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Which May Influence the Health and Development of Babies

3500 Unit 18 Task 1: (E1) Summarise the factors which may influence the health and development of babies in the first year of their lives. There are many factors that can influence the heath and development of babies in the first year of there life some factors can occur in the antenatal period before the child is born, some perinatal during the birth and some postnatal after the birth. An example of an antenatal factor is smoking.

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If the mother smokes during pregnancy the baby is more likely to be born premature with a low birth weight.

They also can have poorer lung function and have organs that are smaller than a baby that is born to a mother that does not smoke. Another example of an antenatal factor is stress and worry. ‘Stress experienced by a woman during pregnancy may affect her unborn baby as early as 17 weeks after conception, with potentially harmful effects on brain and development, according to new research. ’ The cord being wrapped around the babies’ neck is a factor that can affect the perinatal period. If this does occur sometimes the cord will be cut before the birth of the baby can precede, other to this an emergency caesarean will be performed. When the cord compression is severe or long standing, the baby may have low Apgars and suffer brain damage, which could result in a degree of mental retardation or cerebral palsy. If the compression is severe enough and labor has not yet begun, the baby can die in uterus and be stillborn. Being born premature is a factor that can affect a baby during the birth. Premature birth is refers to a baby that is born less than 37 weeks of the pregnancy. Babies that are born premature are at greater risk for short and long term complications, including disabilities and impediments in growth and development.

If the child’s mother suffers with postnatal depression this can be a factor that can affect the baby. As a result of this factor the child’s mother might not be able to bond with the child therefore the child will not feel safe and secure and also they may not be able to care for their child to their full potential. Also, although postnatal depression is more common in women, men can be affected too. The birth of a new baby can be stressful for both parents and some fathers feel unable to cope, or feel they are not giving their partner the support she needs.

Abuse is a factor that can affect the baby in the antenatal period. It can leave the baby with lifelong affects such as confidence issues, depression and enabling them to make positive relationships. The baby may also fall behind in their expected stage of development. ‘Emotional problems such as anger, hostility, fear, anxiety, humiliation, lowered self-esteem and inability to express feelings. ’ Are also other affects of abuse towards a baby? E2: describe how indoor and outdoor environments for babies can be made safe, reassuring and stimulating.

Write about what needs to be considered and provided in the setting so babies are safe, stimulated and feel reassured in their environment. This may include: relevant policies and procedures, attractive, reflects those that use it, indoors/ outdoors provision, age/stage equipment/resources……. Whilst children are playing indoors and outdoors there has to be many things that the practitioner has to consider and put in place. Although both environments have to be enjoyable, fun and stimulating they also have to be safe and secure for the babies.

A policy is one thing that has to be put in place and used correctly in order for the environments to be safe and secure. An example of one current policy that is put in place in settings is the Health and Safety policy. The Health and Safety policy gives guidelines on how to keep children, staff, visitors and parents safe whilst attending the setting. An example of a procedure that will be stated under this policy is the signing in and out procedure. This procedure is put in place to make sure that no persons can enter the setting without reason or permission to be there.

Equipment and resources in the setting needs to be appropriate for the age of the babies. An example of this which I have seen in the setting is paint. The paint that had been purchased for the setting was not age stage appropriate for the babies to do finger painting with which is what the paint was intended for therefore the paint could not be used. Staff ratio is important whilst keeping the children safe indoors and outdoors. In order to be able to meet all the children’s care needs and give the correct supervision then there needs to be the correct number of staff to the number of children that are in the setting.

E3: State the choosen age group. Give information about the expected stage of overall development and identify changes which can be usually expected in the next two months. All babies are individual and will develop at different rates all babies will not develop to the same stage at the same age. A baby at the age of 3 months will be expected to be able to hold a rattle for a few seconds but they usually can not look at the rattle at the same time. By being able to do this the baby has developed on their physical skills. Within the next two months of their lives the baby will be expected to develop to the next expected milestones.

At the end of four months the baby can now roll from their back to front. By being able to do this the infant has developed on their motor skills. Also the baby can now push up on his forearms and lift their head and chest 90 degrees when lying on their stomach this position only requires a slight lean to either side to become a roll. These two skills will help the infant to develop and slowly begin to crawl. An infant at the age of 5 months is now beginning to gain some balance and if the infant is sat on their parents lap or on the floor they might be able to sit for a few second unaided.

If the parent places the child’s legs in a v shape and gives the baby a toy as distraction then they may be able to sit for a little bit longer each time. By doing this the parent is helping them to develop on their balance. E4: Explain how two different play activities/experiences can support the overall development of the baby described in E3. Write about two play opportunities which are developmentally appropriate for The baby described in E3. These may include everyday experiences such as Bath time or play activities. Identify how the overall development of the baby is helped by each experience/activity.

A play activity such as laying the child under a play gym would help to support all developmental skills of a baby age 3 months. One example of the skills that are being built is physical development as they will be improving upon their fine motor skills such as their grasping reflects. Social and emotional skills are another area of development that the baby will be building upon. The practitioner will be sat with the baby whilst they are under the play gym talking and communicating with to them, this will help to form an attachment between the practitioner and the baby. This activity is also supporting Bowlby’s attachment theory.

At 5 months an activity that will help developmental skills is sitting the baby on the floor and providing them with a distraction such as toys to help them to be able to sit up unaided. A developmental skill that is going to be developed from this activity is the babies’ physical development. Intellectual development is another skill that is going to be built upon because the child will be exploring the different objects that the practitioner has provided them to play with this also links to the physical development as the child will be grasping the different objects while sat upright.

E5: Describe the role of the practitioner in meeting the particular needs of babies in the chosen type of setting (group childcare) Give information about the responsibilities of the practitioner in EITHER group care OR home-based care. Responsibilities should relate to the chosen care setting and could include: establishing relationships with baby and parents, identifying and planning to meet baby’s holistic needs, observation and recording of development, supervision, resources/equipment, routines, other children…….

Meeting the care needs of the babies that are attending the setting is the main role of the practitioner. To be able to do this the practitioner has to establish positive professional relationships with the babies and their parents. The practitioner needs to establish this relationship to be able to meet the babies’ needs this will help this happen because the practitioner will be able to learn the babies’ routine and get to know the baby holistically. Good communication skills will aid this to happen.

By getting to know the baby the practitioner will be able to plan to meet the baby’s needs. The practitioner can get to know the child holistically. Observations can be used to plan and also to support the practitioners planning. By doing regular observations the practitioner can observe the child and from the observation can gather an understanding of where the child is at in there development and use this information to meet the particular needs of children in the setting. They can then use the findings from there observation to plan for lessons, activities and the future. To monitor on-going development and plan for the next stage it is important to check that development is progressing steadily. With a good understanding of development patterns you can plan for the next stage. ’ The role of the practitioner is to also to provide the correct resources and equipment to meet the child’s needs and that provide stimulation. E6: Show how the child protection policies and procedures in the setting protect and safeguard the babies. Information about how child protection policies and procedures of the setting protect babies.

This may include: observation/recording/reporting, recognising signs of abuse, confidentiality, rights of child, welfare of child, work with parents, teamwork……. Having implemented child protection policies and procedures in the setting will ensure that babies are always safeguarded whilst being in the setting. Child protection policies and procedures are put in place to protect the rights of the child, ensure the welfare of the child is being kept up to standards and also making sure that there needs are being met appropriately.

It is also important that all practitioners in the setting understand their role regarding child protection. It is also vital that everyone is aware and follows the policies and procedures that are put in place to protect the baby’s. There are many forms of abuse that a child can be subjected to and that are subjected to. As a practitioner safeguarding children you need to be aware of these signs and be able to pick on them to be able to keep the child safe. All children, whatever their ages, culture, disability, gender, language, racial origin religious beliefs and/or sexual identity have the right to protection from abuse’. ‘All staff (paid/unpaid) working in sport have a responsibility to report concerns to the appropriate officer’. An example of a form of abuse that a child may be experiencing could be is physical abuse. A sign of this abuse that could help the practitioner to pick on the abuse that the child is experiencing is ‘Has unexplained burns, bites, bruises, broken bones, or black eyes’.

Although one single sign does not prove child abuse is occurring in a family, but a closer look at the situation may be necessary if these signs appear repeatedly. Confidentiality needs to be abided by all the time during child protection. Not only will it help to keep the child safe confidentiality will help to keep the practitioner safe and cover themselves. Although if the practitioner thinks that a child is at harm then they need to approach the settings safeguarding officer and let them know what they think could be happening.

Teamwork and working alongside parents are also essential to make sure that the child protection policies and procedures are successfully implemented in the setting. Whilst working with babies and keeping them safe the practitioner might have to work with other professionals such as social workers. Therefore the practitioner will have to make sure that they have good communication skills and that they are taking regular observations so that they are able to pass on information regarding the child to be able to keep them safe.

E7: Explain the importance of the key worker system. Give reasons why well planned care routines and the key worker system benefit babies in early year’s settings. This may include: links with home, individual needs identified/met, security and consistency, babies learn to predict what is to happen, overall development and learning, relationships with parents, shared information, confidence and trust……. A baby needs routine, stability, safety and life’s basic essential to be able to develop and thrive therefore a well planned care routine is vital.

During the time the baby spends in day care their home routine needs to be brought into the setting as this will help the child to make a clear link to the routine that they follow at home this will help the baby to be settled and feel safe. Having a well planned care routine will help the practitioner to meet the babies’ individual needs. The baby will be having nap time when necessary, having feeds at the correct time and also be receiving any medication that is needed to be administrated. As a result of all these things the child will be helped to feel security and consistency.

Having a key worker system in the setting will allow all the needs of the baby to be met and will also give the baby the security, consistency and routine the need. ‘This means that each member of staff has a group of children for whom she/he is particularly responsible. Your child’s key person will be the person who works with you to make sure that what we provide is right for your child’s particular needs and interests. When your child first starts at the pre-school, she/he will help your child to settle and throughout your child’s time at pre-school, she/he will help your child to benefit from the pre-school’s activities. Having the key worker system in place will help ensure that a close professional relationship is developed between the staff and the baby’s parents so that the needs of the baby are made paramount and that the baby’s needs are met to the parents’ wishes. Confidence and trust will be built through the key worker system and well planned care routines because the baby’s needs are being met and there is a good relationship developing then confidence and trust will come as a result of this which will help the well planned care routine to be affective.

The practitioner must also abide by the Care Standards Act 2000. This act sets national standards that the setting has to meet whilst caring for the children in their setting. 219 227 235 531 595 D: Consider how the care routines can enhance the overall development of babies from birth to 12 months. A development of E7. Give examples of how the overall development of babies can be supported during care routines, eg as well as giving babies food and drink, meal times can be very enjoyable and stimulate the social and emotional development of babies because…….

Well planned care routines can not only meet the individual needs of babies from birth to 12 months they also enhance their overall development. Nappy changing is made to be a part of a well planned care routine and is a part of the child’s care routine that not only has to be done to meet the baby’s individual needs but that can also help to enhance development in other areas. During nappy change the practitioner can communicate with the baby through singing and talking. As a result of doing this the practitioner is helping to develop on the baby’s language and social and emotional development.

As the practitioner is talking and singing to the child they are also helping to build a bond between themselves and the child therefore if it was the baby’s key worker that was always changing the baby then this will help then bond to become stronger. Nappy changing can also be very enjoyable and stimulating for the baby and this will also result in helping to develop on the baby’s language development further. Another example pf how an event of a well planned care routine can also help to enhance the overall development of a baby is meal times.

As well as meeting the baby’s individual care need and helping the baby to understand routine it is also helping the baby to develop in other areas of development such as language development and can also help the children to form bonds with social and emotional attachments. At meal times in my current baby placement all the baby’s sit around the table together and all are eating or fed at the same time. Meal times are made fun with the practitioners communicating with the baby’s either through song or talking.

By doing this the practitioners are helping the baby’s to become familiar with words which will help them to develop on their language development and they are also helping the baby’s to form bonds with the members of staff in the setting. As a result of this the children are going to be stimulated and experience enjoyment which will help when carrying out future meals times. Therefore as a result of this the baby’s will begin to enjoy nappy changes and meal times and the practitioner will be able to use these events of the care routine as times when the child can also be learning and developing.

C: Discuss the importance of an environment that is safe, reassuring and stimulating. A development of E2. Consider why babies need a safe, reassuring and stimulating environment. This may include: the rights of the child and parents, encourages exploration, mental, emotional and physical benefits etc. Having a safe, reassuring and stimulating environment for babies that are attending the setting is essential in helping the baby to feel safe, secure and settled. The environment that a baby is developing in affects the way they grow and develop.

As a result this environment will allow the baby to grow and develop their skills. Babies need plenty of opportunities to explore and move but they also need to be talked to and played with. Babies that have no or little stimulation will not or will slowly develop show signs of development. They will lack development in areas such as language and cognitive development. Offering babies lots of stimulation also encourages the children and helps them to develop on certain skills. By giving babies a safe, reassuring and stimulating environment then the practitioner is respecting the rights of the child.

Every child has the right to be safe, feel reassured and have stimulation. To create this type of environment the practitioner has to enforce and used certain policies and procedures. An example of one of these policies is the child protection policy and a procedure that comes under this policy is that all staff has to be crb checked before entering the setting. As a result of this no one with a criminal conviction can enter the setting and it ensures that no one of any danger can work with the babies. Reference could be made to appropriate curriculum frameworks.

B: Evaluate the role of the practitioner in promoting an inclusive approach when working with babies and their families 8 980 496 510 515 A practitioner should always have and promote an inclusive approach when working with babies. The practitioner should ensure that all babies are included and are care for with their individual needs being met at all times. As all the babies are different then within the setting there is going to many diverse needs that need to be met and the babies also have different family background and cultures that need to be considered in order for the practitioner to be inclusive.

One role of the practitioner in promoting an inclusive approach is to put systems in place that can help to meet the children’s individual needs such as if one baby in the setting is allergic to peanuts then the practitioner will put a system in place so that the particular child is not going to come into any contact with nuts. An example of this would be that the baby’s feed or food would be kept in a separate place to the other baby’s food or snack so that the food is not coming in contact with any peanuts. A positive attitude in the setting is another way that the practitioner can promote an inclusive approach.

If all the practitioners in the setting have a positive attitude towards the setting, children, parents and each other then it will help everyone to feel welcomed and included in the setting. Respecting the baby’s family’s beliefs and wishes is a way that the practitioner can demonstrate that they are promoting an inclusive approach. If the baby’s parents request that the baby cannot participate in a certain task or if they insist that the baby must do or receive something at a certain time then the practitioner must carry this out to the correct procedure that the family have requested in order to show respect for the families’ wishes.

The settings environment must be welcoming and diverse to ensure that everybody feels comfortable, safe and secure whilst using it. An example of this would be the displays and facilities in the setting. The displays in the setting must show a diverse range of information and pictures by doing this the setting is sending a message out to them that visit that they are diverse and that they do embrace individuality. Working with parents to achieve the best for the baby is helps to make the setting welcoming.

If the parents are made to feel that they can come into the setting any time and approach the practitioner with any issues then this will help the parent to feel that they are welcomed into the setting. Also keeping the parents involved with decision making is a way that the practitioner can make the setting welcoming by doing this the practitioner is making the parent feel valued and that there opinion matters. A detailed consideration of how the practitioner ensures the setting welcomes and provides for all babies and their families.

Evaluation may include: systems in place to support individual needs, the environment reflects those that use it, positive attitudes, value diversity and respect beliefs/ values, staff and parents involved in decision making, writing and reviewing of policies, partnership with parents, reflective practice, challenging poor practice……. A: Reflect on the influences of theoretical perspectives of development and attachment on current practice in settings working with babies under 1 year of age. A detailed consideration of theories relating to development and to attachment.

Make links to show how these have influenced current practice in settings that care for babies. This could include: Current research/theory into the effects of day care on babies, quality care standards, national initiatives, Curriculum frameworks, provision, key workers … Bowlby’s attachment theory is a theory that influences current practice in settings working with babies under 1 year of age. ‘John Bowlby was one of the first people to recognise the need of babies and young children for a strong stable relationship with their primary carers. Bowlby believed that mental health and behavioural problems could be linked back to a child’s early childhood. ‘Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others, because this will help them to survive. ’ Bowlby believe that attachment behaviours are natural and will be activated by any situation that is seen to be a threat to the achievement of closeness to the adult, such as fear, insecurity and separation. ‘Attachment is an instinct in babies.

They must form an attachment by the time they are 12 months old as otherwise they may find it hard to develop strong relationships in the future. ’ Bowlby’s theory influences settings now to have the key worker system in place. The key worker system allows the baby to form an attachment with their key worker as the key worker will be the one that is providing the baby with are the basic essentials to be able to survive therefore the child will form an attachment with the practitioner as they are the child’s only form of comfort and survival.

The key worker will also be providing the baby with a routine that is the same to the one that they are following at home therefore this will also help the attachment to form as the child will feel the similarities between the key worker and home. A current theorist that influences on current practice and on the way practitioners meet the learning needs of babies is Lev Vygotsky. He believed that children are active in their learning and thinking. He also believed that children’s social environment and experiences are very important.

Vygotsky influences the practitioners to provide the right resources for the baby to be active in their own learning. For example providing the baby with rattles, when the baby is provided with and shown the rattle then they will reach out for the object by doing this the practitioner is enabling the child to build upon their physical skills and also be active in their learning. Vygotsky, Piaget, developmental 284 70 Bowlby, attachment 80 82 576 Task 1: E1 Task 2: E2+C Task 3: E3 + E4 Task 4: E5 Task 5: E6 Task 6: E7, D, B Task 7: A

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