’s power to do which of the following?
Deciding what bills will be debated by a full house and when
What determines the number of seats in the Senate?
in the Senate, each state gets two seats
Which of the following might apply to state lawmakers but not to members of Congress?
term limits
Which of these powers belongs only to the Senate?
the power to hold impeachment trials
Which of these groups handles most of the detailed work of lawmaking in Congress?
lawmakers
Which of these events triggers reapportionment of seats in the House of Representatives?
if the states population increases or decreases
What do the powers of oversight, confirmation, impeachment, ratification, override, and amendment have in common?
they are all ways congress can check the other wo branches of gov.
What is meant by logrolling?
trading of votes among legislatures to ensure the passage of different bills
A high school junior who works as a messenger in the House or Senate is called a congressional
cogressional page
What is the process used in the Senate to end a filibuster called?
cloture
In their oath of office, lawmakers swear to support and defend
constitution of the united states
Which of these is a key factor in choosing committee chairs?
chosen by majority party
What is a Christmas tree bill?
a bill with so many riders attached to it that it seems to offer something to everyone
Before a bill can be sent to the president, both chambers of Congress must vote to
to approve the bill in identical form before it goes from capitol hill to the white house for the presidents signature
How can Congress override a presidential veto?
two thirds of the members present in each chamber must vote in favor of saving legislation
What does a committee or subcommittee do during markup?
the committee or subcommittee “mark-up” or amend the bill
Which kind of vote in Congress tells constituents how their lawmakers voted?
roll call vote
Who initiated the tradition of addressing the president as “Mr. President”?
started by Thomas Jefferson
The position of a lieutenant governor in a state is comparable to that of which position in the federal government?
vice president
The president’s speechwriters, administrative assistants, and press secretary all work as part of which group?
White House Staff
These are the qualifications for seeking the presidency?
Native born, >35yrs old, lived in the country for 14 years
Which factor most influences whether a president might choose to use a pocket veto?
whether or not he wants the bill to die
What did Andrew Jackson do that led his critics to call him “King Andrew”?
andrew vetoed many bills to stabilize the nations economy
Which of these processes allows voters in many states to remove an elected official from office?
impeachment
What is the line of presidential succession?
vice president, speaker of the house, president pro tempore of the senate, and then secretary of state
All of the following is an example of independent agencies
Postal Service
What does a whistle-blower do?
exposes wrong doing within an organization in the hope of stopping it
In our judicial system, for which of these is the jury responsible?
impartial verdict
What is the purpose of setting bail?
to guarantee that a defendant will return for trail
A crime is defined as a wrongful act that
is carried out with intent
Which of these is typically a felony?
violent crimes, property crimes, drug crimes, victimless crimes, etc.
What is the role of the jury foreman during a trial?
as the chairperson for the jusry. they announce the verdict to court
Law enforcement officials must present evidence to a judge in order to do which of the following?
to obtain a search warrent
What does a grand jury decide?
wieghs evidence and determine whether a trail is warranted
How does restitution differ from other forms of punishment?
restitution means that the defendant has to pay back or make up for whatever losses the victim has sustained.
What is the principal advantage to the criminal justice system of allowing plea bargains?
helps keep the court system from clogging up with too many cases
The exclusionary rule excludes which of these from use in trials?
evidence that has been seized illegally
Which of these does a prosecuting attorney represent?
plaintiff
What is an order by the Supreme Court directing a lower court to send it the records of a case called?
Writ of Certiorari
What is the job of an appellate court when it takes a case on appeal?
to check that the court was carried out in a fair manner
How does someone become a judge in the federal court system?
gives the president power to appoint federal judges with the “advise and consent of the senate”
Which of these established the present system of federal district and circuit courts?
Article III of the Constitution.
What is meant by the term burden of proof?
the obligation in a legal case to prove allegations by presenting strong supporting evidence
Which of the following is most likely to write an amicus curiae brief?
interest groups use these to let the courts know that issue being decided upon is important to far more people than just the plaintiffs and defandents in the case
Which term refers to the person who files a lawsuit in a civil case?
plaintiff
Use this quotation to answer the question below.Judges are like umpires. Umpires don’t make the rules, they apply them.The quotation supports which of the following approaches to making judicial decisions?
judges look at the constituion for guidance on all rules
What determines which appeals the Supreme Court will hear?
the writ of certiorari is the way that a case can come to the supreme court
5th amendment protects
right to grand jury, indictment, no double jeopardy, freedom from self-incrimination, due process of law
6th amendment protects
Right to a speedy and fair trial and right to counsel
7th amendment protects
Trial by Jury in Civil Cases
8th amendment protects
no excessive bail and no cruel or unusual punishments