A+ Pages:31 Words:8375
This is just a sample.
To get a unique essay
Hire Writer
Type of paper: Essay
University/College: University of California
Subject:
Download: .pdf, .docx, .epub, .txt

A limited time offer!

Get custom essay sample written according to your requirements

Urgent 3h delivery guaranteed

Order Now

Strategic Management

A Strategic Case Analysis: Waste Management Inc. Respectfully Submitted to: Dr. Jifu Wang By: Cliff Aseltine Danny McRea Tejal Modi Ajay Shukla Sean Sullivan Semiinar iin Strategiic Management Sem nar n Strateg c Management Management 6359 – Sectiion 09106 – Spriing 2006 Management 6359 – Sect on 09106 – Spr ng 2006 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.

We will write a custom essay sample on Strategic Management specifically for you
for only $13.90/page
Order Now

0. 0. Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………4 2. 0. 0. Company History…………………………………………………………………….. 4 2. 1. 0. Background………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 2. 2. 0. Purpose of this study…………………………………………………………………………. 3. 0. 0. External Analysis……………………………………………………………………. 6 3. 1. 0. General Environmental Analysis………………………………………………………….. 6 3. 1. 1. Demographic Segment…………………………………………………………….. 6 3. 1. 2. Economic Segment…………………………………………………………………10 3. 1. 3. Political/Legal Segment……………………………………………………………12 3. 1. 4. Socio-Cultural Segment………………………………………………………….. 14 3. 1. 5. Technological Segment……………………………………………………………15 3. 1. 6. Global Segment………………………………………………………………………16 3. 1. 7. Summary of General Environment Analysis………………………………. 17 3. 2. 0. Driving Forces…………………………………………………………………………………. 18 3. 3. 0.

Industry Analysis………………………………………………………………………………20 3. 3. 1. Description of the Industry………………………………………………………20 3. 3. 2. Industry Dominant Economic Features…………………………………….. 23 3. 3. 3. Market Size……………………………………………………………………………24 3. 3. 4. Market Growth Rate………………………………………………………………. 26 3. 3. 5. Industry Trends…………………………………………………………………….. 28 3. 4. 0. Five Forces Competitive Analysis………………………………………………………. 31 3. 4. 1. Threat of New Entrants………………………………………………………….. 31 3. 4. 2. Power of Suppliers…………………………………………………………………. 31 3. 4. 3. Power of Buyers……. ………………………………………………………………32 3. 4. 4. Power of

Suppliers…………………………………………………………………. 32 3. 4. 5. Intensity of Rivalry…………………………………………………………………. 32 3. 5. 0. Summary of Industry Analysis……………………………………………………………33 3. 6. 0. Competitive Analysis…………………………………………………………………………33 3. 6. 1. Industry Competitors………………………………………………………………33 3. 6. 2. Rivals Anticipated Strategic Moves……………………………………………37 3. 6. 3. Summary of Competitive Analysis……………………………………………. 39 3. 7. 0. Key Success Factors…………………………………………………………………………39 4. 0. 0. Internal Analysis……………………………………………………………………41 4. 1. 0. Organizational Analysis…………………………………………………………………….. 42 4. 1. 1.

Corporate Mission………………………………………………………………….. 44 4. 1. 2. Products and Services……………………………………………………………. 44 4. 1. 3. Leadership……………………………………………………………………………. 48 4. 1. 4. Organizational Culture……………………………………………………………. 49 4. 1. 5. Structure………………………………………………………………………………. 50 4. 1. 6. Summary of Organizational Analysis…………………………………………53 2 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan 4. 2. 0. Analysis of Firm Resources……………………………………………………………….. 54 4. 2. 1. Tangible Resources…………………………………………………………………54 4. 2. 2. Intangible Resources………………………………………………………………55 4. 2. 3. Capabilities……………………………………………………………………………. 7 4. 2. 4. Core Competencies and Sustainable Advantages………………………. 58 4. 2. 5. Summary of Firms Resources………………………………………………….. 58 4. 3. 0. Analysis of Objectives………………………………………………………………………. 59 4. 3. 1. Short-Term Objectives……………………………………………………………. 60 4. 3. 2. Long-Term Objectives……………………………………………………………. 61 4. 3. 3. Financial Objectives……………………………………………………………….. 62 4. 4. 0. Financial Analysis…………………………………………………………………………….. 63 4. 4. 1. Valuation Analysis………………………………………………………………….. 63 4. 4. 2. Growth Analysis…………………………………………………………………….. 64 4. 4. 3. Profitability Analysis……………………………………………………………….. 65 4. 4. . Financial Strength Analysis………………………………………………………66 4. 4. 5. Dividend Analysis……………………………………………………………………67 4. 4. 6. Management Efficiency Analysis………………………………………………. 68 4. 4. 7. Stock Price Analysis……………………………………………………………….. 69 4. 4. 8. Summary of Financial Analysis…………………………………………………69 4. 5. 0. Strategic Analysis…………………………………………………………………………….. 71 4. 5. 1. Corporate-Level Strategy and International Strategy…………………. 71 4. 5. 2. Business-Level Strategy………………………………………………………….. 73 4. 5. 3. Value Chain Analysis………………………………………………………………. 74 4. 5. 4. Summary of Strategic Analysis…………………………………………………75 4. 6. 0.

SWOT Analysis – Internal…………………………………………………………………. 75 4. 6. 1. Strengths………………………………………………………………………………75 4. 6. 2. Weaknesses………………………………………………………………………….. 77 4. 6. 3. Opportunities…………………………………………………………………………78 4. 6. 4. Threats…………………………………………………………………………………. 79 5. 0. 0. Current Strategy and Alternatives…………………………………………….. 81 5. 1. 0. Current Strategy and Strategic Fit………………………………………………………81 5. 2. 0. Alternatives…………………………………………………………………………………….. 82 5. 3. 0. Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………83 5. 3. 1 Recommendation 1…………………………………………………………………. 83 5. 3. 2 Recommendation 2…………………………………………………………………. 4 6. 0. 0. References…………………………………………………………………………. 103 7. 0. 0. Appendix I…………………………………………………………………………. 107 3 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan 1.. 0.. 0.. Executiive Summary 1 0 0 Execut ve Summary Although Waste Management Inc. , has experienced its share of challenges on many levels, it appears as if the company is currently on an upward climb, and has been for the past several years. This is primarily due to the recent implementation of new systems which have helped the company to better organize its operations and more tightly manage its operational costs.

Waste Management has made significant improvements over the past few years, and the company appears to aggressively seek out new and innovative ways to improve performance. The company has a strategy that fits well for the organization; however, the company also has significant opportunities that deserve more attention. This study will provide; a high level overview of the entire market, followed by an industry analysis which introduces Waste Management’s competitors, and discusses at length their current position compared to Waste Management.

Directly following this external analysis is an internal analysis complete with financial ratio review for Waste Management as well as its top 5 competitors. This study is concluded with a review of the firm’s strategy and its strategic fit with the firm, as well as current alternatives available to the company. The final piece of the analysis is the recommendations offered by our team as a result of the findings of the study. 2.. 0.. 0.. Company Hiistory 2 0 0 Company H story 2. 1. 0. Background Waste Management was founded in 1968 by Dean L. Buntrock, then a small regional trash hauler with a three-person office in Oklahoma.

Buntrock and his associate Phillip Rooney quickly created a massive waste-disposal empire through an aggressive acquisition program, 4 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan which involved the consolidation of hundreds of local haulers. The company’s acquisitions later grew to include; hazardous waste companies, chemical treatment firms, waste-to-energy incinerators and environmental engineering firms (Goliath). Waste Management grew from annual revenues of $17 million dollars in 1971 to $9 billion dollars in 1998. The same year the company merged with Houston based USA Waste Services, in a deal valued at $25 billion.

This merger followed a period in which Waste Management Inc was investigated for significant tax irregularities and accusations of fraud, forcing the resignation of the founder Dean Buntrock, and later his partner Phillip Rooney. Today the Houston based company’s operations include; 429 collection operations, 366 transfer stations, 289 active landfill disposal sites, 17 waste-to-energy plants, 138 recycling plants and 85 beneficial-use landfill gas projects. This impressive list of assets allows Waste Management to offer a wide range of services to 21 million customers, with annual revenue in excess of 13 billion dollars (2005 10K). . 2. 0. Purpose of this study The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current position of Waste Management, in order to develop a strategy that would not only improve the current position of the company, but one that could actually be implemented. To accomplish this task, it was necessary to identify the driving forces and key success factors of the industry, and then insure that the firm was in line with these benchmarks, therefore a strategic fit assessment was completed. 5 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan In order to isolate the driving forces of the industry a broad environmental study was conducted.

The external environment was further explored through an investigation of five of Waste Management’s biggest competitors. Several assessments were conducted including a full three-year ratio analysis, in order to isolate the key success factors, and identify what competitive advantage the firm had in today’s market. This study is concluded with a review of the firm’s strategy and its strategic fit with the firm, as well as current alternatives available to the company. The final piece of the analysis includes recommendations offered as a result of the findings of the study. 3.. 0.. 0..

Externall Anallysiis 3 0 0 Externa Ana ys s 3. 1. 0. General Environmental Analysis The general environment is essentially comprised of the aspects of a broad societal perspective that significantly influence an industry and the firms within it. Although these areas are generally outside the control of the firm, it is important to understand these areas in order to have a better assessment of today and a more accurate prediction of tomorrow. The general environment consists of six segments; demographic, economic, political/legal, socio-cultural, technological, and global (Text). 3. 1. 1. Demographic Segment

Demographic characteristics are important for all firms in the waste management and remediation services industry (NAICS 56), as they allow firms to understand their potential 6 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan market share. There are three key elements in the demographic segment significant to the industry. These elements include; population size, age structure, and ethnic mix. Population size Population growth and distribution can have a significant impact on the management of resources, as the number of people, as well as their lifestyle and consumption patterns directly affect the environment.

It is also argued that there is a direct link between population growth and environmental degradation. Obviously, more people demand more resources and subsequently generate more waste. The largest challenge of a growing population is the strain that is placed on the environment. This situation becomes even more complicated when considering the variety of government policies, technologies, and consumption patterns worldwide. In order to develop a more relevant base of information the demographics presented in this study are limited to those of the United States.

The proposed link between population growth and the environment is found in the view that population growth is solely responsible for all environmental ills; however, more people equates to faster development of new technologies used to overcome environmental problems (Human Populations). As populations grow, competition for fertile land and the use of limited resources increases. The people living in the poor countries are also moving toward highly developed countries for greater standard of living whose current consumption patterns and resource use are not necessarily sustainable. Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan The United States has one of the highest growth rates of any industrialized country in the world. The United States Census Bureau reports that the population is growing by approximately 3. 2 million people each year. According to the Census Bureau’s medium projections, the population is expected to grow to 400 million by the year 2050. Also, eight of the country’s fifty states have population growth rates in excess of 2. 0 percent, which means that the population pf these states will double in less than 35 years (Human Populations).

The United States also happens to be one of the most densely populated countries in the world, and the concern over potential landfills will continue to grow as the United States has converted more than 10 million acres of forest to suburban growth since 1990 (Geog). This certainly equates to an ever-increasing population, which will unquestionably yield a larger amount of waste requiring disposal. Age structure A slightly less relevant aspect of the demographic segment is the age structure of the population.

Baby boomers (individuals born between 1946 and 1964) presently account for the majority of political, cultural, industrial and academic leadership positions in the United States. The fact that Baby Boomers are entering their fifties along with the increasing life expectancy of the population provides an interesting movement towards an increasingly older population. This may force the waste industry to seek creative ways to cater to a population that will become increasingly less mobile and potentially unable to make the trip down the driveway with those heavy trash containers (Wikipedia, boomer).

Aside from this information, all age groups create waste that must be disposed of; therefore, additional detail regarding these groups was omitted due to irrelevancy. 8 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan Ethnic Mix Changes in ethnic mix are an interesting factor in the United States. Due to the fact that immigration accounts for a sizable part of growth, the population and labor force will continue to diversify, as one interesting projection released by the Department of Labor suggests that the Latino and Asian percentage of the population will increase to 34 percent by 2050.

These Immigration trends, coupled with varied birth rates, will obviously bring more diversity to the American workforce. To further illustrate the impact of this change it is important to identify that in 1995, the United States was estimated to be 83 percent white, 13 percent black, 1 percent American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut, and 4 percent Asian and Pacific Islander (US, Labor). As per these charts, the future racial and ethnic makeup of America will be considerably different than it was in the past.

These trends show that whites will be a declining share of the future total population while the Hispanic share will grow faster than that of non-Hispanic blacks. By 2050, minorities are projected to rise from one in every four Americans to almost one in every two. Growth rates of both the Hispanic-origin and the Asian and Pacific Islander populations may exceed two percent per year until 2030. This is astonishing considering the fact that even at the peak of the baby-boom era, the total population never grew by two percent a year.

By 2010, Hispanics are likely to become the largest minority group, as the 9 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan Hispanic population is projected to add more people to the United States every year than will all other groups combined. Hispanic and Asian populations tend to be more conservative in consumption patterns; therefore it is arguable that there is potential for decreased waste production with the shift in ethnic mix. Despite this possibility, the potential net change in the production of waste requiring disposal would be minimal.

Also, as mentioned above this shift in the labor force can have an impact on the production of the economy. 3. 1. 2. Economic Segment The key economic factors which identify economic performance are; the unemployment rate, which is currently 4. 7 percent; the rate of growth with respect to the GDP, which preliminary reports indicate was near 4. 8 percent in the first quarter of 2006, as well as the rate of inflation, which was 3. 7 percent unadjusted for 12 months ending March 2006 according to the Consumer Price Index.

Although these general indicators are effective in providing insight as to the direction of the economy, they do not provide a good estimate of the direction of the waste management industry. The health of a nation’s economy affects individual firms and industries; therefore, companies must scan, monitor, forecast, and assess the health of economies outside their host nations, as nations throughout the world are affected by the United States economy. The United States is the world’s only super power possessing the largest economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $42,000.

Private individuals make most decisions and business firms due to the fact that the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services the private marketplace. Companies and individuals enjoy more control over decisions to expand capital, lay off surplus workers, and develop new products; however, they face higher barriers 10 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan to enter markets outside of the United Stated than outside countries do when entering the United States (CIA Fact book).

Gas prices Despite the number of armed conflicts that the United States is engaged in, which many speculate is motivated by concerns over oil (despite terrorist attacks made against the country), the rise in GDP in 2004 and 2005 was helped along by substantial gains in labor productivity. The economy continues to suffer from a sharp increase in energy prices which many fear will lead to higher inflation; however, these increased prices yield significant tax revenue to the government as well as record breaking profits to oil companies.

Although there are several global political issues that have motivated an increase in the price of oil, the United States has not constructed a new oil refinery for over thirty years to increase supply of gas (although it has increased capacity of existing refineries). The country has also recently suffered significant damage from a sever hurricane season, as Katrina caused extensive damage in the Gulf Coast region in 2005 including several of the countries largest refineries. Despite the enormous reconstruction costs and relief funds, the storms had a small impact on overall GDP growth for the year (RBZGroup).

Interest rates Interest rates in the United States reached almost record lows in 2003 as the Federal Reserve worked carefully to bring the economy out of a mild recession. As the economy started recovering in 2004, the Fed began increasing interest rates and has not stopped doing so even as recent as now. The current Fed rate is 4. 5%. 11 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan Government’s role in the economy As previously mentioned, consumers and producers make most of the decisions that guide the economy; however, the government’s efforts have a powerful effect on the economy as well.

Listed below are four major areas where the government’s decisions can be felt: 1. Stabilization and Growth. Through the use of fiscal and monetary policy, the federal government guides the overall pace of the economy. This is done in order to maintain steady growth, high levels of employment, and price stability. 2. Regulation and Control. The federal government also establishes agencies and offices, which provide establish control over certain activities that directly impact the safety of the nations citizens, such as environmental protection, food and drug administration, drug enforcement, etc. . Direct Services. These services include the military, infrastructure, transportation, etc. 4. Direct Assistance. Government also provides many kinds of help to businesses. It offers low-interest loans and technical assistance to small businesses. The economy of the United States is of significant importance to the waste industry, as an economic downturn will most certainly result in lower consumption among consumers. As, the government is responsible for regulation and control it can also have a significant impact on the requirements of the industry as the next segment explains. . 1. 3. Political/Legal Segment This segment represents how organizations try to influence government and how governments in turn reciprocate influence. Due to new legislation this segment is constantly changing which in turn impact the nature of competition. There has also been a significant recent trend toward deregulation of government-regulated industries. This is good for firms wishing to enter the 12 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan market, but not so good for larger firms that have managed to gain a foothold over a potentially expansive piece of territory.

The primary manner in which special interest groups and businesses attempt to shape the decisions of elected officials involves lobbying. The lobbying activities engaged in by environmental groups often results in influencing congress to pass environment friendly legislation. This in turn forces the waste management industry to navigate through new laws and regulations. One such piece of legislation is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), which is the nation’s primary law governing the disposal of solid and hazardous waste.

The Act was passed in 1976 to address the problems the country faced with the growing volume of municipal and industrial waste. RCRA, which amended the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965, set several national goals including (EPA): • • • • • • • • Protecting human health and the environment from the potential hazards of waste disposal. Conserving energy and natural resources. Reducing the amount of waste generated. Ensuring that wastes are managed in an environmentally sound manner. Banning all open dumping of waste. Encouraging source reduction and recycling.

Promoting the safe disposal of municipal waste. Mandating strict controls over the treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste. RCRA was later amended and enhanced by Congress in 1984 with the passing of the Federal Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), which required the phasing out land disposal of hazardous waste. The RCRA was amended on two occasions following HSWA; Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992, which strengthened enforcement of RCRA at Federal facilities; 13 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan

Land Disposal Program Flexibility Act of 1996 provided regulatory flexibility for land disposal of certain wastes. As is evident from the information provided above, the political and legal segment provides a strictly regulated environment for the waste management industry in the United States. Most companies operate as good corporate citizens and follow government regulations; however, government regulations make it more expensive to mange waste, and more difficult to make a profit. 3. 1. 4. Socio-Cultural Segment

A significantly growing concern in the United States is the fear of increased pollution in air and water. People have become extremely health conscious, and believe that everything dispersed into the environment will directly affect their health. For example, air pollution produces acid rain. The United States is the single largest emitter of carbon dioxide due to the burning of fossil fuels, and water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers. This has also limited the natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the country.

The waste management industry is often a focus of concern due to landfills leak, and the fact that incinerators generate toxic ash and gas. It is also argued that even the best pollution controls are never 100 percent effective, and end-of-pipe pollution control and disposal technologies do little to prevent global environmental contamination (Rachel). In socio-cultural segments, people are more aware of preserving the environment. The current trend is to recycle more waste. This provides an opportunity to the recycling segment of this industry. 14

Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan 3. 1. 5. Technological Segment Firms of the United States are at the forefront in technological advances, especially with respect to computers in medical, aerospace, and military equipment. This strong development of technology can help provide support to the argument of a gradual development of a “two-tier labor market. ” Essentially it is believed that individuals on the bottom lack the education and the professional skills of those at the top and fail to get comparable pay raises, and benefits as a result of their lack of skills.

Since 1975, almost all the gains in household income have gone towards the top 20% of household incomes (People). Technological advancements affect many Industries, as these changes occur primarily through new products, processes and materials. Technology development in the waste management industry can be characterized as a continuous improvement process. For the most part, companies are using and modifying existing and proven technologies to manage waste streams in a more energy efficient and cost effective manner.

The public and private sectors have recently united in order to improve air quality by forming a unique partnership, called the Clean Air Communities (CAC), which includes; Waste Management (WM), Local Development Corporation of East New York (LDCENY), Combustion Components Associates (CCA), and ENSR International (ENSR). These organizations are addressing the contribution of NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) to ground level ozone pollution by demonstrating an innovative emissions reduction technology in Waste Management vehicles operating in Brooklyn and the Bronx (Clean Air).

The technology, ELIM-NOx, is designed to dramatically reduce emissions of NOx from diesel exhaust and help improve local air quality in communities suffering from asthma and other 15 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan related respiratory ailments. “By instituting a number of innovative measures, Waste Management has worked to reduce the impact of its facilities and operations on the surrounding community”, said Tara Hemmer, Market Area Engineer, Waste Management. This NOx reduction technology has the potential to enable us to retrofit existing diesel equipment in a minimum amount of time, cost-effectively and with little or no disruption to our operations. ” (Clean Air) Industry’s capacity for inventing new chemicals has overwhelmed the regulatory system’s ability to study the potential harms caused to the environment, as the chemical industry introduces at least 1700 new chemicals into commerce each year.

To illustrate how far regulators have fallen behind, the National Toxicology Program is only able to conduct assessments on 10 to 20 substances per year; this means that the regulators fall at least 90 years behind in knowledge with each year that passes. Technological development brings opportunities as well as threats to this industry. New technology can help reduce costs through improving operational efficiency, and improve the level the environment through more advanced waste disposal methods. Unfortunately, new chemicals are created faster than they can be tested, which forces an unwanted delay in the implementation of newer technology. . 1. 6. Global Segment Globalization and business markets create both opportunities and challenges for this industry. Advances in technology have not only increased the scope, speed, and efficiency of business operations worldwide, but they have also brought down the costs of distance by gradually eliminating the burdens of communications, geography, transportation, language and even 16 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan time. It is reported that the aggregate output growth rate has steadily increased an average of more than 3. 6 percent annually in the last 25 years.

Waste management firms have had success in bringing new disposal and collection systems to the global markets. The global market for waste remediation technologies was worth about $10. 7 billion in 2005, and is expected to rise to $11. 4 billion in 2006, according to a new technical market research report. According to this report, hazardous waste containment technologies have been highlighted as the largest segment of the global hazardous waste remediation market in 2005, with over 25 percent of the market, followed by separation 19 percent, chemical treatment 18 per cent, and recycling 15 percent.

However, recycling is the fastest-growing market segment, with a projected growth rate of 19 percent by 2011 (Solid Waste). The waste management industry outside the United States is growing rapidly. This offers opportunities for companies within the United States, and dilutes the available talent pool. On the other hand, global margins are lower than domestic commercial margins and companies are also slower to pay. These factors make safer for large companies to expand into new global markets, than small companies, where cash flow is a more imminent issue. 3. 1. 7.

Summary of General Environment Analysis In summary, the general environment offers more opportunities than threats to waste management companies. Most of the demographic segment factors except population have 17 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan little relevance to our analysis. The population growth projections support an increasing demand for waste management worldwide and hence an expanding market size for waste management companies. Economically, speaking, the waste management industry table is not subject to wild swings with great depths of downside.

The global recession does not affect this industry much due to the fact that waste is produced regardless of economic activities. As rapidly growing economies in Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe expand they provide more industrial and consumer waste. Our political and legal analysis presents a mixed outlook, as the domestic and international markets face increasing regulations. Socio-culturally speaking, the growing antipathy towards big waste companies within certain sections of the society, increasing environmental activism, and the perceived shift in consumers’ attitudes provides challenges for firms in the industry.

Technologically speaking, there is a strong demand for electronic recycling, as millions of cell phones are discarded annually, and new environmental regulations force waste management firms to pursue innovative next generation technology. From a global perspective, there appears to be strong potential for new recycling programs in the domestic and international markets. 3. 2. 0. Driving Forces Increasing Fuel Cost As we discussed in the economic section of the general environment, fuel costs have become a major concern in the United States and the rest of the industrialized world, as 18 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan asoline is a vital fluid that powers the economy. The United States alone consumes approximately 18. 9 million barrels of oil a day, and since the beginning of 2005, retail gasoline prices have continued to increase, with the average price of regular gasoline rising from $1. 78 per gallon on January 3, 2005 to as high as $3. 07 per gallon on September 5, 2005. This was motivated by a damaging hurricane season along the United States Gulf Coast, growing tensions in the Middle East, Africa, and Venezuela, increase demand from the massive population of China, all further tightening gasoline supplies.

Due to heavy reliance on waste hauling vehicles, the increasing fuel cost has become a burden to the waste management industry. Companies managing their fuel cost will do better in the long run, as economists forecast even higher costs in the future. Recycling a Growing Trend There is an ever-increasing trend for the collection of any and all types of materials for recycling. This process allows industries to often use waste as a means of energy, or alternative raw materials. In addition, the process preserves and protects the environment.

More and more people are realizing that recycling is one way to minimize waste, and at the same time recycling can save energy and other precious resources. Recycling also saves money for communities across America. For example, the experience of Madison, Wisconsin (population 201,000), illustrates the economic benefits curbside recycling can provide to midsized cities. In 8 years, the city more than tripled its diversion of residential solid waste while also decreasing the net annual cost of solid waste services from $158 per household to $139 (EPA). 19 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan

Demand for recycling is growing at a rapid rate, and firms that are able to increase capacity will be able to expand their business in an industry where growth is mostly obtained through acquisition. 3. 3. 0. Industry Analysis Firms engaged in the waste management industry are major contributors to the U. S. economy, and play a vital role in the well being and sanitary conditions of the nation. In order to better understand how firms within this industry compete, it was necessary to review several key factors including; dominant economic features, market size, market growth rate, and industry trends.

As this section will reveal, the industry’s environment has a greater impact on the success of the firm’s strategic competitiveness than does the general environment. 3. 3. 1. Description of the Industry This waste management industry is comprised of establishments primarily engaged in (Census): 1) Operating waste treatment or disposal facilities (except sewer systems or sewage treatment facilities) or, 2) The combined activity of collecting and/or hauling of waste materials within a local area and operating waste treatment or disposal facilities; such as waste combustors or incinerators, solid waste landfills, and compost dumps.

The waste management industry is categorized in the industrial goods sector, which is very diverse in nature and includes many different types of companies including; small manufactories of proprietary technology, large companies with beginning-to-end waste management expertise, and engineering companies who specialize in environmental assessments and many others. 20 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan The waste management industry includes the process of collecting, treating, and disposing of solid and hazardous waste, as well as the operation of landfills and incinerators.

Firms within the industry also provide recycling and waste remediation services. There are essentially two forms of waste to be managed; Municipal Hazardous Waste (MHW) and Municipal Solid Waste. Municipal Hazardous waste contains toxic substances that threaten human health or the environment, and is subject to strict regulations. Whereas, non-hazardous waste, or municipal solid waste, commonly referred to as “garbage” involves less scrutiny. There are many niche waste management areas in which companies compete, such as the collection and recycling of electronic products, which has become a growing trend.

Municipal Hazardous Waste (MHW) This segment includes the management of industrial hazardous waste, such as; medical waste, and nuclear waste. Industrial hazardous waste represents the largest component of this segment. The relative emphasis of the United States environmental policy regarding the regulation of hazardous waste, and remediation has clearly stimulated the creation of the worlds most technically competitive garbage persons. To date, little of this capacity has been exported as market demand has not been nearly as high as in other countries. 21 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan

Considerable interest in United States remediation technology has recently emerged from numerous countries including Japan and Germany. These two nations in particular, have tended not to remediate contaminated property with as much vigor as the United States. Therefore, the United States has considerable potential to leverage its expertise in site remediation, hazardous waste management, and possibly nuclear waste management in the more advanced markets. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Municipal Solid wastes are more commonly referred to by laypersons as trash or garbage.

These items consists of everyday waste such as; product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, newspapers, appliances, paint, and batteries. In 2003, residents, businesses, and institutions of the United States produced more than 236 million tons of MSW, which is approximately 4. 5 pounds of waste per person per day (EPA). Solid waste management firms in the United States have had much success in bringing state of the art disposal and collection systems to global solid waste markets, largely due to keen awareness that has developed in the privatized domestic market.

Several MSW management practices, such as source reduction, recycling, and composting, reduce the ever growing heap 22 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan at the dump. Source reduction involves altering the design, manufacture, or use of products and materials to reduce the amount and toxicity of what gets thrown away. Recycling reintroduces items, such as paper, glass, plastic, and metals, from the monster pile, as these materials are sorted, collected, and processed and then manufactured, sold, and bought as new products. Recycling helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions that scientists believe affect the global climate.

It is estimated that in 1996, recycling of solid waste in the United States prevented the release of 33 million tons of carbon into the air, this is roughly the amount emitted annually by 25 million cars. 3. 3. 2. Industry Dominant Economic Features There are several features which cause market conditions to change rapidly in the waste management industry. These items have had a significant effect on the business strategies of waste management companies. In particular, these items are: Changing market motivators: Constantly changing market conditions have caused unusual uncertainties and complexities for waste management companies.

For more than a decade, beginning in the early 1970s, new regulations stimulated markets and created strong business opportunities. Two difficult periods in the 1980s and 1990s, when enforcement policies appeared to slacken, led to significant market instability and reduced profitability. Customer approaches to waste management: Within the United States and worldwide, both private sector and public sector purchasers of waste services are exploring new ways to manage environmental and resource issues as a part of other core business decisions. 23

Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan Environmental regulation and other policies related to technology: Overall, current regulations and policies discourage the development and deployment of new technology based services that can strengthen the economy and benefit the industry. International waste management markets: U. S. companies face difficulties in a growing world market in which the nature of demand is significantly different than in the home market. In addition to that, regulatory and economic policies also vary. 3. 3. 3. Market Size

Number of Organizations An estimated 27,000 organizations (private sector companies and public sector governmental and quasi-governmental organizations) were operating in the industry as of 2000. More than 55 percent of these entities were in the public sector, and the remaining 45 percent were privately held, while only 0. 1 percent was publicly traded. Solid waste organizations can be further segmented as follows (erefd): • Hauling Operations: Approximately 15,500 solid waste industry organizations (57 percent) solely conducted hauling operations and did not own a solid waste facility. Solid Waste Facilities: Approximately 11,500 organizations owned an estimated 15,700 facilities that dispose, recycle, incinerate, or otherwise process solid waste in the United States. About 53 percent of these facilities were owned by the private sector. The vast majorities of these facilities handled very small quantities of solid waste or recyclable material, and have likely been undercounted in prior studies estimating the size of the solid waste industry. 24 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan

Revenues In 2000 the solid waste industry generated an estimated total revenue, net of intra-industry payments, in the neighborhood of $43. 3 billion. Approximately 76 percent of this amount was generated by the private sector. Excluding the segment of the industry that is primarily engaged in the operation of scrap metal yards and recycling operations, total industry revenue was equal to $39. 8 billion. Relative Size of the Industry The solid waste industry directly accounted for roughly one-half of one percent of the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP).

However, the industry’s industrial output and employment were larger than the individual economics of several states, including North Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming (erefdn). Economic Impact The solid waste industry contributed over $96 billion, 948,000 jobs, and just over one percent of U. S. GDP to the nation’s economy. This included all direct, indirect and induced effects resulting from solid waste industry activities. For every dollar of revenues generated by the industry, a total of $1. 23 in additional revenue was generated in the economy through the multiplier effect.

Similarly, for every job in the solid waste industry, the multiplier effect created an additional 1. 58 jobs outside the industry (erefdn). Tax Impact The solid waste industry contributed a total of $14. 1 billion in direct, indirect, and induced taxes to federal, state, and local governments. Employment and Compensation Total industry compensation, including benefits, was estimated at $10. 0 billion. Based on these figures, employees in the solid waste industry were paid an average of $27,200 per year, including benefits. 25 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan

Waste Quantities An estimated 544 million tons of solid waste were processed in the U. S. Approximately 370 million (68 percent) tons were land filled, 29 million tons (5 percent) were incinerated, and 146 million tons (27 percent) were recycled. EquipmentThe solid waste industry used approximately 206,000 pieces of motorized equipment in the U. S. This included approximately 148,000 vehicles dedicated to the collection and transfer of solid waste. The remainder of the vehicles included other mobile equipment, stationary and mobile compaction equipment, and other processing equipment (yahoo). 3. 3. 4. Market Growth Rate

The hazardous waste market has become highly concentrated through consolidation and facility closures, as the volume of hazardous waste handled off-site at commercial facilities has changed little in recent years. Of the facilities that remain, most still have more than adequate capacity to handle the volume, and the industry remains highly competitive. Hazardous waste management has had a violent past of rapid growth followed by decline. According to Farkas Berkowitz, a premier management-consulting firm, the hazardous waste industry was born in May 1980 with the creation of the first set of enforceable federal regulations under RCRA.

Firms present at the start of the new industry were well rewarded, at least initially. Then, the prospect of high growth and profitability, combined with relatively low barriers to entry, led to a buildup of capacity that greatly exceeded demand. By 1990, the industry growth rate began a sharp decline. Beginning in 1993, industry revenue declined on an absolute basis and has been declining ever since. 26 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan The Hazardous waste management segment continues its steady fall, from $5. 7 billion in 1998, to $5. 3 billion in 1999, $5. 1 billion in 2000, and $4. billion in 2001. The total industry revenue attributed to hazardous waste management in 2001 is $12. 8 billion or 6% of the $213. 1 billion total environmental industry revenue. Hazardous Waste Dollars (in billions) 5. 8 The solid waste management industry continues its steady if not unremarkable growth, while recycling suffered in the slumping 2001 economy following strong growth in 2000. The solid waste management business is relatively resistant to fluctuations in the economy 5. 6 5. 4 5. 2 5 4. 8 4. 6 4. 4 1998 1999 2000 2001 and continues to grow steadily as a function of population and GDP growth.

By contrast, the recent slump in the U. S. economy has had a strong effect on the resource recovery industry. Resource recovery is struggling through tough times caused by leveling off of community recycling rates and the fluctuations in commodity prices in response to a wide range of economic variables including virgin material costs, energy prices, and international economic conditions. The global market for hazardous waste remediation technologies was worth about $10. 7-billion in 2005, and is expected to rise to $11. 4-billion in 2006 and $16. 6-billion by 2011, according to a new technical market research report (solid waste).

The report, “The Global Market for Hazardous Waste Remediation (RE-152)” was released on March 21, 2006 by U. S. -based BCC Research. Hazardous waste containment technologies have been highlighted as the largest 27 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan segment of the global hazardous waste remediation market in 2005, with over 25 per cent of the market, followed by separation (19 per cent), chemical treatment (18 per cent), and recycling (15 per cent). However, recycling is the fastest-growing market segment, with a projected growth rate of 19 per cent by 2011 3. 3. 5.

Industry Trends There are four main industry trends that were identified when reviewing the waste management industry, the trends are listed below: 1) Industry demand for waste services is driven more by the need for cost effective solutions and the potential for cost reductions and increased profit, and less by regulatory compliance. • Regulations historically have largely established the characteristics of the industry including the structure and types of products and services. Private companies cannot depend on government regulations and legislation as the basis of a successful business. There is an increasing trend whereby new toxins reduction, pollution prevention and recycling efforts are being implemented by industry on a voluntary basis, usually with government initiatives. 28 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan The 1998 Unites States Industry and Trade Outlook report published by McGraw-Hill/DRI in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Commerce/International Trade Administration notes that “perhaps more than any other segment of the environmental industry; the solid waste business is driven by economic and social forces more than regulatory pressures”. ) Industry is evolving away from an orientation of pollution control to one of pollution prevention and waste minimization. • Historically, environmental compliance efforts have focused primarily on treatment of waste once it has been released. This end-of-pipe approach looked at compliance as being a cost, with little emphasis focused on the opportunity for material and energy efficiency. • Pollution prevention and on-site recovery systems can often not only lower energy and material usage but also reduce treatment costs and lower liability and insurance costs.

Many companies are increasingly examining their raw material usage, waste management practices, manufacturing processes and products produced in a continuous effort to reduce environmental costs. • Pollution prevention efforts by generators in certain industry sectors have led to a decline in the amount of as generated waste requiring third party management. This has contributed to industry consolidation and the emergence of niche players who provide specialized products and services to specific industry sectors (ene).

A major study conducted for the United States Congress made the following points on pollution prevention (wws): • Compared to conventional treatment alone, pollution prevention and recycling investments are usually more cost-effective, often resulting in reduced energy and 29 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan material usage and lower end-of –pipe treatment costs. Pollution prevention can produce significant environmental benefits as well, including reduced cross-media transfers and reduces environmental impact from avoided energy and materials usage. While increased reliance on pollution prevention and recycling offers a means to reduce the conflict between environmental protection and industrial competitiveness, it does not eliminate it. While much pollution prevention and recycling options yield net positive rates of return equaling non-environmental investments, many others do not and often cost money. 3) Generators of waste are increasingly looking to outsource any environmental service that is not consistent with their core competencies. There are two main drivers: • • Global competitive pressures create a focus on cost-effectiveness.

Outsourcing employs service specialists that reduce the cost of environmental compliance and improve overall profitability (ene). 4) The waste management supplier industry will continue to experience increasing consolidation • As the waste management industry matures there is less demand for third party waste management due to prevention efforts. • The industry will likely continue to be structured with a few very large companies and many smaller players addressing specific niches. Medium sized companies will be targets for acquisitions. 30 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan 3. 4. 0. Five Forces Competitive Analysis

Porter’s Five Forces model can lend some insight into the current situation in the waste management industry. The forces are (1) the threat of new entrants, (2) the power of suppliers, (3) the power of buyers, (4) the threat of product substitutes, and (5) the intensity of rivalries. 3. 4. 1 Threat of New Entrants The threat of new entrants is low in the waste management industry. This is primarily due to the industry’s size and the vast network of resources and assets required in order to be successful. The size and financial position are comparatively large with respect to most of the key competitors.

Firms generally possess sound financial position which brings many benefits including cost reductions through economies of scale. These economies of scale make it difficult for new entrants to compete successfully, as they are unable to provide the same services at a competitive price. For this reason, size is a deterrent to new entrants in the waster management industry. 3. 4. 2 Power of Suppliers The power of suppliers is high in the waste management industry; in particular the power of fuel suppliers in this industry is very significant.

Waste management companies are heavily reliant on petroleum fuels to power there vast fleets of trucks. Fluctuations in fuel prices for such a large number of vehicles can have a significant impact on a company’s bottom line. Additionally, many of the factors that influence these prices are out of the company’s control. 31 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan In affect, most firms must accept whatever price its fuel suppliers offer, regardless of how it affects its business. 3. 4. 3 Power of Buyers The power of buyers is moderate in the waste management industry.

This is because residential and commercial customers must have some means of disposing of their wastes. The service that waste management companies offer is not a luxury, it is a necessity. Therefore, buyers have little say in whether to use a waste disposal company or not. At the same time, there are competitors in the market place that can offer cost advantages for customers to switch. However, most customers are on multi-year contracts so the threat of excessive switching is reduced. For these reasons, buyer power in this industry remains moderate. 3. 4. 4 Threat of Product Substitutes

The threat of product substitutes is low in the waste management industry. This is due primarily to the same reasons that the power of buyers is moderate. Waste disposal is not a luxury that customers can choose to have or not have. Customers need to have some means of waste disposal. At the same time, there really is no substitute for waste disposal services for most customers. The closest thing to a substitute is recycling, and Waste Management already owns the largest recycler in the country. For these reasons, the threat of substitutes is low. 3. 4. 5 Intensity of Rivalry

The intensity of rivalry is high in the waste management industry. Waste materials companies must compete not only with other national and regional private companies, but in many instances they must compete with governmental agencies that have decided financial advantages. Additionally, price-cutting techniques are a common practice in some regional 32 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan markets. So while Waste Management currently enjoys market leadership in its industry, there are many competitors that are continuously looking to make inroads into its customer base through whatever means are necessary. . 5. 0. Summary of Industry Analysis The waste management industry is an industry subject to constant change and scrutiny. The general activities of firms engaged in this industry includes; the management of waste treatment facilities as well as the collection, hauling and disposal of trash. The industry itself is quite large accounting for 1 percent of the nations GDP; however, the history of the market is volatile as rapid growth is generally followed by periods of equal decline. The market shows signs of growth in the recycling segment, and is moving towards pollution control and waste reduction.

Through the five forces analysis that was conducted, the overall market is favorable as threats of new entrants, and product substitutes are low. However, the industry is subject to fierce competition and the power of suppliers is high, while the power of buyers is moderate. With this in mind, it is important to evaluate the key players in the industry in order to identify key success factors required to obtain a competitive advantage in the market. 3. 6. 0. Competitive Analysis As the demand within the industrial and customer waste business continues to increase, the emergence of new competitors is always a concern.

In order to remain successful and ahead of its competition, it is important to understand who the competition is and what they are doing. 3. 6. 1. Industry Competitors This section will introduce five of the primary competitors within the waste management industry. This section will also describe briefly each company’s profile, and display their most 33 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan recent financial results for comparison. Allied Waste Industries Allied Waste Industries, Inc. operates as a non-hazardous solid waste management company in the United States.

The company provides waste collection, transfer, recycling, and disposal services for residential, commercial, and industrial customers in the United States and Puerto Rico. Its collection operations include collecting and transporting non-hazardous waste from the point of generation to the site of disposal. The company’s recycling collection services include curbside collection of recyclable materials for residential customers, as well as commercial and industrial collection of recyclable materials, including paper, glass, and plastics and reusable construction debris. Allied Waste also provides roll-off and customized consulting services.

As of December 31, 2005, the company operated a network of 310 collection companies, 166 transfer stations, 169 landfills, and 57 recycling facilities. Allied Waste Industries was founded in 1987 and is headquartered in Scottsdale, Arizona (Biz. Yahoo). Key Financial Statistics: Operating Cash Profit Margin Gross Revenue Income Rev. Growth $716. 60 M 3. 55% $5. 73 B $141. 8 M 5. 90% Republic Services Inc. Republic Services, Inc. engages in the collection, recycling, transfer, and disposal of nonhazardous solid waste for commercial, industrial, municipal, and residential customers in the United States.

Its residential collection operations involve the curbside collection of refuse from small containers into collection vehicles for transport to transfer stations or directly to landfills. The company rents waste containers to construction sites, as well as provides waste collection services to industrial and construction facilities on a contractual basis. It also provides recycling 34 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan services, including the curbside collection of residential recyclable waste, and the provision of a variety of recycling services to commercial and industrial customers.

As of December 31, 2005, the company owned and operated 92 transfer stations, 59 solid waste landfills, and 32 recycling facilities, as well as operated approximately 6,100 collection vehicles. Republic Services was incorporated in 1996 and is headquartered in Fort Lauderdale, Florida (Biz. Yahoo). Key Financial Statistics: Operating Cash $767. 50 M Profit Margin 8. 86% Gross Revenue $2. 86 B Income $253. 7 M Rev. Growth 7. 30% Stericycle, Inc. Stericycle, Inc. , together with its subsidiaries, provides medical waste management services, infection control, and pharmaceutical returns and related compliance services.

Its products and services offerings include medical waste management services; bio systems sharps management services that reduce the risk of needle sticks in hospitals; products for infection control; and pharmaceutical returns and product recall management services. As of December 31, 2005, Stericycle operated 45 treatment and 105 additional transfer and collection facilities in the United States, Puerto Rico, Canada, Mexico, and the United Kingdom. In addition, the company offers occupational safety and health administration and HIPPA consulting and regulatory compliance services.

Stericycle’s customers include medical waste generators, such as outpatient clinics, medical and dental offices, and long-term and sub acute care facilities, as well as hospitals, blood banks, and pharmaceutical manufacturers. The company was incorporated in 1989 and is based in Lake Forest, Illinois (Biz. Yahoo). Key Financial Statistics: Operating Cash $94. 33 M Profit Margin 11. 02% Gross Revenue $609. 46 M Income $67. 15 M Rev. Growth 19. 90% 35 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan Waste Connections, Inc. Waste Connections, Inc. an integrated solid waste services company, provides solid waste collection, transfer, disposal, and recycling services to the commercial, industrial, and residential customers in secondary markets in the western and southern United States. As of December 31, 2005, it served approximately 1 million commercial, industrial, and residential customers in 23 states. The company owned or operated a network of 114 solid waste collection operations, 36 transfer stations, 26 recycling operations, and 33 active landfills, as of the above date.

Its transfer stations receive, compact, and load solid waste onto larger vehicles to be transported to landfills. The company offers municipal, commercial, industrial, and residential customers recycling services for various recyclable materials, including cardboard, office paper, plastic containers, glass bottles, and ferrous and aluminum metals. Waste Connections was founded in 1997 and is based in Folsom, California (Biz. Yahoo). Key Financial Statistics: Operating Cash $199. 81 M Profit Margin 11. 63% Gross Revenue $721. 90 M Income $84. 52 M Rev.

Growth 16. 00% Clean Harbors, Inc. Clean Harbors, Inc. (CHI), through its subsidiaries, provides environmental and hazardous waste management services in the United States, Puerto Rico, Mexico, and Canada. It operates in two segments, Technical Services and Site Services. The Technical Services segment collects, transports, treats, and disposes hazardous and non-hazardous wastes; and offers physical treatment, resource recovery, fuels blending, incineration, landfill disposal, wastewater treatment, lab chemical disposal, and explosives management services.

Its CleanPack services include the collection, identification, packaging, transportation, and disposal of laboratory chemicals and household hazardous wastes. The Site Services segment provide confined space 36 Team 2 – Aseltine, McRea, Modi, Shukla, Sullivan entry for tank cleaning, site decontamination, remediation projects, demolition, spill cleanup, railcar cleaning, product recovery and transfer, scarifying and media-blasting, and vacuum services, as well as used oil and oil products recycling, and polychlorinated biphenyls management and disposal services.

Its industrial services inclu