STIs

What is the most prevalent BACTERIAL STI in the US?
Chlamydia
Condoms are least effective at preventing what STI?
HPV
What STI is responsible for one type of conjunctivitis?
Chlamydia
What STI(s) can cause blindness and pneumonia in babies born through the birth canal of an infected mother?
HPV, herpes, Chlamydia
What STIs can be treated by antibiotics?
Chlamydia, Syphilis, Gonorrhea
What percentage of female college students report consenting to intercourse because they felt awkward refusing?
45%
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If left untreated, what STI greatly increases a woman’s risk for PID, ectopic pregnancy, infertility?
Chlamydia
What percentage of students regularly use protection during oral sex?
4%
What are risks for contracting an STI?
Having unprotected sex; even one, sharing needles used for piercing/tattooing/drugs, having multiple partners, becoming sexually active as a young teen, having had a previous STI
True or False: Once the symptoms of an STI disappear, you are no longer contagious.
False
What percentage of people with an STI experience no noticeable symptoms?
80%
A negative HIV test should be repeated in…?
6 months
True or False: There is no cure for herpes.
True
If left untreated, which STI can lead to dementia, cardiovascular damage, blindness, and death?
Syphilis
What is the best time to get screened for an STI?
Before having sex with a new partner
How many new cases of STIs each year in the USA?
19 million
What is the ratio of sexually active college students contracting an STI by the age of 25?
1:2
1 in how many new cases of STIs are in teens each year?
1:4
How many kids reported having sex before 13 in 2002?
1 in 10
What percentage of sophomore high school students reported having had four or more sexual partners?
16%
How many teens between 13-19 reported that they did not consider oral sex as sex?
50%
True or False: Every STI including HIV can be contracted via oral sex
True
What percentage of new cases of HIV occur in people under the age of 21?
25%
Girls ages 15-19 have a higher or lower rate of gonorrhea than any other age group?
higher
How long does the average teenage relationship last after becoming sexually active?
3 weeks
What percentage of women said they would still have sex if their partner refused to wear a condom?
60%
What percentage of men would lie to a partner about previous risky sexual behavior to their partner?
33%
What percentage of women would lie to a partner about previous risky sexual behavior to their partner?
10%
What percentage of men would lie to a partner about a positive HIV test?
20%
What percentage of women would lie to a partner about a positive HIV test?
4%
How many new cases of HIV developed in the USA each year?
40,000
1 in how many teens get pregnant using a condom?
1 in 5
What is the overall failure rate for pregnancy with a condom?
19%
How many times larger is sperm than HIV?
450x
How many days a month can a female get pregnant?
1-3
What happens if you leave chlamydia untreated?
painful urination and intercourse, damages reproductive organs; leading to sterility in both males and females, can lead to a type of conjunctivitis, blindness/pneumonia in new borns
What is the incubation period of chlamydia and how can it be transmitted?
Can be transmitted through all forms of sex and the incubation period is 1-4 weeks
What percentage of women with chlamydia don’t experience any symptoms till damage?
70%
What is the incubation period of gonorrhea and how can it be transmitted?
Transmitted through all forms of sex and the incubation period is 2 months
How many new cases of gonorrhea are reported each year?
700,000
What percentage of women experience no symptoms? Men?
80% of women, 20% of men
What damages are caused by gonorrhea?
Reproductive and urinary tract organs are damage, can spread to joints/heart valves/brain, increase risk for birth defects
Can gonorrhea be treated by antibiotics?
Yes
Can chlamydia be treated by antibiotics?
yes
What is the incubation period of syphilis and how can it be transmitted?
Transmitted through all forms of sex; sometimes a break in the skin, and the incubation period is 18 months
What are chancres?
very contagious sores; can occur on and around genitalia, lips, and in mouth
What is the primary stage of syphilis?
First stage; appearance of chancre, infection is underway and the chancre may disappear
What is the secondary stage of syphilis?
Second stage; month to year later; rsh/flu like/hair loss/head aches appear; still contagious
What is the latent stage of syphilis?
lesions called gummas on body organs; can harm a fetus
What is the tertiary stage of syphilis?
infection spreads to all organs; damages heart/lungs/CVS, blindness and deafness, paralysis and dementia
Is syphilis treatable with antibiotics?
yes; some new strains are resistant
What are two examples of viral STIs?
Genital(Type 2) and oral herpes(Type 1)
What percentage of Americans have Type 1, Oral Herpes?
50-80%
1 in how many americans have type 2, Genital Herpes?
1 in 6 Americans
How can herpes be transmitted and what is the incubation period of the STI?
Transmitted through all forms of sex and the incubation period is 1-3 weeks
Is herpes treatable?
No; virus lives in nerve cells forever
When can flare-ups occur?
When immune system is weakened
What is prodromal stage of herpes?
Burning sensation occurs prior to an outbreak; no blister but still contagious
What are some risks of herpes?
increase risk for HIV, spread to eyes; causing blindness
How should babies be born if the mother delivering has herpes?
C-section
What is HPV and what is the incubation period?
Human Papilloma Virus; Genital Warts and the incubation period is 6-8 weeks
In 5 years of contracting HPV, what percentage of cases will progress to pre-canerous cervical cancer?
30%
If untreated, what percentage of HPV cases will lead to cervical cancer?
70%
Are symptoms detectable or rare in HPV infected women?
Rare
How many types of HPV are transmitted?
More than 30
How many Americans are currently infected with HPV?
20 million
How many new cases of HPV each year?
6.2 million
What is the prevention method of HPV
Vaccine against 4 strains of HPV; most effective when given to females between 9-26
What is Hep B and how is it transmitted?
Hepatitis B is a STI that is transmitted through exchange of blood and body fluids; no lesions or blisters
Examples of Hep B transmission?
Needle sharing, all forms of sex, childbirth, sharing razors, tooth brushes
Is the vaccine highly effective for Hep B?
Yes; 3 doses provides immunity
What percentage of new cases of Hep B each year are sexually transmitted?
50%
What is pelvic inflammatory disease?
Not an STI; variety of infections as a result of having one or more STI, especially chlamydia or gonorrhea
What dos PVD affect?
The uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and urinary tract organs are affected by PVD
What is sexual maturity?
Being able to communicate freely with partner, being open/honest about sexual experience, no embarrassed about actions, take responsibility for consequences of sex, never feeling pressured, understanding sexual relationships, etc.
What percentage of soldiers stationed int he US/Europe said they never use a condom for one night stands?
40%
What is HIV?
Virus enters the body through a break in the skin/mucous membranes where it comes in contact with body fluids; multiples rapidly, changing the DNA of the cells it attacks to make more of itself
What cells does HIV attack/destroy?
Helper T cells; weakens the body’s resistance to disease
What are some symptoms of HIV?
Flu-like symptoms; often ignored
When do antibodies develop with HIV?
Anywhere from six weekends to six months after exposure; window period
What is AIDS?
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; a positive HIV test indicates antibodies have been made for the virus
What are indications that you might have AIDS?
Drenching night sweats, chronic bronchitis, severe weight loss, frequent opportunistic infections
What does a negative test of HIV mean?
You do not have the virus or you have the virus, but have not developed antibodies for it yet
What is the number one killer of Americans with AIDS?
Pneumocystis Carni Pneumonia
What is Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS)?
very rare form of cancer associated with AIDS
What is the number one killer of Africans with AIDS?
TB
What is the incubation period of HIV before AIDS develops?
8-10 years; contagious, but may or may not have any symptoms
What percentage of people living with HIV currently are women?
50%
What percentage of all infected women acquire the infection through heterosexual sex?
75%
In the USA, are men or women more likely to die from AIDS?
Women
In certain parts of impoverished Thailand and Africa, the risk of getting AIDS is what percent?
100%
Worldwide, what is the number of children living with HIV as of 2007?
2.5 million
What percentage of people living with HIV are in Sub-Sahara Africa?
2/3
How many children in Sub-Sahara Africa have lost their parents to AIDS?
12 million
What is the treatment for aids?
HIV cocktail – slow the progression from HIV to AIDS
Is there a vaccine for HIV?
No vaccine for HIV; treatment is very expensive and difficult to follow