Survey of American History Exam 1

Columbian exchange
exchange of plants, animals, culture, and diseases between Europe and the Americas; began after Columbus’s discovery in 1492 and lasted throughout the years of expansion and discovery; the disease caused an estimated 90-95% population loss within the first century of European contact; loss of Native Americans meant loss of labor, therefore leading to African slavery; significant because it produced advancements in agricultural production, evolution of warfare, and increase in education
Joint-stock company
business enterprise that enabled investors to pool money for commercial trading activity and funding for sustaining colonies; people were able to invest with out the fear of bankruptcy; solved financial problem during Elizabeth’s reign in which no single person could provide the money needed for the expenses new world settlement required; merchant or landowner could purchase share of stock at a stated price and expect to get what they invested plus portion of company’s profits; significant because it raised enough capital to launch a new colony in Virginia
headright
Jamestown, Virginia; began in 1616 as attempt to solve labor shortages due to tobacco economy settlers were granted 50 acre plot of land from colonial government; allowed prosperous planters to build up huge estates and acquire dependent laborers; significant because it increased the division between wealthy landowners and working poor
House of Burgesses
formed in 1618; elective representative assembly in colonial Virginia; not democratic but allowed wealthy planters to have say in government; significant because it was the first example of representative government in English colonies
Plymouth Plantation
Pilgrims settled here in New England instead of Virginia because of an error in navigation
Puritans
group of people who grew discontent in the Church of England and worked towards religious, moral and societal reforms; most settled in the New England area; some considered them neurotic (very conservative); products of Protestant Reformation; significant because
Roger Williams
(1603-1683); clergyman and advocate of religious freedom; founder of Rhode Island; exiled from Massachusetts Bay colony in 1635 for his radical religious beliefs and ideas about politics; significant because
Quakers (Society of Friends)
originated in mid-17th century England; members of a radical religious group that rejected formal theology and stressed each persons “inner light”, a spiritual guide to righteousness; one person’s interpretation of Scripture valid as anything else
William Penn
(1644-1718);Quaker; Charles II awarded him very large charter to found Pennsylvania; signed Charter of Liberties, unicameral legislature (only one of all colonies)
Indentured servants
individuals who agreed to serve a master for a set number of years in exchange for transportation to America; dominant form of labor in Chesapeake before slavery
Bacon’s Rebellion
(1675-1676); armed rebellion in VA led by Nathaniel Bacon against colony’s royal governor Sir William Berkeley; Jamestown was attacked twice; significant because it created boundary between Indian and White lands in VA; significant because it prompted tax cuts, limited authority of governor, authorized expansion into Indian lands, and legalized African slavery to prevent another rebellion
King Phillip’s War
most devastating war between the colonists and the Native Americans in New England; Metacomet declared war against colonies; Indians killed hundreds of colonists
The Great Awakening
(peaked in 1730s-1740s); widespread religious revival movement sparked by Jonathan Edwards; divided congregations and weakened authority of established churches in the colonies; “new lights” and “old lights”; significant because it brought national identity to Colonial America
The Enlightenment
Intellectual Revolution that undermined traditional authority; these thinkers believed in natural law; did not immediately believe everything they heard; did not question religion, but did encourage education as primary means of advancing society; significant because it inspired a new way of thinking- science and reasoning
French and Indian War
colonial extension of the seven years war; bloodiest American war in 18th century; product of imperial struggle, clash between French and English over colonial territory and wealth; significant because
Stamp Act
1765; tax placed on newspapers and printed matter produced in the colonies, causing mass opposition by colonists
Townshend Revenue Act
series of acts passed in 1767 by Parliament of Great Britain; purpose was to raise revenue in the colonies to pay salaries of governors and judges so they would be independent of colonial rule; significance because
Boston Massacre
violent confrontation between british troops between British troops and a Boston mob on March 5, 1770; 5 citizens killed when troops fired into the crowd; significant because it inflamed anti-British sentiment in MA
Tea Act
passed by Parliament in 1773; gave East India Company the right to sell tea directly to Americans; some duties on tea were reduced; colonists protested the favoritism shown to the monopolistic company and they destroyed the tea at the Boston Tea Party
Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
1774; closes the port of Boston; restructures MA government; restricts town meetings; colonists were forced to house troops; British officials who were accused of crimes were sent to England or Canada for trial; colonists boycotted British goods; First Continental congress convened
Second Continental Congress
meeting took place in Philadelphia in May 1775, in the midst of rapidly unfolding military events; Continental Army was organized and George Washington appointed as leader; requisitioned men and supplies for the war effort; significant because it was an early form of government
Loyalists
colonists who sided with the king and Parliament in the conflict with Great Britain; also known as Tories; found in all social classes and occupations, but many were engaged in commerce or worked under the crown; also tended to be foreign born and Anglican religion; significant because they offered resistance to the advancement toward independence and delayed the process of declaring freedom
Battle of Trenton
Americans’ hope of winning the war had been looking bleak, up until this point, they had lost every battle; Washington and the American troops crossed the Delaware on Christmas night and surprised 900 sleeping Hessians; significant because it was a turning point and the Americans were given hope that they could defeat the British army
Articles of Confederation
ratified in 1781; US first constitution, which provided framework for national government; limited central authority by denying national government any taxation or coercive power; established 13 states as confederation of sovereign states; provided domestic and international legitimacy for Continental Congress to direct Revolutionary War, conduct diplomacy with Europe and deal with territorial issues and Indian relations
Battle of Yorktown
British Cornwallis moved up to Yorktown(peninsula) thinking
he would have easy access to supplies from England; The French fleet comes in and cuts off Cornwallis from the British navy; 2 French armies and the Continental army trap Cornwallis’s troop on land; significant because this was the last major battle- the British began to realize they couldn’t win the war
Treaty of Paris (1783)
agreement establishing American independence after the Revolutionary War; transferred territory east of the Mississippi River, except for Spanish Florida, to the new republic; significant because it freed US ties to Britain
mercantilism
economic theory that shaped imperial policy throughout the colonial period; built on assumption that world’s wealth was a fixed supply; to increase wealth, nation needed to export more goods than it imports;favorable trade and protective economic policies as well as new colonial possessions rich in raw materials, were important in achieving this balance

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