A limited time offer!

urgent 3h delivery guaranteed

Study on the Impact of Information and Communications Technology

Essay Topic: ,

Study on the Impact of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and New Media on Language Learning EACEA 2007/09 FINAL REPORT Commissioned by: Carried out by: © European Commission STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING FINAL REPORT 2 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING

This is the Final Report of the study regarding the impact of information and communications technology (ICT) and new media on language learning which was commissioned by the Education and Culture Executive Agency (call for tenders EACEA 2007/09) and carried out by Ellinogermaniki Agogi through an international team of experts.

Edited and compiled by In conjunction with Reviewers of literature: Field studies: Anne Stevens, The Open University UK Lesley Shield, e-learning consultant Lesley Shield, e-learning consultant (review in the area of CALL) Katerina Zourou, University of Luxembourg (review in other areas) Cyprus Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Spain UK International interviews Data analysis: External advisor: Project Manager: Commissioned by: Pavlos Koulouris, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Peppi Taalas, University of Jyvaskyla Ilona Laakkonen, University of Jyvaskyla Katerina Zourou, University of Luxembourg Daniela Stai, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Dagmar Schaffer, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Pavlos Koulouris, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Daniela Stai, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Pilar Aramburuzabala, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Anne Stevens, The Open University UK Lesley Shield, e-learning consultant Lesley Shield, e-learning consultant Pavlos Koulouris, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Jason Abbott, The Open University Patrik Svensson, Umea University Sofoklis Sotiriou, Ellinogermaniki Agogi Carried out by: This study has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication and the views expressed in it reflect the views only of the contributors and do not necessarily represent those of the European Commission or any other organisation cited.

We will write a custom essay sample on Study on the Impact of Information and Communications Technology

or any similar topic only for you

Order Now

The Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 3 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are indebted to all of those who contributed to the study, its preparation and execution. To the many friends, staff and colleagues who collaborated to create the online survey and create localised versions. They worked to identify key contributors and persuade them to spare the time to be interviewed – all provide valuable and unique insights into the ‘underworld’ of informal learning under investigation. Katerina Zourou created the interview schedules for the team.

Special thanks are extended to Lesley Shield who worked alongside the Project Leader at key times to advise, counsel and encourage. Her tireless efforts and considerable input to the final text are greatly valued. Thanks to the team in Ellinogermaniki Agogi in Athens who ensured that the technical structures were in place and operated efficiently enabling analyses to be carried out. Pavlos Koulouris in that team, who closely followed all aspects of this project, established the survey, and set the study in motion. The rest of the team in Athens, with Sofoklis Sotiriou who took responsibility for the administration and contractual details involved.

Jason Abbott, who undertook additional statistical analysis at a late stage, and Patrik Svensson, who acted as external evaluator and advisor; both of them contributed valuable insights and clarity of thought. We also valued the support and input from the Steering Committee in Brussels who provided helpful and thought-provoking comments to our various discussions: Brian Holmes; Gillian McLaughlin; Kristina Cunningham; and Dominique Loir. The realisation of this report has benefited from information, insight, advice, feedback and support from many who are not mentioned here, but appreciated all the same. FINAL REPORT 4 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING 5 FINAL REPORT

STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………… 8 METHODOLOGY ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 10 DEFINITION OF TERMS AND APPROACH TO THE STUDY ………………………………………………………………………….. 12 DESK RESEARCH …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 QUANTITATIVE SURVEY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16 QUALITATIVE STUDY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17 CASE STUDIES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20 THE STUDY SAMPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 USERS’ BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS AND ATTITUDES ……………………………………………. 8 EVERYDAY USE OF ICT……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28 USING ICT FOR LEARNING ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29 USING ICT FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29 MOTIVATION FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 30 ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE USE OF ICT AND NEW MEDIA FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING …………………………………. 0 BARRIERS TO THE USE OF ICT AND NEW MEDIA FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING …………………………………………….. 31 OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES, TRENDS: EUROPEAN LEVEL COMPARISONS ACROSS COUNTRIES …………………………………………………………………………………….. 34 AVAILABILITY AND ACCESS TO ICT…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34 ICT AND LANGUAGE LEARNING ………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………. 37 NATIONAL INITIATIVES FOR CHANGE …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 CURRENT LANGUAGE LEARNING PRACTICE …………………………………………………………………………………………. 45 THE INFLUENCE OF ENGLISH …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 48 SOCIAL CONTEXT AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING PROMOTION ……………………………………………………….. 49 PUBLIC BROADCAST MEDIA AS AN INFLUENCE ON LANGUAGE USE AND ACQUISITION ……………………………….. 51 PERCEIVED VALUES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING …………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 CHANGING BEHAVIOURS IN LANGUAGE LEARNING: FORMAL OR INFORMAL? …………………………………………… 52 MOTIVATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55 PERSONALISED LEARNING ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58 MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES AND LANGUAGE LEARNING …………………………………………………………………………….. 62 USE OF MOBILES FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING: EVIDENCE FROM RESEARCH ……………………………………………….. 3 STIMULATING DEMAND: GROWING THE EXPLOITATION AMONG OTHER STAKEHOLDERS ……………………………. 65 PERCEIVED ADVANTAGES OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING USING ICT AND OTHER NEW MEDIA ……………… 66 GAMING AS LEARNING TOOL …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 67 PROMOTING GROWTH IN LANGUAGE LEARNING: INFLUENCE OF BROADCAST AND PUBLIC MEDIA ……………….. 68 QUALITY PROVISION: TEACHER DEVELOPMENT …………………………………………………………………………………… 71 EMBEDDING CHANGE AMONG PROFESSIONALS: THE BIG CHALLENGE? ……………………………………………………. 2 TEACHERS AS LEARNERS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 74 WAYS FORWARD: STRUCTURING ACCESS TO GOOD PRACTICE AND SOUND EXAMPLES ………………………………. 74 BARRIERS TO CHANGE: LEARNER TRAINING ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 75 APPLYING LESSONS FROM THE PAST TO ADVANTAGE: THE LEARNING EXPERIENCE …………………………………… 77 CORPORATE PERSPECTIVES: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES AMONG EMPLOYERS ……………………………….. 78 IMPLICATIONS OF MOBILITY OF LABOUR …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 EMPLOYER ATTITUDES TO NEW TRAINING POSSIBILITIES ………………………………………………………………………. 82 THE RESPONSE FROM TRAINING PROVIDERS ………………………………………………………………………………………… 83 FINAL REPORT 6 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES: ADAPTING TO MARKET DEMANDS………………………………………………………………… 84 DISTINGUISHING AND DEFINING GROUPS OF LEARNERS ………………………………………………………………………… 5 RISING AWARENESS OF BENEFITS OF EXPLOITING ICT AMONG DEVELOPERS ……………………………………………. 86 ADDRESSING ISSUES OF DEVELOPMENT COSTS ………………………………………………………………….. ………………… 87 PERSONAL COSTS TO USERS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88 WORKING EFFECTIVELY TO EXPLOIT EXPERTISE AND EXPERIENCE …………………………………………………………. 90 ENCOURAGING GREATER UPTAKE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 CHALLENGES TO CHANGE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92 THE CURRENT CLIMATE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 93 CONCLUDING REMARKS……………………………………………………………………………….. 94 RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………………………………………………. 96 COMMUNICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 98 PEDAGOGICAL INNOVATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 99 CROSS-SECTORAL INITIATIVES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 100 7 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING INTRODUCTION Europe’s Information Society emphasises linguistic diversity as a fact of life.

Web TV, online music, movies on mobile phones are a reality for European businesses and citizens, underlining the importance of being able to access and use information in a number of languages. The promotion of linguistic diversity and multilingualism in the emerging landscape of, and through, media and information and communications technology (ICT) is a guiding principle for several European policies (predominantly programmes run by the Directorate General for Education and Culture of the European Commission1, but also as a component of other EC initiatives, such as the European Community’s 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development2 and the eContent and eContentplus Programmes3). Languages, media and new technologies are themes that have been investigated in several different contexts at a European level.

A number of projects connected with ICT-supported language learning have been funded, which through various approaches have aimed to demonstrate the added value that can be obtained from using ICT and new media, either alone or together with face-to-face interactions to create ‘blended’ language learning experiences. In parallel, European markets, increasingly in recent years, have been producing new products and services for language learning through the use of ICT and media. From this increasing body of experience, an understanding is emerging of the need for certain conditions, if the expected benefits of the use of ICT and new media are to be achieved and interventions made more targeted and effective. These include appropriate pedagogical support and teacher training, digitally competent learners, well maintained infrastructure, appropriate digital content.

There are discussions among experts and in the professional communities related to language learning on the arguments that language learning multimedia sources need to be made easier and more interesting to use, that multicultural and multilingual environments need to be developed to make use of Europe’s rich heritage, and that older as well as emerging new media (e. g. interactive TV, mobile internet, podcasting, MP3 players, electronic games) and ‘edutainment’ in general need to play an important role in promoting language learning and multilingualism. In the context of these discussions, the need has become evident for an assessment of the potential value of emerging technologies, and whether they are being, or could be exploited to greater effect, in language learning.

Fresh thinking about the ways in which we may use new tools and technologies in language learning is necessary, on the basis of evidence from the field including the markets currently developing in intersections of ICT, media, and language learning. It is time to examine in both depth and wide scope how language learning is adapting and benefiting from the ever-faster changing world of communications and new technologies, with the exponential growth in the use of mobile and handheld devices and ICT for social and entertainment purposes over the last few years. As technologies converge and boundaries between broadcast and interactive media create new opportunities for direct http://ec. europa. eu/dgs/education_culture/index_en. htm http://cordis. europa. eu/fp7/ 3 http://cordis. europa. eu/econtent/, http://ec. europa. u/information_society/activities/econtentplus/index_en. htm 1 2 FINAL REPORT 8 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING mediation, interactivity and personalisation of home–based delivery, new possibilities for learning are emerging. The debate around the impact of ICT and new media on language learning is naturally influenced, if not determined, by the developments within the wider context of public media and the current debates and dilemmas confronting broadcasting and broadcasters. Issues relating to learning, to take-up among traditional and new users and changes in delivery and use are all part of a much bigger picture.

It can be argued that it is meaningless to consider impact upon learning and language learning in particular without situating these activities within the larger spectrum of change. Thus, an undertaking to assess the potential of ICT and new media and its impact on language learning should aim to capture the essence of changing society in its many dimensions and how such social change can inspire, influence and inform the decisions at strategic and policy levels. The often conflicting perspectives operating in modern society, such as new opportunities versus available time, resources versus costs of use, potential of new technologies versus practicalities of everyday applicability ought to be taken into account, in order to assess where best to intervene, influence or invest effort and resources.

The wider social make-up represented by multiethnic populations, a work-force on the move, global economic movements and pressures, the importance of communicating with others and understanding more about other cultures as well as the global influence of the English language are aspects of today’s world than also need to be taken into consideration. On this background, the present Study on the Impact of ICT and New Media on Language Learning was initiated by the European Commission through its Education and Culture Executive Agency. The aim was to investigate the possibilities of ICT and new media as complements to traditional language teaching and learning methods within and beyond the traditional framework of formal education systems, with the purpose to inform policymaking and future activity in the area of language learning.

The study, which was carried out between June 2008 and May 2009, aimed to assess the current situation concerning the use of ICT and new media for language learning, and cast light over future developments in this area. It concentrated particularly on identifying trends and practices beyond schools and universities, in working life and in personal life, including the use of ICT and new media in formal, non-formal, and informal language learning. It focused on language learners’ behaviours, motivation and attitudes, possibilities for increased language learning outreach, as well as opportunities and challenges, demand and supply factors in the relevant markets. 9 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING METHODOLOGY

The study followed a four-stage plan of development, which is reflected in the four Annexes: • • • • A comparative study ‘on the potential for the use of ICT and new media for language learning in eight European countries (Annexe I) A quantitative survey of the use of ICT and new media for language learning purposes (Annexe II) A qualitative survey on current trends in ICT-supported language learning and possible developments in Europe and beyond (Annexe III) A set of case studies that serve as examples of good practice of the positive impact ICT and new media on language learning (Annexe IV). FINAL REPORT 10 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING The starting point is desk research which provides the background and highlights areas of development and gaps in understanding. This comprised: two literature surveys and a comparative study based on existing data. Together they provide the context and define the parameters of the open survey, qualitative investigations and national reports. In depth reporting is focused on eight countries selected to represent a diversity of size, provision and societal differences in Europe.

At a European level, the study encompasses a diversity of research techniques in order to provide evidence from a variety of sources from eight countries within Europe which represent around 56% of the total population of the EU-27 and exemplify different cultures, size of territory and social contexts for language learning (see section on the study sample further below in this chapter, and more details in the Comparative study in Annexe I). The study sample countries are Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Spain, and the United Kingdom. 11 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING Definition of terms and approach to the study The study began by mapping the conceptual landscape for the investigation. An inclusive approach to language learning was adopted to cover formal, non-formal and informal language learning.

The three terms were interpreted as follows, on the basis of existing EU definitions4: • Formal learning: Learning typically provided by an education or training institution, structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time or learning support) and leading to certification. Formal learning is intentional from the learner’s perspective. Non-formal learning: Learning that is not provided by an education or training institution and typically does not lead to certification. It is, however, structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time or learning support). Non-formal learning is intentional from the learner’s perspective, e. g. elf study via a downloaded resource from a free to use online source. Informal learning: Learning resulting from daily life activities related to work, family or leisure. It is not structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time or learning support) and typically does not lead to certification. Informal learning may be intentional but in most cases it is non-intentional (or ‘incidental’/ random). • • The assessment of ‘impact’ relates to the interplay of availability and use of technologies and their applicability to and perception of their use for language learning purposes as informed via the three-part research investigation: • • • quantitative data qualitative data evidence from research.

This three-dimensional approach to developing a body of evidence is critical as outcomes derive from: • • • an overview of current use and perceived values of ICT and new media for language learning purposes an in-depth analysis of varying contexts and cultures to identify commonalities current research in the field identifying recognised developing trends and areas currently being investigated as potentially fertile for development. The team agreed that ‘Impact’ does not equate with ‘effectiveness’. Rather, ‘effectiveness’ is one possible interpretation of the term. ‘Impact’ is related to change in practices leading to an improved learning experience. Such impact may be found in evidence of: 4 European Commission (2000). A Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Brussels, 30. 10. 2000. SEC(2000) 1832. FINAL REPORT 12

STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING • • • Changes in the way languages are learnt and taught Increases in numbers of language learners A paradigm shift in the roles of learners and teachers. These definitions guided the work of the study. Desk research The starting point for the study was desk research. This comprised a two-part desk research exercise and established existing data and evidence from within the area of CALL and from elearning more generally. The first part comprised two major literature reviews while the second part was a comparative study of the context in the eight countries involved in the study. Literature reviews

The reviews focused on two related fields: • • Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) over the past four decades Literature resources in e-learning beyond the field of CALL. Through these literature reviews, the research team mapped the concepts and emerging issues and questions related to the field under investigation, as documented in the relevant international literature. Taken together, the two literature reviews contextualise current uses of ICT and other new media for language learning. Annexe III summarises this work. The first literature review commences with a brief history of the use of ICT and new media for language learning. Two models of that history are presented and discussed in order to clarify and define terms commonly used in the field to ensure a shared understanding.

The review further describes two literature surveys – a pilot survey and a follow-up survey – of articles that were published in specialist computer assisted language learning (CALL) journals in the period 1983 – 2008. By analysing the outcomes of these surveys, the report attempts to identify current trends in the published use of ICT and other new media to support language learning. It was believed that the regular publication of academic journals, in contrast to books or dissertations where the lead time to publication can be several years, would mean these would offer more up-to-date information than other types of CALL-specific resources.

In order to take advantage of the fast publication route offered by the Web, journals that appear solely online (e. g. Language Learning and Technology Journal) were included. Criteria were identified for the selection of journals for inclusion in the survey. Further criteria were drawn up to select similar items from the journals’ contents: only peer-reviewed academic articles were to be included, thus excluding items such as software reviews, book reviews or discussions by the journals’ readership. ‘Special issues’, where published articles 13 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING ocus on a specific area of CALL were also excluded. While such special issues could be seen to demonstrate the importance of a specific aspect of CALL, they might also result from a proposal made by an individual and thus, the data might be skewed by an influx of items about a specific topic. The content of each included item was examined and tagged according to the categories of technology types used in CALL that are identified in the conceptual framework of the study. From this study it was possible to gain an overview of the types of article published in each journal year on year and across all the journals considered in any particular year.

Whilst the methodology applied allowed only a broad-brush overview to be obtained – refinements to the methodology suggested in the concluding sections of the report provide indications of some possible trends in the use of ICT and other new media to support language learning. As well as considering the types of technologies / approaches addressed in the included articles, the surveys considered them in terms of the categories ‘formal’, ‘informal’ and ‘non-formal’ learning. The second literature review serves to expand literature review beyond CALL, by drawing similarities with publications, findings and outcomes identified in closely-related areas.

These areas are basically 1) Computer Supported Language Learning (CSCL), 2) e-learning and open & distance learning, 3) Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) and 4) mobile and interactive learning. These areas together with CALL form a group of closely linked fields of research, practice and development and are mutually enriched and developed. This literature review also synthesizes findings and draws conclusions by bridging CALL research with research carried out in the above mentioned fields. The second review took as its focus the following areas: • International organizations’ studies and reports: The aim was to seek similar studies or research that has been carried out on the same field by other international organisations, and draw on methodology, findings and recommendations from other studies.

Networks, pan-European e-learning portals: The aim was to look for similar studies or research that has been carried out on the same field by other international organisations. Journals (other than CALL publications) (2005-2009): The aim was to search beyond the area of CALL and through similar fields. Scientific, stakeholders’ and practitioners’ conferences (2005-2009): Three different types of conferences were selected (highly scientific conferences, stakeholders’ and practitioners’ annual meetings) to investigate common characteristics in conferences’ scope and thematic, and investigate convergence (or divergence) of big professional events addressing different type of target groups who are all active in the field of computer supported (language) learning. • • •

This part of the study was prompted by the growing attention on (learning) practices corresponding to the strengthening of the learner-centred paradigm, where emphasis is not on predefined pathways set by educators, but trajectories, both on the individual and the collective strand, co-constructed by learners and supported by various resources (human and material) throughout the learning process. Learners creatively configure, adapt and handle resources and the multiple trajectories that constitute learning processes are highlighted through the attention drawn on practices. An estimated 80% of adult learning takes place FINAL REPORT 14 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING outside formal education. For language learning, it is likely that out-of-class experiences play an equally important role (Benson & Reinders, in press5). However, informal learning has received far less ttention while ‘institutionalized’ learning, classroom methods and materials have been intensively explored over the years. ICT-supported informal learning practices are more difficult to identify. They occur in settings where it is much more difficult to observe practices and learners are not always aware at what extent they are learning and that learning occurs informally. Additionally, there is a wide range of settings and types of learning in informal and non-formal settings that the state of knowledge has not fully explored yet. Comparative study The second part of the desk research was a comparative study. This is presented in Annexe I.

As an initial step in the research sequence, the comparative study aims to develop the framework within which information collected from the field in subsequent steps is located. Based on available data and information, it outlines the wider context of the eight sample countries in which the use of ICT and new media for language learning should be examined. The information used for this comparative study comes mainly from published statistics and datasets of the European Union on aspects of Europeans’ lives which are relevant within the field investigated. These aspects, and the corresponding assumptions which yield them as interesting in the present context, are outlined in Table 1 below.

Provided the corresponding data range is available, the development of the examined statistical indicators is observed in a time frame of 2000 to 2008 (year of commencement of the present research), or to the most recent year before 2008 for which data is available. For the purposes of general comparison between countries, the average for each country in the years featured is calculated in some cases. If fluctuation in the statistics of a country with respect to a particular indicator is observed, this characteristic is highlighted. In cases, however, in which the current state is more significant than the historical development of a measurement, the data for the last available year is focused upon. In addition to the information for each of the eight sample countries, the EU average for each indicator is also provided as a means of reference.

In addition, any information available through the European channels on other major countries in the world, notably the USA and Japan, is also provided as an indication of any strengths or weaknesses in the ‘competition’ between the EU and its major counterparts in the world. 5 Benson, P. , Reinders, H. in press. Beyond the language classroom. 15 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING Table 1: Aspects investigated in the comparative study ASPECT INVESTIGATED UNDERLYING ASSUMPTION Country size, economy and position of education in society Proliferation of life-long learning Facts & attitudes related to language learning

National characteristics/ exposure to languages related to learning motivation ICT penetration in households and workplaces The demand and supply of language learning products and services based on use of ICT and new media may depend on general level of development of the economy of each country and the position of ICT within it. Population’s interest in lifelong language learning may be related to the existence or not of a wider culture for lifelong learning in each country. The extent to which ICT and new media are used for language learning in a country may depend on broader context of language learning and its position in society. Contextual information on the use of, and attitudes to, language learning technologies are also relevant.

Certain socioeconomic and cultural characteristics, such as multilingualism In broadcast media, tourism, immigration, or unemployment, may constitute factors which encourage language learning in certain contexts. The extent to which the use of ICT and new media for language learning in personal and professional life relate to the extent that new technologies and digital literacy have penetrated society. An economy and society characterised by a tendency to Structural characteristics produce innovation and Research and Technology reflecting innovation Development (RTD) may be more likely to demand and supply language learning products based on the use of ICT and new media.

Note: Information on the above aspects used for the comparative study originated in EU public information sources such as the Eurostat statistics database (http://ec. europa. eu/eurostat), the Eurobarometer public opinion analyses (http://ec. europa. eu/public_opinion), the Eurydice information network on education (http://eacea. ec. europa. eu/Eurydice), as well as other relevant EC studies. Quantitative survey The quantitative survey, presented in Annexe II, was designed to address issues raised in the desk research. Building on the comparative study and initial literature review (integrated in Annexe III), the quantitative survey aimed to follow up on key areas among a wider cohort of users via an open survey.

An online questionnaire was launched in seven languages (English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, and Spanish). It can be viewed at: http://www. ea. gr/ep/survey/. A copy of the online questionnaire in English is presented in Appendix II. The questionnaire was designed to collect information about the behaviour and attitude patterns of individuals and the use of ICT and new media for language learning. The FINAL REPORT 16 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING approximately 230 questions and sub-questions were thematically organised into six sections (see Table 2). Table 2: Sections in the quantitative urvey questionnaire Section 1 2 3 4 5 6 Content General demographic questions (gender, age, languages spoken, country and place of residence, education level, and occupation) Patterns of use of ICT and new media in everyday life. Attitudes to multilingualism and language learning in general Attitudes towards the use of ICT and new media for language learning Behaviours towards the use of ICT and new media for language learning Opportunity for respondents to provide contact details if they were interested in potential further involvement in the study. The first section included general demographic questions (gender, age, languages spoken, country and place of residence, education level, and occupation). The second section concentrated on investigating patterns of use of ICT and new media in everyday life.

The third section of the questionnaire explores attitudes to multilingualism and language learning in general, and the following two sections specifically investigate behaviours and attitudes to the use of ICT and new media for language learning. The final section of the questionnaire offered the opportunity to the respondent to provide contact details if they were interested in potential further involvement in the study. The whole questionnaire was preceded by a screen containing a short text explaining the purpose and ethical code of the online survey and inviting users to participate. Input was sought from informed individuals and institutions already involved in or have an interest in the use of ICT and new media for language learning.

The online questionnaire was answered by more than 2000 respondents originating in the eight sample countries and many other countries in Europe and beyond. The quantitative data was analysed in consecutive cycles of analysis. At the final stage, an external, experienced data analyst with no previous involvement in the study was also involved. Results of the Quantitative Survey are reported in Annexe II. Qualitative study The picture of behaviours and attitudes emerging from the quantitative study is complemented through the qualitative evidence-collection which is detailed in Annexe III. This qualitative study examined behaviours, attitudes, opportunities and trends in greater depth, based on user input nd expert opinions accessed through interviews, as well as the literature reviews discussed above (p. 13). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with learners, teachers and ‘players’ in the relevant markets in the eight sample countries, as well as with world-renowned experts in the field from many parts of Europe and beyond. The aim of the interviews was to cast light on identified issues and questions, by directly interrogating stakeholders and those at the vanguard of change in the field. 17 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING Interview frameworks were designed for the various target groups. These are included within Appendix III.

Interviewees were selected in the eight sample countries, as well as more widely in Europe and other parts of the world, to include people with acknowledged experience relating to the use of ICT and new media for language learning, practitioners involved in innovative practice and with language learners. In addition to semi-structured interviews, an analysis of the responses to open-ended questions and comments included in the online questionnaire was carried out and this offered additional insights into opinions of learners, practitioners and experts. Access to informants varied by country, depending on local circumstances including population and market size.

Each set of country-based interviews included a balanced coverage of target groups and institutional contexts, including: • • • • • Language learners, language teachers, and language schools Producers, distributors and providers of language learning content and services, including publishers, software developers and broadcast media Companies investing in language training Experts in the field Individuals motivated to learn, such as: those in employment and vocational trainees outside school education seeking to acquire appropriate language skills for work those at risk of exclusion from language training, such as new immigrants, school drop-outs, or those who may have abandoned earlier language studies those learning languages out of personal interest or motivation.

Overall, the qualitative survey provided a deeper interpretation of the issues that emerged from the previous stages of the study, as well as providing a framework for the formulation of recommendations to stakeholders and the selection of exemplifying cases of interesting practice. The number of interviews, their distribution across the target group and the structure schedules for the semi-structured interviews are included in Appendix III. The analysis of the qualitative data was carried out by the country experts, who synthesised the findings and key messages. Annexe III comprises a synthesis of the results of the qualitative data collected via the field work. Results are organised in accordance with the key themes of the study. Key themes of qualitative study

Within this remit, the research team formulated the following specific research areas for investigation: • availability and use of ICT FINAL REPORT 18 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING • • discernible changes in relation to ICT identifiable trends / directions of change. Specific research areas covered include (full details are in Annexe III): • use in relation to ICT more widely: frequency of use compared to general personal use of ICT and new media any changes reflecting the more generic use of the technologies any further, wider, potential for educational and learning exploitation identifiable barriers to expanding exploitation. effects on language learning: Can new language learning behaviours related to the use of ICT and new media be identified? Does the use of such technologies positively affect language awareness, attitudes to multilingualism and language learning in general? Does the use of ICT and new media appear to enhance user motivation to learn languages? • ability to improve outreach: Do ICT and new media seem to help to reach new target groups for language learning, including those that are typically at risk of exclusion? What does the advent of ICT and new media mean for the language teacher? • economic / market implications: Do ICT and new media have any impact on economic activity connected with language learning?

Is it possible to identify salient factors driving demand and supply? Do any changes drive a new demand for languages training? Has the market responded? Stakeholders from related fields The investigation into patterns of use in areas of ICT and public media reveals a multidimensional approach by users. This work informed the qualitative study in domains beyond language learning per se but potentially strongly allied via user networking. It explores via 19 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING the semi-structured interviews the learning potential of harnessing new areas of ICT and media that feature in lifestyle choices.

It explores the potential to join up a wider range of contributors/ collaborators in order to influence, inform and strengthen delivery of learning content. Interviewees included a number of allied but not essentially language–focused stakeholders such as broadcasters, publishers and developers who are active in language learning delivery. Their perception of the value of language learning, predicted changes and future trends contribute to the overall picture. The potential to embed language learning more deeply within everyday technologies and media more widely are investigated and inform the potential for joint actions inform the recommendations relating to this part of the study. Case studies

A set of case studies was identified that demonstrates interesting practice and exemplifies a variety of forms and structures that are being/can be exploited positively to impact language learning. They are detailed in Annexe IV. The identification and description of the case studies was derived from information collected by the study team members investigating the field in the eight sample countries during the previous stages of the study. The aim of the case studies is to illustrate patterns, opportunities and trends identified during the field study. The case studies are selected as examples of where study team members saw potential for expansion and scaling-up of innovative practice and where specific examples of work provide potentially useful frameworks for others.

These case studies do not constitute a definitive list of ‘best practice’, rather, they illustrate interesting and/or good practice. The criteria for the selection of case studies included the following: • • • • • • • Context of use Innovative character (effective use of new media, blended approaches in pedagogy and technology) European added value, language coverage Scalability and transferability User-friendliness, motivation Systematically documented impact on learners, outreach, and/or the market Cost/benefit ratio, affordability and sustainability. The selected case studies are organised into the following thematic areas: • National initiatives for change FINAL REPORT 20

STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING • • • • • • • • Free, social learning resources to reach new audiences and users Creating transition from informal to formal learning Flexible resources for teachers Innovations in integrating media into educational practices Supporting rural, remote and disadvantaged learners Media initiative in mobile learning Initiatives from cultural institutes Developments in company training. The study sample The study encompasses a diversity of research techniques in order to provide evidence from a variety of sources from eight selected countries within Europe. The sample countries

The eight sample countries represent around 56% of the total population of the EU-27 and exemplify different economic, social and cultural contexts (see the Comparative study in Annexe I for full details). They are: • • • • • • • • Cyprus Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Spain UK. The Comparative study (Annexe I) provides for a basic comparison between the eight sample countries on the basis of statistical indicators and other similar information. This broadbrush picture is complemented by information collected directly from the field via countrybased field work studies, the results of which are brought together in the Qualitative study (Annexe III).

Various characteristics of the eight countries are summarised in Table 3 below. 21 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING It should be stressed that there is inevitably a level of abstraction in the various values assigned to each country in this table. Closer consulting of the figures and descriptions in the Comparative study (Annex I) and Qualitative survey (Annexe III) is necessary for a more precise picture for each country. Table 3: Aspects of countries represented by the study CYPRUS Very small Small but dynamic FINLAND FRANCE GERMANY GREECE HUNGARY SPAIN UK Very large Very large and dynamic Medium Country size

Small Very large Very large Small Small Very small but dynamic High Large Large and dynamic Low Very low Very low Medium Economy Large and dynamic Large Large Small but dynamic Public investment in education Private investment in education Educational attainment Adult education and training activity Multilingualism Language learning activity Perceived effectiveness of language learning at school Exposure to languages through foreign media Exposure to languages through tourism and foreign residents ICT penetration Research and Technology Development activity High High High Medium Low Very high Very low Medium Medium Very high Medium High Medium

Very high High High Medium High High Very high Very low Very low Medium Very high Medium Medium Very low Very low High Very high Medium High Medium Low Low High High Medium Medium Medium Low Low Low Medium Medium High Very low High Low Very high High High Low Low High Medium Very low Low Very high Medium High High High Low High High Low Very high High High Very low Low Medium High Low High Medium High Low Medium Low High FINAL REPORT 22 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING Clearly, the eight countries investigated offer contrasting contexts. They differ considerably in terms of size.

As far as population is concerned, they include the three largest EU countries (Germany, France and the UK), three of the smaller EU countries (Greece, Hungary, Finland), as well as one of the very small members (Cyprus). Table 4: Population of the eight countries in 20086 COUNTRY INHABITANTS % OF TOTAL EU-27 POPULATION Cyprus Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Spain UK Total of 8 countries EU-27 789,258 5,300,484 63,753,140 82,217,837 11,213,785 10,045,401 45,283,259 61,185,981 279,789,145 497,455,033 0. 2 1. 1 12. 8 16. 5 2. 3 2. 0 9. 1 12. 3 56. 2 100. 0 The size and dynamics of the economy of each of the eight sample countries is of interest as they may reflect the inherent potential in certain contexts for increased demand and supply of products and services, including the various language learning solutions.

The Eurostat indicator of GDP (Table 5) per capita provides a reliable measurement of the differences between the eight sample countries in terms of economic activity and economy strength. As the figures published by Eurostat for 2008 at the time of writing this report were forecasts influenced by the developing world economic crisis, the data for 2007 are being used below to show the relative size of economic activity between the eight compared countries. Table 5: GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) (EU-27 = 100) COUNTRY 2007 90. 8 115. 8 109. 1 114. 7 94. 8 62. 6 105. 4 118. 9 100 152. 7 112. 1 Cyprus Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Spain UK EU-27 US Japan 6

Unless otherwise stated, Eurostat is the source for the information included in the tables in this section. 23 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING The sample of the eight countries includes both stronger and weaker European economies. Hungary, Cyprus and Greece are smaller economies, with a per capita GDP in PPS lower than the EU-27 average. Hungary, in particular, has a low purchasing power per capita at about only 60% of the EU-27 average. At the other end of the spectrum, the UK, Finland, Germany and France are countries with a high purchasing power per capita, while Spain is also above the EU-27 average.

The character of these economies is further illustrated by another Eurostat indicator, ‘Real GDP growth rate’, presented below (Table 6). Table 6: Real GDP growth rate: Growth rate of GDP volume – percentage change on previous year COUNTRY Cyprus Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Spain UK EU-27 USA Japan 2000 5 5. 1 3. 9 3. 2 4. 5 5. 2 5 3. 9 3. 9 3. 7 2. 9 2001 4 2. 7 1. 8 1. 2 4. 2 4. 1 3. 6 2. 5 2 0. 8 0. 2 2002 2. 1 1. 6 1 0 3. 4 4. 1 2. 7 2. 1 1. 2 1. 6 0. 3 2003 1. 9 1. 8 1. 1 -0. 2 5. 6 4. 2 3. 1 2. 8 1. 3 2. 5 1. 4 2004 4. 2 3. 7 2. 5 1. 2 4. 9 4. 8 3. 3 2. 8 2. 5 3. 6 2. 7 2005 3. 9 2. 8 1. 9 0. 8 2. 9 4 3. 6 2. 1 2 2. 9 1. 9 2006 4. 1 4. 9 2. 2 3 4. 5 4. 1 3. 9 2. 8 3. 1 2. 8 2 007 4. 4 4. 2 2. 2 2. 5 4 1. 1 3. 7 3 2. 9 2 2. 4 2008 3. 7 0. 9 1. 3 2. 9 0. 5 1. 2 0. 7 0. 9 1. 1 -0. 6 The sample of the online survey The online survey (Annexe II) was launched in autumn 2008 and closed in March 2009. Input was sought from informed individuals and institutions who are already involved or have an interest in the use of ICT and new media for language learning. To this end, the survey was publicised via professional and other networks and mailing lists via the eight countries of the study. Respondents were drawn from a wider group, but it is the responses from the eight selected countries that are the focus of the analysis.

In total 2195 responses were received. The 8 sample countries account for 60% of these responses (N=1313). The remaining about 40% of total responses comes mainly from various EU countries (notably from Italy, Portugal, Belgium, and Romania), as well as from some other European countries and other parts of the world. Results were analysed across the eight countries and across variables with outstanding comparisons or contrastive results identified and highlighted. In addition to work within the study team, an external data analyst was employed to contribute to the overall analysis. As an online and open survey, participants are not representative.

In considering results from the survey, the following caveats have been identified: • Sampling frame and response rates were different in each country. Country responses may not easily be generalisable to the population. FINAL REPORT 24 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING • • • Respondents will in part be self-selecting (e. g. online survey will not be completed by those not on-line). ‘Missing data’ / ‘unknown’ varies between different countries for different questions. Statistical significance is difficult to establish given some of the above and small numbers for some groupings.

Further, the following key features of respondents should be taken into account: More women (approximately 60%) than men (approximately 40%) responded. 81% (of valid responses) had Higher Education or Postgraduate qualifications but approximately 1/3 of the total number of respondents did not answer this question. There was a wide spread of ages (about 5% of responses to this question were empty): Age % 60 10 Respondents mainly lived in cities (around 60%) with others spread others spread across ‘town’, ‘small town’ or ‘rural locations’. The sample was highly multilingual. The most common first languages were English, Greek, Spanish, German, Finnish, and French. About 83% of all respondents spoke at least two languages in addition to their first language.

The most common other (i. e. ‘foreign’) language stated was English (about 50% of respondents stated this as their first other language), followed by French (14% as first other language) and German (7% as first other language). Respondents tended to speak their first other language as ‘proficient users’ (levels C1, C2), and their second other language as ‘independent users’ (levels B1, B2). Respondents consider speaking and learning languages as very important to them. About three out of four state that language skills are very important to them in work and career, in personal life and personal development, but also as a social or cultural value.

Most respondents are regular users of ICT and new media. More than 90% of them use ICT and technologies daily or frequently, both for work and in personal life. About 80% of respondents have at least occasionally used computers and new technologies in formal or non-formal language learning situations, and more than 30% of all respondents have done so regularly. About eight out of ten respondents state that they have studied or learned using computers or other new technologies for their learning or assessment. About 90% of respondents are either directly or indirectly related to language teaching, language learning, linguistics, education or ICT.

In summary, the sample consists of people strongly interested in language learning and/or in the use of ICT and new media (% of total sample): 25 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING Speaking at least two foreign languages ‘Language skills are very important to me’ Using ICT daily or frequently Have used ICT in formal or non-formal language learning Have studied or learned using ICT Related to language teaching/learning, linguistics, ICT 83% 75% 90% 80% 80% 90% Given the self-selection characterising the sample, the online survey cannot provide results reflecting behaviours and stances in the general population, nor can it support comparisons between countries.

However, it provides useful insights into some patterns of behaviour and attitudes in the part of the population which features a strong interest and involvement in the use of ICT and new media for language learning. Tendencies observed in this rather large sample may reflect beliefs and practices characterising those who nowadays form the main user base or potential audience of ICT and new media in the context of language learning. This information, combined with the trends emerging from the extensive qualitative research and literature review, helps towards a better understanding of the present situation and can provide some hints about what may follow in the near future.

In the following section key tendencies observed in the data from the online questionnaire are discussed. FINAL REPORT 26 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING 27 FINAL REPORT STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING USERS’ BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS AND ATTITUDES The online survey (Annexe II) is a useful source of information about the patterns of behaviour and attitudes in relation to the use of ICT and new media for language learning that were observed on the field. Although the sample is self-selected and the results cannot be generalized to the general population, as explained above (pp. 5-26), the responses provided by a sizable sample of people with an existing or potential interest in this area provide a valid picture of the tendencies currently emerging, casting light on the background of the qualitative findings that are discussed in the parts of the report that will follow after this section. The most salient tendencies relating to the use of ICT and new in everyday life and in language learning in particular, as well as users’ attitudes to language learning and the use of technologies for this purpose, are presented below in summary. A full presentation and discussion can be found in Annexe II. Everyday use of ICT Respondents were mainly experienced ICT users, which is not surprising.

It is interesting to note that among them, ICT in connection with work or career tended to be even more frequent than use related to personal life. Respondents were also asked how they used ICT and for what purpose. By far, most commonly they reported that they use ICT to socialise, keep in touch with others, and do work. More than eight in ten respondents stated that they do these activities either daily or frequently. The next most common reported activities were related to getting informed: more than 70% of respondents use ICT to keep themselves updated on current affairs, check quick facts and find new information for things the do or plan to do.

Using ICT for entertainment is also very common, with almost 69% of respondents doing so daily or frequently. It is also very clear that the younger the respondents, the more likely it is for them to use technologies for entertainment. Interestingly also, the frequency of this use of ICT seems to increase among those over 70. Online shopping, on the other hand, is not a frequent activity among most respondents, with only about 23% of them doing this daily or frequently. The middle ages tend to do online shopping more frequently than the younger and older generations. FINAL REPORT 28 STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND NEW MEDIA ON LANGUAGE LEARNING Using ICT for learning

Although the vast majority of respondents have at some point studied or learned using computers or other technologies, using ICT for learning or study is not one of their most common activities in everyday life. They tend to use technologies far more frequently for socializing, communicating, working, informing themselves on various matters, or for entertainment. The frequency of learning or study with the use of ICT compares with that of using online facilities for banking, tax, or contacting officials. Learning or studying with the use of ICT is far more frequent than online shopping. However, it is interesting to note that the younger the respondent, the more likely it is for them to use ICT and new media for studies or learning. Using ICT for language learning

Even in this self-selected sample of respondents, the use of ICT for formal language learning and assessment is not that widespread. Computers/other technologies were the main medium in language courses for less than 10% of the respondents, and a regular course component for about 30%. Similarly, less than one in five respondents had earned formal certification of their language skills using technologies in the exams or in the preparation for them. On the other hand, informal language learning through exposure to the target language via ICT and the new media is much more common. Nearly all respondents had communicated in a foreign language online, and two out of three in online environments where participants in the communication used more than one language.

Asked about the technologies and applications that have helped them to improve their language skills, even if language learning was not their main intention, respondents revealed interesting patterns of ICT use. A wide range of technologies was reported, some more popular and useful than others. Among the devices mentioned in the survey, nine in ten respondents recognise the usefulness of computer and TV for improving language skills. About 70%, too, consider radio as a useful tool for language skills improvement. On the other hand, even in this sample of generally active and motivated users of ICT and new media for language learning, only less than one in four respondents state that the use of mobile phones or other handheld devices has helped them to improve their language skills.

Among the applications specifically related to language or language learning, online dictionaries and grammars are by far considered as the most helpful for language learning. Two in tree respondents have found ICT language courses and materials useful. Other language-related applications, such as text corpora, concordancers, automatic translators, speech recognition and reproduction are seen as helpful by less than half of the respondents. The use o

How to cite Study on the Impact of Information and Communications Technology, Papers

Choose cite format:
Study on the Impact of Information and Communications Technology. (2017, Jun 28). Retrieved December 16, 2019, from https://phdessay.com/study-on-the-impact-of-information-and-communications-technology/.