Study

Who was the first to cultivate beauty and use cosmetics?
Egyptians
in Rome noble women colored their hair what color?
red
make up should accentuate what? and minimize what?
best features and less attractive ones
designing and arranging things people use to interact efficiently and safely is?
ergonomics
what is affected by repetitive, stressful motions?
joints and muscles
reflective listening is an important strategy to use when conducting a?
consultation
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for a first time guest, how long extra should you give yourself for a consultation?
10 to 15 minutes
what are the two classifications of bacteria?
pathogenic and nonpathogenic
which type of bacteria are harmless and does not cause disease?
nonpathogenic
what is one celled organisms that have both plant and animal characteristics?
bacteria
what is the most common human bacteria?
staphylocci
what is submicroscopic structures that infect plants, animals and bacteria?
viruses
what is an example of a general infection?
syphilis
what kind of immunity do you have after your body overcomes a disease?
aquired immunity
what is removing pathogens and other substances from tools and surfaces called?
decontamination
what are the principal parts of a cell?
nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane
what is a complex process by whereby body cells are nourished and supplied with energy?
metabolism
during catabolism, energy can be used for what?
muscle contraction, secretion, and heat production
what bone forms the forehead?
frontal bone
what bone is the largestand strongest bone of the face and forms the lower jaw?
mandible
bending the wrist involves what?
flexors
nerve endings are most abundant where?
fingertips
how much does an average nail grow per month?
1/10″
how many layers of nail cells make up the nail plate?
100
water content of the nail is between what?
15-25%
what are the 3 phases of hair growth?
anagen, catagen and telogen
what is the technical term for gray hair?
canities
whatis the technical term for split ends?
trichoptilosis
about how many natural occurring elements are there?
90
table salt is an example of what?
sodium chloride
liquids that mix easily are?
miscible
what is the liquids that dissolve substances?
solvents
what is the unit that measures pressure or force that pushes electrons forward through a conductor?
volt- voltage
measuring the resistance of an electric current is called?
ohm
what measures how much electric energy is being used in one second?
watt- wattage
what percentage of natural sunlight is made up of visible light?
35%
fingerwaves are an example of what?
parallel lines
dark and cool colors recede, creating the illusion of what?
less volume
what are the 5 principles of hair design?
proportion, balance, rhythm, emphasis and harmony
water is what kind of solvent?
universal solvent
hard water contains what? that lessens the ability of soap or shampoo to lather.
minerals
what type of molecule is considered to be water attracting?
hydrophilic end of a surfactant molecule
the nonmoving foundation of a curl is what?
the base
section of hair that is molded into a circular movement in preperation for the formation of curls is what?
shaping
what is the type of synthetic fiber of excellent quality that has a texture similar to curly hair?
kanekalon
when burning human hair, it does what?
burns slowly and as a strong oder
what will happen to synthetic hair when you burn it?
either ball up, melt or burn quickly with no odor
what are the most expensive wigs made out of?
human hair
how can toupees be attatched?
by weaving, adhesive or tracks
what is the main ingredient in an alkaline perm?
ammonium thioglycolate
exothermic creates its own what? while endothermic requires what?
exothermic creates its own heat while endothermic requires an outside heat source.
what does waving lotion do?
breaks down disulfide bonds and softens the hair
neutralizer stops the action of what?
any chemical relaxer that remains on the hair after rinsing
what are the most common relaxers?
sodium hydroxide and thio relaxers
what is used to open the cuticle so tint can penetrate the hair?
alkalizing agent
what type of color is a non ammonia color that adds shine and tone?
glaze
as we age what happens to our elastin fibers and what does it cause?
elastin fiber weaken, causing wrinkling and sagging
what is a small, discolored spot or patch on the surface of the skin, such as a freckle?
a macule
a skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping is a?
excoriation
what is also known as excessive perspiration?
hyperhidrosis
what is another term for a wart?
verruca
what is the technical term for unusual amounts of hair?
hirsuties
what uses light to destroy hair follicles?
photo epilation
what product is used on the skin to lower the pH after cleansing?
toner
what is the result of a blood clot under the nail?
bruised nails
what is the bacteria called when artificial nail products are used under unsanitary conditions?
pseudomonas aeruginosa
at minimum, how often should a foot spa be disinfected?
after each use
arts of science of beautifying and improving the skin, nail and hair is?
cosmetology which is a greek word
who refined the process of distillation?
persians
during the renaissance a browless forehead was thought to give women a greater look of what?
intelligence
which type on women would pinch their cheeks and bite their lips to induce natural color?
victorian
Barberpole symbol of the barber surgeon has his roots in what? And is called what?
medical procedure called bloodletting
distributor sales consultant is also called what?
product distributor
what ultimately determines how successful you become?
personal dedication and passion
what are some main facilities to work at?
specially salons full-service salon’s photo video or film sets and day spas
what propels you to do something?
motivation
sitting in properly can cause a great deal of stress on your what?
neck shoulders back and legs
everything you need to know about product safety is in the what?
MSDS
what are chemical products that destroy all bacteria fungi and viruses on surfaces?
disinfectants
laws are also called what?
statutes
what is the invasion of body tissues by disease causing pathogens?
infection
what are one celled microorganisms that have both plant and animal characteristics?
bacteria
what are harmless organisms that may perform useful functions?
most bacteria are nonpathogenic
which bacteria rarely show active motility?
cocci
bacteria has an outer cell wall that contains liquid called what?
protoplasm
what are the two distinct phases of the lifecycle of bacteria?
Active and inactive
when does eats bread from one person to another it is called what? Also known as what type of disease?
contagious disease also known as communicable disease
what is a parasitic submicroscopic particles that affects and resides in the cells of biological organisms?
virus
what is a blood borne virus that causes disease and can damage the liver?
hepatitis
what is the most frequent encountered infection on the foot from nail services?
Tinea pedis
what are organisms that grow feed and shelter on or in another while contributing nothing to the survival of the organism?
parasites
what type of immunity is the immunity that the body develops after overcoming a disease?
acquired immunity
what is due to a reaction to extreme sensitivity to certain foods chemicals or other normally harmless substances?
allergies
what are disinfectants that are very effective when used properly in the salon and also known as quats?
quaternary ammonium compounds
what is ineffective disinfectant and has been used extensively as a disinfectant in the salon and at home?
bleach
where should you discard all single use contaminated objects?
and a bag with the biohazard sticker on it and dispose of the container for contaminated waste
how long should you properly wash your hands?
20 seconds
any type of repeated pressure on any part of the skin especially the hands and feet can cause what?
Callus
what is the outer layer of the epidermis also known as the horny later?
stratum corneum
what is also known as the basal cell layer it is the deepest layers of the epidermis?
stratum germinativum
what is the underlying or inner layer of the skin?
dermis
what are the small involuntary muscles that causes goosebumps?
Arrector pili muscles
The dermis is comprised of two types of layers what are they?
The papillary and the reticular
what is the outer layer of the dermis directly but need the epidermis?
papillary layer
what are the fatty tissues found below the dermis?
Subcutaneous tissue
what type of melanin is red to yellow in color?
pheomelanin
what is the part of the nail plate that extends over the tip of the finger or toe?
free edge
The nailbed contains many nerves and is attached to the nail plate by a thin layer of tissue called what?
Bed epithelium
what is the living scan at the base of the natural nail plate that covers the matrix area?
Eponychium
what is the slightly thickened layer of skin that lies between the fingertip and the free edge of the natural nail?
Hyponychium
what is a tough band of fibrous tissue that connects bones or holds an organ in place?
ligament
normal healthy nails can grow in a variety of shapes depending on the shape of what?
Matrix
what is the average rate of nail growth and normal adult nails?
1/10
what are visible depressions running across the width of the nail plate?
beau lines
hair skin nails and glands are part of what system?
integumentary system
what is the tube like depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root?
hair follicle
what is the lowest part of the hair strand and is a thickened club shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root?
hair bulb
what is the small cone shaped elevation located at the base of the hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb?
dermal papilla
what is a highly contagious skin disease caused by a parasite called a night that burrows under the skin?
scabies
what is the technical term for a boil and a cute localized bacterial infection of the hair follicle that produces constant pain?
furuncle
what is a hair flowing in the same direction resulting from follicles sloping in the same direction?
hair stream
what are always good conductors?
most metals
what is and also known as? a material that does not transmit electricity? Like rubber silk would glass and cement are good one of these.
noncunductor also known as insulator
what is the path of negative and positive electric currents moving from the generating source through the conductors and back to the generate source called?
complete electric circuit
what is a rapid and interrupted current flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction called?
alternating current
how fast is the electricity travel?
186,000 miles per second
what is the unit that measures the pressure or force that pushes electric current forward through a conductor?
volt also known as voltage
what unit measures how much electric energy is being used in one second?
watt
what prevents excessive current from passing through a circuit?
fuse
The use of electrical currents to treat the skin is commonly referred to as what?
electrotherapy
what is an applicator for directing electric current from electrotherapy device to the clients skin called?
electrode also known as a probe
what is the negative or positive pool of an electric current called?
Polarity
what is a positive electrode called?
anode
what is the process of infusing water-soluble products into the scan with the use of electric current called?
iontophoresis
what infuses and acidic product into deeper tissues using galvanic current for the positive pole towards the negative pole called
cataphoresis
what is a form of anaphoresis and is a process used to sofen and emulsify grease deposits and blackheads in the hair follicle?
desincrustation
what is a thermal or he producing current with the high rate of oscillation or vibration that is commonly use for scalp and facial treatments?
telsa high frequency also know as violet rays
each type of energy has its own what? Which is the distance between successive peaks of electromagnetic waves
wavelength
what is the process that turns the light from the laser into heat?
Photo thermolysis
do you know how massage or manipulate a client scalp if what our present?
abrasions
anti-dandruff shampoo’s conditioners and typical lotions contain antifungal agents that control dandruff by suppressing the growth of what?
malassezia
most highly recommended hairbrushes or what?
natural bristle brushes
guess with a infection disease is never to be treated in the salon and she referred to where?
A physician
The more alkaline shampoo the higher and what?
hydrogen
what is water passing through a poor substance such as a filter paper or charcoal to remove suspended play sand and organic material called?
filtration
ingredients on the back of the shampoo bottle are listed and what type of order?
descending order according to the percentage of each ingredient in the shampoo
what type of shampoo helps to close the hair cuticle and are recommended for hair that has been color treated or lightened?
shampoos that are pH balance
what are two good condition agents that restore moisture and elasticity and strengthens the hair shaft?
protein and Biotin
what type of shampoo contains special ingredients that are very effective in reducing dandruff or leaving other scout conditions?
medicated shampoo
what absorbs moisture or promote the retention of moisture?
humectants
what is the stationary foundation of the curl which is the area closest to the scalp?
base
what type of base for pin curls are recommended along the front or facial hair line to prevent brakes are splits in the finished hairstyle?
triangular based
what are pinned girls placed immediately behind or below a ridge to form a wave?
ridge curls
how many turns creates a curl?
2 1/2 turns
what type of base has the least volume the roller sets completely off the base is called what?
off base
what is also known as ruffing?
back brushing
what is a technique used to keep curly hair smooth and straight wall retaining a beautiful shape?
hair wrapping
what is an attachment that causes the airflow more softly and helps to a sensual way or keep textural definition?
diffuser
what type of brush has a flat base and are well-suited for mid length to longer length hair that are large?
paddle brushes
what is also known as Meadows which is a light airy with styling product that resemble shaving foam?
foam
what is the edge nearest to you on your flat iron called?
inner edge
combs that are used with thermal irons should be made out of what?
hard rubber
temperature settings for your flat iron depends on what?
texture of the hair
as a rule what kind of hair can wish withstand more heat than fine here?
Gray and course hair
for full based curls hold the hair strand with what kind of tension at what degree?
me and tension at 125° angle
what temporarily straightens extremely curly or unruly hair by means of a heated iron or comb?
hair pressing
if the scalp is what remember to use enough tension to press the hair satisfactorily?
flexible
after heating the comb to the proper temperature test it on a what?
A light piece of paper
what is sometimes necessary with the hair becomes curly again due to perspiration dampness or other conditions?
touchups
when executing an updo always inspect the shape your building from every angle to make sure it is what and what?
well-balanced and well proportioned
what are disadvantages of human hair wigs or extensions?
they react to the climate
top-of-the-line synthetic hair is made of what?
kanekalon
what is called when the client hair is completely concealed?
A wig
what are more popular than Wigs as they’re ready to wear and less expensive?
capless wigs
what are the least expensive option for wigs?
Machine made wigs
what should you do before a full-color application?
strand test
what is a hairpiece called that has openings in the base through which the clients own hair is pulled to blend with the hair of the hairpiece?
integration hair piece
what is a small wig he used to cover the top and crown of the head called?
toupee
what layer contains the natural pigment called melanin that determines hair color?
cortex
what type of melanin lens black and brown color to hair?
EUmelanin
what system do colorist to use to determine then lightness or darkness of a hair color?
The level system
what color can bring depth or darkness to any color?
Blue
what color is the result of adding all three primary colors together?
Black white or gray
primary and secondary colors position directly opposite each other on the color wheel are called what?
complementary colors
what tone can look deeper than their actual level?
cool tones
what colors are often used to cover glay?
neutral base colors
all permanent hair color and minors contain what?
A developer and alkalizing ingredient
what type of hair color is only a coding action that may be removed by shampooing?
temporary haircolor
what type of hair color does not need a patch test?
temporary haircolor
what type of hair color is used to match lighten and cover gray hair?
permanent hair color
what contains small on colored dyes that combined with hydrogen peroxide to form larger permanent dye molecules within the cortex?
aniline dervatives
what is the standard volume of developer?
20 volume
what are chemical compounds that lighten hair by dispersing dissolving and decolorize seen the natural hair pigment?
lighteners
application when the hair is prelightened before depositing color?
double process
during the process of the colorizing natural hair can go through how many stages?
10
do you colorizing the hair is natural melanin pigment allows the colorist to create the exact degree of what?
contributing pigment
what is used when there is a risk involved in any chemical service and that if the clients hair is in questionable condition?
release statement
how many hours prior to each application of hair color is a patch test given?
24 48 hours
where should a patch test be given?
behind the ear or on the inside of the elbow
brush and bowl should use what type of mixing bowl?
nonmetallic
what processes used when lightning in depositing color and a single application?
Single process
what happens when you overlap color and has visible line separating color hear from you?
line of demarcation
what is the process of treating gray or very resistant here to allow for better penetration of color?
presoftening
do not buy hair color is what our present on the scalp?
abrasions
what is a very important part of the facial treatment because it determines what type of skin the client has and the condition of the skin?
skin analysis
when working around the eyes during a facial what type of movement do you use?
move outward on the upper lid and inward on the lower lid
what determines the size of the pores?
The amount of sebum produced by the sebaceous glands determines the size of the pores
what causes open comedones also known as blackheads?
or is that are clogged from dead cells building up in the hair follicle
acme bacteria can’t survive in the presence of oxygen which is called what?
anaerobic
pimples with the pus head are called what?
pustules
you should never treat a guest with rosacea with the treatment that what?
releases heat or stimulates the skin
what type of cleansers are cleansers that contain surfactants?
foaming cleansers
lotions that help rebalance the pH and remove remnants of cleanser from the skin are called what and are also known as what?
toners also known as fresheners or astringents
what is the removal of excess skin surfaces?
exfoliation
what is a type of chemical exfoliation that works by dissolving keratin protein in the surface cells of the skin?
enzyme peels
what products helps increase the moisture contents of the skin surface?
moisturizers
water binding agents in moisturizers?
humectants
during a facial treatment what must be thoroughly removed before any other products can penetrate the skin?
massage cream
what can be used for sensitive or do you hydrated scan and they do not dry hard because they often contain hydrators and soothing ingredients?
gel masks
what direction of movement is always used for muscle massage?
moving is always from the insertion of the muscle toward its origin
what type of massage is an kneading movement performed by lifting
petrissage
what type of massage is a deep rubbing the movement in which you apply pressure on the skin with your fingers or palm well moving it over in underlying structure?
friction
what is a point on the skin that covers the muscle or pressure or stimulation will cause contraction of the muscle?
Motor point
what helps too soft in the tissues make it more excepting of moisturizers and other treatment products during a facial?
A facial steamer
what are two types of electro therapy which is the use of electrical currents to treat the skin?
galvanic and high-frequency treatments
Who discovered high-frequency current?
nikolas tesla
what helps to improve acne prone skin?
light therapy
what should you place on clients eyes during of light ray treatment?
Cotton pads
disinfection container must be what?
large enough to hold and completely emerge all utensils
if your disinfectant container does not have a lift tray or basket remove implements with what?
tongs
what is a stainless steel implement used to carefully trim away dead skin around the nails?
nippers
what should you do to all implements before putting them in a disinfectant solution?
A thorough cleaning
what type of grit nail file is more aggressive?
Low grit
what type of acetone remover will not dissolve enhancement products?
non acetone
what creates a colorless layer on the natural nail in improves adhesion of polish?
base coat
what ingredients is and nail hardener’s?
methylene glycol
what is applied over color polish to prevent chipping and ads shine to the finished now?
top coat
which type of mail is slightly tapered and usually should extend just a bit past the fingertip?
round mail
essential oils are extracted from what three various forms?
seeds Wood and resin of plants
and implement similar to a nail clipper designed for use on nail tips is?
Tip cutter
many nail tips have a shallow depression called what?
well
make sure when fitting tips to your client that the Tips you choose exactly cover the nail plate from what to what?
sidewall to sidewall
The bonding agent to use to secure the nail tip to the natural nail is called what?
nail tip adhesive
what is used to Cohancy care fabric to the natural nail and natural Tips?
nail wrap resin
fabric wrapped is a nail wraps made of what?
Silk linen or fiberglass
what is made from natural material with the tight weave that becomes transparent when wrapped present is applied?
Silk wraps
when applying Tips onto the clients natural nail what should you do?
stop rock and hold
when applying to the nail carefully smooth the contact area down until it’s what with the natural now?
flush with the natural nail
you should do fabric wrapped maintenance every?
two weeks
what is not long enough to be considered a polymer?
oligomer
what key things do you need to cure gel nails?
resin, photoinitiator and curing lamp
what type of gel is thinner and consistency then building gels allowing them to settle and level during application?
uv self leveling gels
what is the tacky surface left on the nail after UV gel has cured?
inhibition layer
UV lamps must be changed how many times per year?
two or three times
when did UV gel polish evolve?
year 2000
why must you be cautious when filing nails?
because they are soft
why sure you put finish sealer under the free edge of the nail?
to prevent lifting
putting a client first is what in the salon?
required
you need to practice what in the salon?
people skills
what is being paid and it is a direct result of the total amount of service dollars to generate for the salon?
Commission
what type of salary motivates employees to perform more services thereby increasing their productivity?
salary plus commission
what are additional income to your regular compensation and must be tracked and reported on your income tax return?
tips
what is the act of recommending and selling products to your client for at home use?
retailing
what do you need to be successful in sales?
ambition and determination and a pleasing personality
some clients may prefer what type of cell tactic that involves informing them about the product without stressing?
soft cell
middle-class women color their hair what color and ancient Rome?
blonde
what is the largest organ of the human body?
skin
epidermis layer is
cuticle layer
which nail grows the slowest?
thumb
what is the clear transparent layer just under the skin surface that consists of small cells through which light can pass?
stratum lucidum
what is the muscle that brings down and wrinkles the four head vertically?
corrugator muscle
how many bones are in the cranium?
8
how many bones in facial skeleton?
14
how many bones are in the ankle?
3
what is the study of the functions and activities performed by the body structures?
physiology
middle part of the muscle?
belly
visible part of the matrix that extends underneath the living skin?
lunula
five major elements found in skin hair and nails are often referred to as the what elements?
cohns element
what is the head of a surfactant molecule?
hydrophilic
dandruff is called
pityriasis
what is the scientific study of hair?
trichology
combination of two or more substances that are physically blended but not chemically joined?
physical mixture
Chemical reactions I give off heat are?
exothermic
raise with short wavelengths that are least penetrating produce chemical facts and kills germs are?
ultraviolet rays
for more mass of a hairstyle?
volume
what is the principle of hair design that holds all the elements of design together?
Harmony
A chemical reaction that combines an element or compound with oxygen to produce and oxide is?
oxidation
what are two basic requirements for a healthy scalp?
cleanliness and stimulation
during shampooing apply small quantities of shampoo to the front hairline
reference points and a haircut are used to establish what?
design my
The part of the head that is found by placing a coma flat on the sides of the head
parietal ridge
what range of pH conditions the hair after chemical services?
3.5 to 6.0
to prevent fatigue muscle aches and physical problems when performing the shampoo maintain correct?
posture
what is the ideal face shape?
oval
The two front corners of the head represent the widest part of the?
Bang area
what type of shares are designed to remove more hair with larger teeth?
notching shears
what are pain girl sliced from us she been informed about licking the hair from the head?
carved curls
Half Moon curls also C shaped base curls are?
arc pin curls
texturizing technique performed on the ends of the hair using the tips of the shears to remove bulk?
point cutting
call me in small sections of hair from the end toward the scalp to form a cushion at the base
teasing
Full breeding styles can make an oblong shaped face look?
shorter
brushes that collapse when they encounter too much resistant and releasing tangles are what?
pneumatic
what type of hair is very resistant to hair pressing and requires more heat and pressure?
wiry curly hair
what type of extension material that make us or break the hair and melt with heat is?
nylon
what is the classic proportion and ratio of head size to body size?
1:7
The needle used to so extensions on to attract should be what?
straight or curved
The method of attaching extensions to clients own hair with a bonding material and heat from a special tool is what?
Fusion
all wraps begin by section hair into what?
panels
acid wades usually have a pH between what?
7.8 to 8.2
what is the primary reducing agent?
glyceryl monothioglycolate
what is the active ingredient in all Hydroxide relaxers?
hydrogen ion
The double rod technique is also known as what?
piggyback wrap
when hydroxide relaxers removed one album of sulfur from with the sulfide bonds is?
lanthionine bond
what is the system for understanding color relationships?
law of color
what is the combination of thio relaxer and thio permanent wrapped on large rods?
soft curl perm
what is distended capillaries caused by constant overdilation and weakening of the capillary walls are known as what?
telangiectasias
what is an open lesion of the skin or mucous membranes?
ulcer
exfoliating chemicals that dissolve our loosed deel-cell build up?
alpha hydroxyl acids
cream type enzyme Applied to the face and rolled off after forming a crust?
gommage
Mission that results from the living skin splitting around the nail?
agnail
what is a dark plans with the nail plate extending from the base to the free edge due to increased pigmentation?
melanonychia
what implement is not designed for reuse?
wooden pusher
joint movement is also called?
relaxer movement
total immersion of implements well disinfecting as a rule of the?
epa
how many coats of nail polish is best?
4
what is a friction movement using the fest with him out in applying for the pressure of the heel towards the ball of the foot?
thumb compression
Cut a nail tips with the nail clipper will cause the nail tip to weaken and?
crack
how long should acrylic and hands be soaked for removal?
20 to 30 minutes
to reach their ultimate strength acrylic nail enhancements require how many hours?
24-48
what type of brushes are used to hold and spread the UV gel?
synthetic
how many pages should a simple resume have?
1
to prevent lifting of mail enhancements the natural nail plate should be what?
dehydrated
clients that you serve on a regular basis is called?
client base
companies or people that have an ownership interest in the company is called?
stockholders
A plan that describes the business and for he sees the next five years?
Business plan
The virus that causes AIDS?
HIV
amateur strand of human hair is divided into two parts the
root and hair shaft
conducts electricity?
conductor
curl that permits media movement?
Half stem curl
The person’s physical posture walked and movement
physical presentation
what is the outline of a hairstyle?
form