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Takaki History

1. What surprised you or what did you learn as you read Takaki’s piece? The laborer has no name. When they get into the island, they have a small brass disks with their identification numbers on it.

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Worker was called by number, but never by name 2. What were the conditions like for Hawaii’s laborers? The laborers were brought to Hawaii as cheap labors. Their labor enables the planters to transform sugar production into Hawaii’s leading industry. Low wage, long working hour. 3. What was the ethnic makeup of Hawaii’s immigrant workers? How was this exploited by plantation owners? 923: Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians: 16. 3 %Caucasians 7. 7%Chinese 9. 2%Japanese 42. 7% Portuguese: 10. 6%Puerto Ricans: 2. 2%Filipinos: 8. 2% 4. What were some of the ways the plantation owners used to keep the workers “under control? ” Were these attempts always successful? How did the workers respond or even counter some of those methods? Paternalism: Designed to pacify labor’s unrest and served to maintain a racial and class hierarchy. Coercion: Punish the workers. control workers with authority. (fines, arrestment, physical punishment: whip) Occupational structure stratifying employment according to race.

Supervisory: white, 1900, contract labor system still worked, under contract were bound by law to serve 3~5 yrs. Organic Act of 1900 abolished the contract labor system 1904, Hawaiian Sugar Planters restricted skill position. “exclude Asians. Were not white hence ineligible to become citizens” Establish central labor bureau to set wage rates. Utilized a multitiered wage system to pay different wage rates to different nationalities. Divide-and-control system Provide incentive for bonus system. Paid once a year (similar to the year-end bonus) President Theodore Roosevelt prohibit the passage of Japanese from Hawaii to the mainland.

Fight back violentlycounterfeit couponspretend illness/workingresorted to opium and alcohol desertion from service Striking mainly by Japanese : Most important event of “blood unionism”: Japanese Strike of 1909, Portugese 22. 5 per month, japanese 18 A transformation from sojourners to settlers, from Japanese to Japanese American. They succeed. 1920 strike: 1909: Japanese has 70% of working force, 1920 Japanese: 44% Filipino: 30% – first major interethnic working-class unity. Head of Filipino union start the strike but the planters offered him a bribe and he called off the strike. Divide and control) The strike was not succeed. During 1920: the planter enlisted Hawaiians, Portuguese and koreans as strikebreakers. Japanese and Filipino have formed Hawaii Laborers’ Association (multiethnic class) Housing Pattern: Pyramid and sewage system, managers, spanish, japanese and Filipino Divide and control: organization of camps into different nationalities After 1909: planters improve the conditions of camps (abandon barrack system to provide cottage) 5. What were some of the specific ways the workers tried to deal with their hard labor and lifestyle? Be specific.

Small bit of extravagance and a reminder of homeland (Japanese plants bonsai, gardenn and flower around their cottage) traditional hot baths, furos (tubs) resorted to opium and alcohol Sport (baseball) gambling (Chinese Japanese) Taxi-dance (Filipino) Religious activities: Christian and Buddhism (not only a spiritual requirement but also a broad need for ethnicity) National identities (festivals): Chinese new yearJapanese traditional festival of SoulsRizal Day Filipino Also food: Chinese (bao) Japanese (sashimi or sushi or tofu) Filipino abodo (stewed garlic pork), Korean Kimchi . What were some of the ways the workers assimilated into Hawaiian American culture and on the flip side, how did the different ethnic heritages and cultures of the workers become assimilated into Hawaiian society? Hawaiian dish Chinese-Hawaiian Parents Workers of different nationalities began to acquire a common language: pidgin English (combination of Hawaiian, Japanese, Portuguese, Chinese and other languages) 7. We will discuss the concept of the “model minority. ” In the articles, do you see examples of the possible origins behind this concept?

Model minority, also overachieving minority or overrepresented minority refers to a minority ethnic, racial, or religious group whose members achieve a higher degree of success than the population average. It is most commonly applied to ethnic minorities. This success is typically measured in income, education. In the United States, the term is associated with Asian Americans, primarily Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, Korean Americans. 8. Throughout the course of the semester, we will be discussing in greater detail the idea of “the American Dream. Does Takaki’s narrative of the Hawaiian laborers fit into the idealistic image of the American Dream? Why or why not? life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement” regardless of social class or circumstances of birth. I don’t think the Hawaiian laborers completely fit into the idealistic image of the American dream, there are still discrimination in the working class. Most sojourners original plan is to make enough money and go back to their own countries for better life.

They didn’t actually arise their standard of living in Hawaii. However, Hawaii becomes their home. Different from the continent, racial divisions is less. and they constituted a majority of population (different from the mainland. ) Also, their children were having higher education at Hawaii. Children of immigrant workers learned about freedom and equality and they are looking for better occupation to work (in the article, photographer, engineers, businessman….. etc)