Student Sport and Fitness
Table of Contents 1.Introduction3 2.Key literature review3 3.
Methodology5 4. Presentation of findings7 4. 1. Quantitative data7 4. 2. Qualitative data12 5. Data analysis14 5. 1. Perception of NTU’s Master Students towards sport and fitness14 5. 2. Do NTU Master Students maintain their health by participating in sport and physical activities? 15 6. Reflections on the Collection and Utilisation of Data17 6. 1. Reflective Observation18 6. 1. 1. Collection Data18 6. 1. 2. Utilisation of Data19 6. 2. Abstract Conceptualisation20 6. 3. Active Experimentation20 7. Conclusion21 References22 Appendices24 ? 1.
Introduction Nowadays, Sport and Fitness is becoming more and more important in life of every people all over the world. According to Euro barometer (2010), it is because people are being aware of the vital of doing sport and physical activity to improving health both in physical and mental. However, due to the lack of information in connection with university student in the UK, this report investigates the perception and action of students towards sport and fitness of students in Nottingham Trent University (NTU). The data which is utilised in this study was acquired through quantitative and qualitative research.
Questionnaire and interview are respectively conducted on 50 and 10 NTU’s Management Master Students of September course of the academic year 2011/2012. The respond rate is 100% for both types of researches. 2. Key literature review There are numerous studies of sport and fitness which illustrating vast benefits of sport participant. Sport and PA are constituents of enhancing health and enriching the social interconnection to support a meaningful life to people all over the world (GRANT, 2001; COLLINS and KAY, 2003:28; RENFROW et al, 2011).
Nevertheless, International Olympic Committee (2011) emphasised the risk of insufficient sport and physical activities (PA) in adolescents which lead negative affect to health physically and mentally. Laverie (1998) suggests the most significant reasons encourage participants are have fun, learn new skills, make friends, social group. However, despite the recognition of sport’s vitality, not everyone participate in sport and PA, due to the differences of a number of factors.
The table following illustrates two main factors which affect sport participation the most: age and gender. There are also some studies about other factors such as availability of green space and family culture. AUTHORSMain StudyAgeGenderOther factors VAN TUYCKOM, et al. (2010)Gender and age differences in regular sport participation across 25 European Countries. The level of participation in regular sporting activities varies among young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults age categories. In general, men participate in regular sporting activities than women.
COOMBES (2010)The relationship of PA and overweight which measured by accessibility and utilisation of green spacePeople tend to be more active and participate in sport and PA when being surrounded with more green spaces RENFROW, M. S. , et al (2011)“The relationship between sports participation and health-related physical fitness in middle school and high school. ”Increase in male participant will increase health-related physical fitness, but not females due to the difference in kind of sport chosen. BIRCHWOOD, D. et al. (2008) WHEELER, S. 2012)Family culture has substantial affect to sport participation. Living in the family which parents invest a considerable amount in sport will influence children’s sporting participation in the future. In this research, the word “sport” is used not only for activities which require specific skills and fixed rules to compete against other individuals or teams in specific areas. It also involves leisured physical activities which do not require competition but also result health’s benefit such as going to exercise at gymnasium.
In other words, it is called informal activities (L’AOUSTET and GRIFFET, 2001). BOREHAM and RIDDOCH (2001) mention that playing organised sports either formally or informally results healthy body for older children. Furthermore, people now participate in physical activities not only follow sport organisations but also on their own ways in the streets or in a park based on the need in expanding green spaces or downtown park for informal activities (Coombes, 2010, L’AOUSTET and GRIFFET, 2001). It is significant evidence demonstrating the benefit of sport and PA.
The whole world understands the important of sport and PA in life and there are an increasing number of organisations with several policies to incite participant in sport and PA to maintain health and fitness such as Sport England. However, the main subject is mostly children, young adult, athletic student and older people. That is the reason to carry out this report. 3. Methodology In this research study, primary research was conducted with the purpose of collecting qualitative and quantitative data through questionnaire and one-to-one interview.
Quantitative research was conducted on the sample of 50 management master students of Nottingham Trent University. The questionnaire was developed to examine the perception and action of students for participating in sports. The questionnaires with 14 questions (see more in appendix A) were given out to 50 management master students with the respond rate is 100%. The research attempted to focus on equally gender among respondents, yet the reality is 29 male and 21 female with a variety of age (Table 1) Table 1: Frequency of respondents on the basis of ages FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Valid1812. 02. 02. 0 2012. 02. 4. 0 2112. 02. 06. 0 22510. 010. 016. 0 23612. 012. 028. 0 241428. 028. 056. 0 251428. 028. 084. 0 2624. 04. 088. 0 2724. 04. 092. 0 3024. 04. 096. 0 3212. 02. 098. 0 3612. 02. 0100. 0 Total50100. 0100. 0 Qualitative research was conducted on 10 students. Each interviewee was asked eight questions within 8 minutes duration in average (see more in Appendix C). All interviews were recoded under permission of interviewees and consequently were coded in order to be used in this study. Before carrying out the research, questionnaire and interview questions are piloted by all members in group 5-cohort D. 4. Presentation of findings 4. 1.
Quantitative data Fortuitously, the ratio of students which place sport in priority position in their daily life is equally with 50% do and another 50% do not.There is an assumption that sport which was ranked as 1st, 2nd or 3rd is considered as important in their daily routine. The result illustrates only 22 respondents (44%) who ranked sport as important in their daily routine. Among those, there are 6 respondents who are female (Table 2). Fourth is the most popular ranking for importance of sport in women’s daily routine with 12 respondents. In any case, respondents completely agree that sport is benefit to maintain physical health.
Table 2: The important of sport in daily routine on the basis of gender (1 as the most important, and 6 as the least important) GenderTotalCumulative Total MaleFemale How is important of sport in your daily routine? 1Count5166 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 83. 3%16. 7%100. 0% 2Count43713 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 57. 1%42. 9%100. 0% 3Count72922 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 77. 8%22. 2%100. 0% 4Count5121739 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 29. 4%70. 6%100. 0% 5Count62847 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 5. 0%25. 0%100. 0% 6Count21350 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 66. 7%33. 3%100. 0% TotalCount292150 % within How is important of sport in your daily routine? 58. 0%42. 0%100. 0% According to Figure 1, respondents who considered sport as important in daily life are scattered from age 18th to age 30th. The middle line represents the median of the sample which means the middle value of entire age sample; in this case, it is age 24th. The box size represents the distribution of the sample; in this case, the sample mainly distributed among those respondents whose ages are between 24th and 25th.
Two little circles on the graph represented two values (18th age and 30th age) which extremely departed from the rest of sample. Figure 1: Box plots of ages among respondents who rated sport as most important. In addition to those 44% of above respondents, in term of sport, mostly they are spending on fees (sport club or gym club fees) (24% in 44%); following is equipment and others with 16% and 4% respectively (Table 3). Table 3: Frequency of respondents on the basis of which is spent most. FrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Valid2856. 056. 056. 0 Equipment816. 016. 072. 0 Fees1224. 24. 096. 0 Others24. 04. 0100. 0 Total50100. 0100. 0 However, on the basis of gender, half of male (8 respondents) spend the most on equipment, 6 of the remainder spend on fees. On the other hands, 100% female merely spend on fees (Figure 2). Figure 2: What is the most spent on by male and female? In related to the frequency of sport participation, result signified 17 respondents doing sport 2 or 3 days per week which take 34% which is demonstrated on figure 3. Following right after are weekly and occasionally with 28% (14 respondents) evenly. Figure 3: Frequency of participating in sport and PA
Regarding the attitude and action towards doing sport, sport playing in casual way is enjoyed the most according to 34 selections from respondents. The next most enjoyed is gymnastic activities in casual way with 15 selections. Following is doing sport and gymnastic activities in formal way with 13 and 4 selections respectively. Conversely, the most popular way that respondents really do is doing gymnastic activities in formal way with 26 selections. Follow formally work out at gymnasium are doing gymnastic activities in casual way, doing sport casually and doing sport formally with 23, 20, 18 selections correspondingly (figure 4).
Figure 4: Differences between attitude and action towards doing sport. Regarding the place students choose the most for doing sport; sport clubs, gymnasium and parks are the priority choices (Figure 5). University ground is the least choice with only 4 selections. Figure 5: Where students choose to do sport the most. Result revealed only 24% (12 respondents) have joined sport clubs with major reasons are keep fit and having fun (included their self and with friends).
There is an open format question which asked for reason why people in general joining sport clubs, results indicated involved for healthier, enjoyment and fitness, with the most popular reason is healthier (11 given) (Figure 6). It is noticed that only two-third of total respondents provide reasons. Figure 6: Most popular reasons for students joining sport clubs Laziness was the majority reason (34 selections) for miscarry out sport and PA of master students in NTU. Workload and time constraint respectively followed by with 15 and 13 selections (Figure 7) Figure 7: Most popular reasons for students to fail to participate in sport 4. . Qualitative data Research attained 7 out of 10 respondents have hobby which related to sport and physical activities (Table 4). Only one of them is doing sport formally that is defined as trainings with adequate facilities and coaches. Regardless of some respondents do not have sport hobby, everyone suggested sport is indispensable in life. They find it is healthier compare between before and after doing sport. Table 4: Common hobby which related to sport and physical activities cited by respondents R1R2R3R4R5R6R7R8R9R10 _Play badminton and tennis or sometime go to gym.
Doing sport activities, especially training boxing. Playing basketball with friends. _Playing sport generally. “Going to gym”“Play football, swimming, badminton”_“Love swimming and skating” (Note: R is interpreted as Respondent) Despite of the similar sporting hobby, the reason for some respondents to participant in sport and PA is totally different (table 6). It is noticed not every respondents mention this in their answers. Laziness is the reason that every respondents (100%) suggested for unsuccessful in participating in sport and PA. Table 6: Reasons for respondents’ participation in sport and PA R1R2R3R4R5R6R7R8R9R10 N/ATo get ability to compete in matchesTo have fun with friends. Also it is better for health_N/A“I am not kind of sport person, but want to fit my body”To be healthy_N/A Result discovered the difference in participation in sport and PA of several respondents who are international students (R1, R2 and R3) between in their home country and in the UK (Table 7) Table 7: Different in attitude of respondents R1In India: go to gym twice or thrice per week In the UK: no involvement in any sporting activities R2In India: playing badminton, tennis In the UK: go to gym only R4In Vietnam: swimming, play basketball everyday
In the UK: playing basketball, but not very frequency. Regarding the awareness of doing sport whether in formal or informal way, moderately, respondents are aware of so many opportunities to exercise around them, yet, not all of students take that. Conversely, in some cases, students are not aware that they are doing exercise by taking those opportunities. 5. Data analysis 5. 1. Perception of NTU’s Master Students towards sport and fitness The objective of this research question is to clarify there is a tight relationship between sport and fitness regardless formal or informal form.
Besides, it also examines the most important issue that students join sport and PA for. At a glance, from both quantitative and qualitative data, NTU students agreed sport and physical activities has a relationship to fitness. In other words, they are helpful to maintain their health not only in physical but also in mental side. Obviously, the result reflected equivalent points with key literature review. Research also realised NTU Master Students neither lean towards informal nor formal sport and PA. The fact is 43 students want benefit from sport and gym in casual way and 44 students want them in formal way (Figure 3).
In other words, it can be said quite a lot of students actually do both formal and informal sport and PA. However, doing sport casually is the way they most enjoy. Related to qualitative data, most of respondents (exclude respondent 3) prefer casual way doing sport mainly due to laziness and time constraint. For example, respondent 7 perceived sport in his daily routine completely casually. His exercise mainly are walking on the street or going to gym and exercise on his way. Also according to figure 3, the outcome reflected the difference in students’ attitude towards participating in sports and the action they really do.
Indeed, 34 respondents enjoy playing sport casually; however, only 20 students actually do that. Surprisingly, sport clubs where people can do sport formally is still the most popular place for NTU Master Students involving in sport and PA. With respect to which is spent on more in term of supporting participants, sport/gym club fees are spent on the most regardless the gender. Additionally, equipment is spent on predominantly by male. It is easily perceived that, female are more likely to get involve in sport and PA which is provided with convenience such as joining club to get full facilities and assistance from trainer.
On the contrary, male students not only invest in fees but also in equipment and others which are able to offer substantial support to participants. Related to other study, findings indicated the most significant reasons which encourage NTU’s students join sport clubs are to be healthier, enjoyment and fitness. By means of that, it clearly proved NTU Master Student are truthfully concerned about their health. In contrast, when asking respondents whose hobby related to sport activities for participating reasons, 3 out of 4 respondents answered not related to health benefit. Competition, have fun with friends and body fit were the answers.
Essentially, sport brings so many benefits in general; however, the benefits vary among different students. Whatsoever the benefits students want, health factor always exists. Indeed, doing sport require a large volume of movements including muscle groups used, hence, providing more strength, flexible and endured body and health (BOREHAM and RIDDOCH, 2001) In brief, NTU Master Students believe a relationship between sport and fitness regardless the way of acting neither formally or informally. There is a difference in students’ attitude towards doing sport and their real action.
Health is the most concern issue for them to joining sport and PA. 5. 2. Do NTU Master Students maintain their health by participating in sport and physical activities? The objective of this research question is to find out whether students maintain their health by participating in sport and PA; and also expose factors influence students’ participating in sport and PA. From the sections above it is straightforwardly seen that, even though students recognise the important of sport in life and really care about their health, not every of them participating in sport and PA.
Only 44% respondents considered sport as important in their daily routine. However, there is not matching with other figure. In fact, up to 50% respondents stated sport is priority in their daily routine. The reason of bias might due to not reflect carefully before ranking the importance of daily activities of some respondents (question 3, see more in Appendix 1). In term of learning the frequency of participating in sport and PA of NTU Master Students, playing sport 2-3 days per week was chosen by more than two third of the sample size. Unpredictably, exercising everyday was the fewest choice with only 2 selections.
Both quantitative and qualitative data reflected that laziness is the most considerable reason causing unsuccessful in doing sport and PA of NTU’s student. Through interviews, in addition to laziness, almost agreed they felt on joining in sport and PA because they are busy with their study which can be considered as the combination of workload and time constraint options in quantitative data. It is vital to understand the most considerable factors affect students concerning their involvement in sport. For NTU’s Master Students, gender reflected the significant difference in their attitude towards sport and PA.
Indeed, among 44% respondents above, 72% of them are male, only 28% are female. This result reflected the issue about factors which affect people’s participation in sport and PA in Van Tuyckom’s study (2010). However, only partial issue corrected as age tend to not have so much influence on NTU students’ participation (Figure 1). The reason is probably due to the limited on chosen sample which only master students. 24th and 25th are the most popular ages in this research due to the fact that normally, master students’ ages vary mostly between ages 22nd to age 25th.
Therefore, it is understandable why respondents in 44% above mainly dispensed in those two ages. Added into the above, qualitative research discovered culture also played important role in term of influence NTU’s student in joining sport and PA. In more details, it is due to the differences in their social life and environment between their home countries and the UK. Respondent 2 expressed after coming to UK for study, she usually does not have so much time to exercise, therefore, going to gym and work out by her way in a short time is her solution for keeping fitness.
Besides, respondent 4 who is influence to participate in sport by his friends stated due to lack of friends in the UK, he feel lack of motivation to do sport, therefore, he rather stay at home and play his favourite computer games than involving in sport. Despite participating in sport and PA in clubs, gyms or exercise on one self’s way to keep fit and healthy; there are tons of opportunities to exercise offered everywhere such as not taking a lift to go up but using a stair. Through qualitative research, when being asked for the awareness of opportunities to exercise of people in general, the outcome was moderately balanced.
A number of respondents supposed people recognise opportunities to exercise during normal activities in life. Some of others expressed the disagreement. Respondent 4 said: “Almost my friends like to play computer games; we usually play games, so I don’t think they know what the opportunity to exercise is. ” Regarding whether people take opportunities to exercise or not, the results depend on their attitude towards sport and fitness, and the situation is. Respondent 3 answered because he does not really count on fitness; thus, he takes lift when he feels lazy.
Some respondents are happy to walk from home to school and vice versa as they enjoy exercising and also enjoy the fresh air. On the other hands, some people do not recognise themselves are exercising through their daily activities. Respondent 6 mentioned for generally female extremely love shopping, and that can be considered as an opportunity to exercise, but not everyone know it. Concisely, NTU Master Students do participating in sport and PA to maintain their health, yet, not everyone does. Research also figured out gender and culture have influence the rate of involvement.
Besides, people understand there are so many opportunities to exercise around them; however, not all of them do. 6. Reflections on the Collection and Utilisation of Data Reflection is necessary in learning, which requires look back on what were been done, carefully think about it, learn from it to achieve more effective performance (Moon, 1999). In this section, Kolb’s learning cycle (1984) is used to facilitate the reflection of this report (Figure 7). I might start from reflection point forwards because concrete experience was what I have been doing from the beginning to the end of this report.
Figure 7: Kolb’s Learning Cycle (Source: Kolb, 1984: p. 23) 6. 1. Reflective Observation 6. 1. 1. Collection Data At the beginning, we only concentrated to other core modules and underestimated the important of research method module. Therefore, we received almost negative feedback for formative presentation which was the chance for us to demonstrate our understanding of the given topic as well as research questions. After the leading from module tutor, we understood what we must focus on to draw appropriate research questions for our given topic.
After our research questions were clear, learned from previous experience, we put a lot of effort to design questionnaire and interview questions from the starting point. Once again, we received a lot of negative feedback due to the lack of experience in designing questions. It was not because the questions did not support our research but the way of asking which were quite ambiguous and direct. As, those kinds of questions might cause difficulties for respondents when trying to answer them (Bryman and Bell, 2003).
We learned from negative feedback, and redesigned them till reaching the most appropriate and supportive questions (see more in appendices A and C). Our group included five members had to conduct 50 questionnaires and 10 interviews. Consent form is attached to every single questionnaires and interviews for respondents to read, understand and sign in which could ensure respondents’ confidence. The works were divided equally to each member. Thanks to the support of the university, we could complete our mission within one week.
Also, the focused sample was our university fellows who did exactly the same as we had to do. Therefore, they ready helped us to fill in questionnaires as well as were being so enthusiastic to answer our interviews. Despite of that, there were some limitations when collecting data. Firstly, we totally overlooked the gender factor in our sample involved due to our somewhat hasty when sending out questionnaires and delivering interviews which affected the final result. The fact, gender element did not affect so much on questionnaire analysis as luckily the ifferent ratio between female and male (0. 42:0. 5) among questionnaire sample was not significant. However, it did not repeat with interview sample (0. 3:0. 5). Therefore, in final result where related to gender, I could not compare and reflect the outcome between qualitative and quantitative data. Knowing that university created favourable conditions to help us working smoothly, so we tried to collect all quantitative data in only a few hours. That is why we could not control the quality of each form and consequently led to a number of bias data.
Therefore, the results were considered as moderately convincing. Even though the questionnaire form was designed and piloted before sending out to respondents, there were a few mistakes which we did not recognise until the collecting and analysing data process had finished. For example, in questionnaire form, still there is a leading question (question 14) which “appear to lead respondents in a particular direction” (Bryman and Bell, 2003). Moreover, such question did not provide respondents space to express their view completely.
Question 5 was quite ambiguous that made few people confused to answer and therefore led to unexpected result. Our questionnaire involved a couple of open questions. Although answers required more time in coding but it also brought wider knowledge to us. Yet, the respond rate could not achieve 100% for those questions because it required greater effort from respondents and normally many of them did not write expansively in questionnaires. Furthermore, question 9 and 10 was likely unhelpful to research questions. 6. 1. 2. Utilisation of Data
We agreed to use Microsoft Excel as a first place where quantitative data are put together. Similarly, after interviewing, each member has a duty to write down transcripts of their interviews. Our leader was responsible for putting all data together and would send it to every member with purpose of ensuring same set of data is used. After receiving all data, SPSS and Excel were used at the same time to assist me analyse quantitative data in this report. On the other hands, interview data was coded with purpose of using in qualitative analysis.
Two set of data subsequently were compared and contrasted to each other to find differences and similarities. I believe our data are moderately reliable and valid. Firstly, our selected sample was current NTU Master Students therefore; the results are repeatable for those studies with same kind of sample. Even though only 85% quantitative data was used due to some of asking questions did not relevant to research questions; the remaining data was helpful to deliver meaningful information which directly answered our research questions.
However, it is undeniable the limitation in utilising data, due to unachievable 100% respond rate in a couple of questions and the lack of designing questions. Indeed, there were too little options for respondents to choose in some questions. For example Question 13 actually had a wide range of answers, yet, we only provided 4 options included “other options”. 6. 2. Abstract Conceptualisation Bryman and Bell (2003:36) emphasise the vital role of research questions in implementing a research. Therefore, it is necessary and fundamental to draw appropriate research questions clearly from the starting point of a research.
Consequently, qualitative and quantitative research must be designed under research questions in order to collect data that helpful in providing meaningful final results. In term of designing questions, sample size and gender ratio must be noticed to enable to gather supportive data. Testing questionnaire on some of our friends before sending out to ensure all questions are useful and enable to avoiding such as leading, ambiguous questions. Besides, put more effort during collecting period to avoid randomly answer from respondents.
Throughout the researching period, we experienced not only academic works but also team working. Even though this is not our first time working together, yet the first time working together for such a long time. We understand that effectiveness of the whole group brings huge positive effect to our results. Meeting on time, responsibility and enthusiasm are found as important in order to achieve the most effective result. 6. 3. Active Experimentation If I had to do this report again, I would try out what I have learnt from experiences.
Firstly and also the most important thing is I would put highly concentration from the very beginning. I would improve my designing questions skills through reading more books before starting designing. That would save my time as well as increasing the effectiveness of the questions in particular and for whole research in general. When collecting data, I would be more concerned on choosing sample in order to get more reliable and validity data. When analysing data, analyse skills are extremely essential to be able to get the best out of the data.
With the purpose of getting better research, I would improve my analyse skills and get better help from computer assisted such as SPSS for quantitative data or NVivo for qualitative data. Last but not least, when working with team, I would make sure that the group would follow three elements above to work as the most effective manner. 7. Conclusion Throughout this research, the research questions raised at the beginning are able to be answered. Regarding sport and fitness topic, research found out the difference between attitude and action of NTU Master Students.
Furthermore, differences due to gender, culture are also discovered. In addition to sport, although students are able to recognise opportunities to exercise in their daily life, they are not likely to engage in. A number of reasons were spotted concerning the failure in involving in sport and exercise. In general, it would bring highly effect to several health issues such as obesity which is extremely alert to not only developed countries but also developing countries. References ALAN, B. 1. , and BRYMAN, A. , 1947-, 2003. Business research methods. Oxford: Oxford : Oxford University Press.
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Social Science & Medicine, 70 (6), 816-822. EUROBAROMETER, 2010. Sport and Physical Activity [pdf] Available at: http://ec. europa. eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_334_en. pdf [Accessed 11/04/12] GRANT, B. C. , 2001. ‘You’re never too old’: beliefs about physical activity and playing sport in later life. Ageing and Society, 21 (6), 777-798. International Olympic Committee consensus statement on the health and fitness of young people through physical activity and sport. 2011. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45 (11), 839-848. KOLB, D. A. , and KOLB, D. A. 1984. Experiential learning : experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. ; London: Englewood Cliffs, N. J. ; London : Prentice-Hall. L’AOUSTET, O. , and GRIFFET, J. , 2001. The Experience of Teenagers at Marseilles’ Skate Park: Emergence and Evaluation of an Urban Sports Site. Cities, 18 (6), 413-418. MOON, J. A. , and MOON, J. A. , 1999. Reflection in learning and professional development : theory and practice. London: London : Kogan Page. RENFROW, M. S. , CAPUTO, J. L. , OTTO, S. M. , FARLEY, R. R. and EVELAND-SAYERS, B. , 2011.
The Relationship between Sports Participation and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School and High School Students. Physical Educator, 68 (3), 118-123. VAN TUYCKOM, ,CHARLOTTE, SCHEERDER, J. and BRACKE, P. , 2010. Gender and age inequalities in regular sports participation: A cross-national study of 25 European countries. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28 (10), 1077-1084. WHEELER, S. , 2012. The significance of family culture for sports participation. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 47 (2), 235-252. Appendices Appendix A: The questionnaire utilised to collect data
STUDENT SPORTS AND FITNESS This questionnaire is designed as part of our research project which relating to Sport and Fitness among NTU Master Students. Please note that your participation is voluntary and that your data are anonymous and confidential. 1)Age: ……………………………….. 2)Gender: ? Male ? Female 3)Please rate the following options based on the activities you carry out in your daily routine: (Rank on the scale of 1-6, 1 being more time allocated and 6 being least time allocated). ? Sport or exercise ? University work ? Home ? Job (Part-time/full-time) ? Social life Others If you rank out sports/exercise between 1 to 3 than answer 4th question 4)Which of the followings do you spend more on (in term of sport): ? Fees (club/gym membership) ? Equipment ? Other 5)In what ways and for what reasons you choose to do sport/exercise (Select with v) EnjoyWant Benefits Casual PlaySport Formal Play Casual PlayGym Formal Play 6)How often do you play? ? Everyday ? 2-3 days per week ? Weekly ? Monthly ? Occasionally 7) Does sports/exercise take the priority position in your daily routine? ? Yes? No 8) Where do you usually play sport? ? Sport clubs Parks ? University grounds ? Street ? Gymnastic ? Other options 9)Are you aware of the different sports clubs available in the university? ? Yes? No 10)Have you join a sport club? ? Yes (go to Q11)? No (go to Q12) 11)Why did you join? (Give 1 or 2 reasons) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12)Why do other students join sport clubs? (Give 1 or 2 reasons) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13)Think of your friends who do not “do” sport.
Why? ? Laziness ? Workload ? Time constraint ? Other reasons 14)Do you think sports are helpful in maintaining physical health? ? Yes? No Thank you for your precious time. We would be glad to have your name and email address if you wish to be interviewed about this phenomenon. Name: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Email address: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Appendix B: Completed questionnaire Appendix C: The interview questions utilised to collect data Question 1: What hobbies/activities you like doing in your spare time?
Question 2: How people perceive about sports in their daily routine? Question 3: Do you think there is a relationship between sport and fitness? Question 4: What difference do you feel before and after doing sports? Question 5: Why people engage themselves in sports? Question 6: Do people recognise opportunities to exercise? (Did you take that? Or what reason for not taking that? ) Appendix D: Observation sheet that other group member has performed on my interview Appendix E: Observation sheet that I have performed on my group member’s interview