A ________ is the basic working unit of the central nervous system
The three ways in which drugs can enter the blood stream:
ingestion, inhalation, injection
Catecholamine, Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and endorphins are examples of polydrugs:
In reaction to emotional memories burned into it by the intensity of the drug euphoria, the __________ operates outside of conscious control to cause intense cravings.
The use of psychoactive chemicals, licit or illicit, can objectively be labeled drug addiction
only when the user becomes dysfunctional as a consequence.
According to Shiffman and balabanis, both tobacco and alcohol share a role as _________ drugs that precedes most subsequent use of marijuana and cocaine.
Cocaine use by pregnant women has been linked to various abnormalities in their infants because the substance reduces the supply of blood and oxygen to the fetus
Selective tolerance is also referred to as kindling.
The hypothalamus regulates the release of hormones from the
The repeal of the Prohibition in 1933________ the murder rate in the United States.
resulted in a dramatic decrease in
The most frequently used hallucinogen is:
What is the drug use continuum and how can it help understand the patterns of drug use?
The drug use continuum is listed in order as follows:
1) Nonuse 2) Experimental use 3) Social-endorced use 4) Recreation use 5) Compulsive use.
It shows how people get used to the effect of said drug. Over time they need more to keep the “high” to the point it consumes there life.
________ activates nerve cell receptors to stimulate pleasurable feelings.
The neurological effects of mixing drugs can be additive, synergistic, potentiating or
The Monitoring the Future collects data about drug use from
With regular drug use, ________ become less responsive to drugs that stimulate them
The DAWN program was designed to _________..
serve as an early warning indicator of the nation’s drug abuse problem
is popular among drug enthusiasts, and some users snort heroin and smoke crack in combination
Substances that stimulate receptor sites are known as
Drunk driving is reputed to be the direct cause of ________ deaths in the United States annually.
The term kindling is an alternative term for
Drug abuse may be defined from a number of perspectives: “the _______ definition equates drug use with the mere act of using a proscribed drug or using a drug under proscribed conditions.
Explain the tripartite model Goldstein developed for considering the question of drugs and crime.
Pharmacological caused by the intoxicating effects of a drug, crime is a result of that. Economic-compulsive crime is driven by the need to buy the drugs. Lifstyle, drugs are a part of the pattern of the criminal behaviors.
Explain the concept of reverse tolerance
The person becomes more sensitive to the drug over extended use. Example my nut allergy. Every time I come in contact with peanuts per say my allergy symptoms get more severe. Same concept.
A neuron consists of:
a cell body(soma), the axon, synapses, and dendrites.
are the result of a response to the intoxicating effects of a drug/
The word drug is derived from the fourteenth century french word Drogue, meaning:
are the most frequently used depressants.
The Disease model:
emphasizes the involuntary nature of drug use – use based on a craving that has found support in laboratory experiments with animals.
distinguish between lawful drugs and illegal drugs
The greater the half-life of a drug, the more severe the withdrawl symptoms after use of the drug is discondinued/
elevate mood-produce feelings of wellbeing-by stimulating the CNS
Cannabis exhibits some of the following characteristics:
Hallucinogens, depressants, and stimulants
is the basic building block for the advancement of human knowledge
increased sensitivity to the same or lesser dosage of a drug over time is known as
Cocaine used by pregnant women has been linked:
to serious emotional difficulties in children which can hinder their social and psychological development
trigger activity by moving across the synaptic gap to receptor sites on the dendrites on the other side.
When determining risk versus reward, the _______ tends to emphasize benefits while discounting dangers.
About 40 percent of those who use tobacco are aged:
18 – 25.
is defined as “a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences”
Preoccupation is a characteristic of:
addiction whereby the addict assigns a high priority to acquiring drugs.
The pharmacological effects of
alcohol can cause aggression in some people and is a factor in nearly half of the murders, suicides, and accidental deaths in the United States
Depending on the type of ________, electrical charges from the adjoining neuron are either inhibited or enhanced.
The cost of alcohol is _______ the social cost of all illegal drugs.
Explain differences in drug use measurement between ADAM, DAWN, and the MTF
ADAM measure drug use from a sample of arrestees.
Monitoring the Future (MTF) measures drug use from middle and high school students.
DAWN measures drug use from patients at Hospitals.
Goldstein developed a ______ model for considering the relationship between drugs and crime.
The ADAM program collects drug use data from
one of about 100 neurotransmitter found in the central nervous system, has received special attention because of its apparent role in the regulation of mood and affect and because of its role in motivation and reward processes.
Both _____ and ______ function as introductory drugs that may lead to the use of other psychoactive drugs.
alcohol and tobacco
A short way to explain homeostasis is when the body is in balance. For instance if a person has a chemical or mineral imbalance the person may become or is sick.
Freud posited that the preconscious
consists of thoughts and memories that can easily be called forth
Freud posited that the conscious
consists of what we are currently thinking.
Freud posited that the uncounscious
consists of repressed feelings and experiences that nonetheless exert a dominant influence over our behavior
the genital stage of psychological development occurs from about ages:
three to five years
the third stage of alcohol addiction involves _________ drinking
is a heroin addict’s technique for mixing the drug solution with blood by using the plunger to move blood back and forth between the vein and the syringe.
According to Freud, each person is born with powerful drives, wishes, urges, and psychic tension that are energized in the form of the
According to social control theory, external restraints include:
social disapproval linked to public shame, social ostracism, and fear of punishment
According to Freud, the _______ exercises a sense of morality that controls behavior.
In general, cocaine abusers:
do not appear to present any clearly discernible subculture
Differential association reinforcement theory was formulated from Sutherland’s differential association theory by:
Robert Burgess and Ronald Akers
The struggle for _______ through the progressive process of relationships and experiences enables the person to manage the complexities of adolescence/
Learning theory proceeds on the basis that all forms of behavior are:
A person works to escape a:
Part of the psychological explanation for drug abuse has been a presumed _______, a psychological vulnerability resulting from problematic family relationships, inappropriate reinforcement, the lack of healthy role models, contradictory parental expectations, and/or absence of love and respect.
Which of the following is cited in the text as a noted behaviorist?
Social control theory argues that lower risk of drug use is closely related to:
The pairing of two stimuli, one of which elicits a reflex and one of which is neutral is known as:
If the probability of a behavior goes up after the removal of a stimulus, then:
negative reinforcement has occurred.
When some aspect of animal or human behavior is followed by a certain type of consequence-a reward-the behavior is more likely to be repeated. The reward is called:
The central premise of symbolic interactionism is that
people make their own reality
After passage of the Harrsion Act in 1914,
what had been lawful behavior became illegal, and a new class of criminals was created, as well as a lucrative new enterprise – drug trafficking/
A more recently observed phenomenon of behavior leading to heroin use is the progression from
The rebellion response to anomie involves:
seeking to establish new social order.
A sociological perspective often views drug use as the product of:
social conditions and relationships
The affective model assumes:
that all young people who have high self-esteem will not use drugs.
The information model assumes:
that students will develop negative attitudes that will deter them from using drugs.
The social influence model assumes:
that young people lack the skills to make rational choices and that if they had these skills, they would not use drugs.
With the passage of the Drug Free Workplace Act:
drug testing also became a standard feature in the workplace as a way to measure worker productivity and to ensure public safety.
Associations between several risk and protective factors and problematic drug use among young people are:
Opiates were once presented as a cure for
Cocaine was offered as a cure for:
The most famous of the self-proclaimed doctors whose questionable cures for drug dependency enabled them to become quite wealthy was
Georgia farm boy Charles B. Towns
Heroin addicts typically enter treatment when:
their habit is too expensive to support
J. Cohen suggests that drug education often is ________ because it is not based on the educational principles that underlie the teaching of other subjects, and it tends to skew and censor information.
ineffective, actually propaganda, not education, more political than educational.
Chemical detoxification for heroin reduces the addict’s tolerance so that:
the high can be enjoyed once again at an affordable price
Drug testing first appeared in the 1960’s as a part of:
methadone maintenance programs.
a wholly synthetic narcotic
methadone’s success in treating some heroin abusers can be explained in terms of:
The process of withdrawal from heroin addiction through the use of diminishing doses of methadone takes approximatley
seven to ten days
The first medication approved by the FDA for dealing with alcohol dependence is:
rarely used to treat substance abusers.
The Florida Model of substance abuse treatment consists of
residential treatment followed by living in a halfway house with “recovery employment” in a low-wage job/
The Alcoholics Anonymous(AA) approach of using public confession and commitment and mutual aid concepts can be found in a number of
19th century temperance organizations
Behavior modification is a treatment approach based on:
Cognitive approaches in general
teach abusers to understand their cravings and to develop coping skills
The first drug court was established in Miami in 1989 by
In desensitization treatment
patients are usually first relaxed, then given repeated exposure to a graded hierarchy of anxiety-producing stimuli(real or imaginal) to provide a form of immunity
Cognitive Behavior therapy strives to
have drug abusers understand their cravings and to develop coping skills
Motivational interviewing therapy
involves the conscious and disciplined use of specific communication principles and strategies to evoke the person’s motivations for change.
The earliest “war on drugs” in the United States was a
response to opium.
Arab traders brought opium to
China for use in medicine
The Union Temperance Society,
established in 1808, was the first organized effort to prohibit the uses of alcohol in the United States.
During the 1960’s the pendulum of drug policy began to shift away from a law enforcement model toward a
During WW 2, British, German, and Japanese governments issued amphetamine to soldiers to:
elevate mood and to counteract fatigue and pain.
The Harrison Act of 1970
authorized HEW to increase its efforts at prevention and rehabilitation
U.S Surgeon General Upton Sinclair opposed adoption of the Pure Food and Drug Act, asserting that it was grossly inadequate because it failed to specifically ban opiates.
The earliest “war on drugs” other than alcohol in the United States was a
response to opium
Sedatives or Tranquilizers
such as Miltown and Valium enabled millions of housewives to “get by with a little help from their friend”
LSD was virtually unknown before 1962,
when it was popularized by two Harvard psycologists
In 1961 California established a Civil commitment program in which:
drug addicts were taken into custody and committed.
LSD arrived in the United States from Europe in 1949 for experimental use in treating
The amendment that enacted Prohibition became effective in
Opium use had been traced back to
Egyptian religious rituals as early as 3500BCE
Archaeological evidence depicts opium use as early as
The dramatic event that led to the adoption of the Pure Food and Drug Act was:
the publication of Upton Sinclair’s novel, The Jungle, in 1906
A 1973 reorganization plan led to the creation of the:
Drug Enforcement Agency within the Department of Justice
The term Opium is derived from the Greek word opion, meaning
the juice of the poppy
The Eighteenth Amendment:
initiated nation prohibition.
In the 20th century the use of methamphetamine increased, with new supplies coming from Mexico.
in the 1960’s concern
increased over the diversion of dangerous drugs from licit sources.
The 1990’s was characterized by
a lack of political interest in drug use
The Volstead Act
strengthened the amendment that enacted prohibition
Manufactured under the trade name benzedrine
in 1932 amphetamine was marketed asa inhalant.
Concern with federalism led Congress to
use the taxing authority of the federal government to control drugs.
Control of the world’s cocaine industry rests in the hands of
the Colombian organizations.
Columbia-based cocaine trafficking groups in the United States continue to be organized around
cells that operate within a given geographic area.
To avoid IRS reporting requirements under the Bank Secrecy Act,
Transfers of cash to cashier’s check for $100 bills must take place in amounts under $10,000 or through banking officials who agree not to fill out a CTR.
Open system cards may not
require a bank account or face-to-face verification of the cardholder’s identity
A currency transaction report must be submitted for any currency or monetary instrument transaction in excess of
money launderers use dozens of people (known as smurfs)
to convert cash into money orders and cashier’s checks
Under the Bank Secrecy Act, wiring or physically transporting cash or other financial instruments out of the country in excess of
$10,000 must be reported to the Customs Service
Violence in the drug trade is sometimes the result of
The dismantling of major Colombian cartels in Medellin and Cali created opportunities for their
Mexican colleagues who began forging direct links with cocaine sources in Bolivia and Peru
Colombian cartels, using dummy companies and multiple suppliers,
pay up to ten times the normal prices for precursor chemicals
The distinction between drug trafficking and terrorism is
becoming increasingly blurred
Drugs are often smuggled by
opium wives, followers, and swallowers
Jamaicans dominate marijuana distribution in
sections of Manhattan and the Bronx, most of Queens, northern Brooklyn, and sections of northern New Jersey.
More than 90% of the worlds opium comes from
The popular culture of Mexico is infused with songs and ballads-known as
narcocorridos – glamorizing drug trafficking
The Golden Crescent of Southwest Asia includes
Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of Iran
For decades, Corsican sources supplied the heroin that was,
smuggled into the U.S. through the French port of Marseilles
Drugs are smuggled into the United States from
both source and transshipment countries
For many decades, coca leaf was converted to cocaine base in Bolivia and Brazil
Compartmentalization involves cells with:
about ten members, each operating independently
In 1972 French and US drug agents effectively dismantled the
French Connection, ending the American Mafia’s monopoly on heroin distribution in the United States
In the rural Appalachia region of the US, a relatively high poverty rate contributes to an acceptance of opium cultivation as a source of income by many local residents.
The globalization of organized crime created a connection with
Outlaw chemists have been stealing anhydrous ammonia normally used for fertilizer to
use instead for conversion to methamphetamine by the “Nazi method”.
By the end of the 1990’s Colombian heroin accounted for more than:
50 percent of the drug smuggled into the United States.
A Conspiracy is an
agreement between two or more individuals to commit a criminal act
Reactive Law Enforcement
Encourages citizens to report crimes; the agency will then respond to the reports
Successful law enforcement efforts, at least in theory
should reduce the available supply of drugs while driving up the price and reducing purity
Law Enforcement in general and drug enforcement in particular are
constrained by constitutional limitations, jurisdictional limitations, and corruption.
The purpose of the exclusionary rule is to
constrain the behavior of law enforcement agents
In addition to investigating criminal violations of the Internal Revenue Code, IRS jurisdiction includes the
Bank Secrecy Act and money laundering statues
The easy availability of large sums of money and the clandestine nature of the business make:
drug law enforcement vulnerable to corruption.
The Exclusionary Rule is
the court’s way of enforcing the Fourth Amendment
The legal foundation for prosecuting money laundering as a federal crime is the Narcotic Penalties and Enforcement Act of 1986.
The exclusionary rule is
the court’s way of enforcing the fourth amendment
Due process restrains
government from arbitrarily depriving a person of life, liberty, or property.
Informants come in two basic categories, the Undercover officer and the criminal
The primary responsibility of the Marshals Service relative to drug trafficking is
the Witness Security Program
The Six Amendment
guarantees the right to a speedy trial
Before passage of the Money Laundering Act of 1986,
money laundering was not a federal crime
has been criticized for its impact on innocent third parties and as a device for plea-bargaining with drug kingpins.
The Internal Revenue Service employs the
net worth theory to deal with the tax evasion of drug traffickers
By 2004 state prisons were
operating at 115 percent of capacity
Our response to easily abused substances is
not based on the degree of danger inherent in their use.
On measure the result of policy changes, Jusak and de Marneffe ask
should we be punishing people “simply because we are unable to demonstrate the benefits of not punishing them
The Creation of an illegal drug market controlled by
organized crime was the result of the outlawing of addictive drugs.
China and some third-world countries
execute drug dealers, but the impact of this policy is questionable
The moral-legal model attempts to
control the availability of drugs through penalties
It is paradoxical that politicians who argue that capitalism :
defeated Communism in Eastern Europe also talk of defeating the business of drugs
The Moral-Legal model utilizes
three methods to control potentially dangerous drugs in the United States.
A study in Illinois found that although
white and African American women show similar rates of illegal drug use during pregnancy black women are more likely to be reported to authorities.
Johnson and colleagues argue that
drug treatment should be part of any sentence for convicted drug abusers, postrelease treatment should be a condition of probation or parole, monitoring of urine should be conducted for at least one year
In theory, reducing supply of a product in a free-market economy will:
drive up the price, reduce demand, and reduce consuption
Women who abuse heroin during pregnancy frequently give birth to
infants suffering from neonatal abstinence syndrome
Although Nicotine and alcohol are clearly dangerous psychoactive chemicals
semantic fiction portrays them otherwise
Drug legislation such as the
Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 have numerous loopholes.
Research into the question of whether or not approval of medical marijuana results increases in recreational use
has shown a positive causal relationship.
Free-market conditions provide little
incentive for traffickers to improve the attractiveness of their product
Crack Cocaine has
also been a problem in the Netherlands, although it is primarily used by poly-drug users.
LEAP advocates the
elimination of the policy of drug prohibition and the inauguration of a replacement policy of drug control and regulation.
For those who accept the disease theory of addiction – that
some people take heroin or cocaine to compensate for a physiological deficiency – legalization is a reasonable suggestion.
The majority of Australia’s AIDS cases are intravenous drug users
Deliberately engaging in dangerous pursuits can be explained by these activities causing
release of potentially reinforcing neurotransmitters such as dopamine and endorphins.
Decriminalization, Harm Reduction and legalization:
would enable the use of social controls that inhibit antisocial, albeit lawful, behavior.
In a 1988 effort to reduce the spread of AIDS among intravenous drug users,
a service agency in Portland, OR, became the first to distribute free needles to addicts.
Decriminalization refers to the
absence of laws punishing people for using drugs
Most of those who ingest psychoactive chemicals
do not become dysfunctional
Drugs became a major political issue during the 1988 presidential campaign in part because of a
Time Magazine Article that asked the question “Should drugs be made legal?”
After extensive experimentation in numerous cities throughout the country, Canada has elected to abandon consideration of harm reduction programs.
In the Netherlands from a policymaker’s viewpoint,
drugs are viewed as a social and health risk controlled by minimal measures or even ignored.
Harm reduction abandons abstinence as a realistic objective.
The drug in Switzerland is
one of containment
Although cocaine and methamphetamine use is a major problem
there are few calling for its legalization
It was discovered that intravenous drug users who
are also diabetic do not get AIDS
Decriminalization refers to an
absence of laws punishing people for using drugs, while drug trafficking remains a crime.